Εικόνες σελίδας
PDF
Ηλεκτρ. έκδοση

II. Madras

director has justly remarked, where the revenue is farmed, or in a ryotwar community.

5. In Bengal four systems appear to have been tried, viz. : 1. Mr. Thomason's original plan of inspection and reward. 2. The appointment of qualified teachers to inspect and improve circles of schools, supported by private contributions and the fees of the pupils. 3. The establishment of scholarships. 4. The establishment of new schools by grants-in-aid of local subscriptions.

6. In this Presidency, besides the operations in Rajahmundry, there has been an uniform scheme introduced at the instance of the Rev. J. Richards, late inspector, Southern Circle, among the village schools of the two great missionary societies in Tinnevelly; and it is partly from this and partly from a scheme proposed by Captain Macdonald, inspector, Northern Circle, that the director has drawn the proposal he now lays before Government. Mr. Thompson, another inspector, has also offered his scheme, but it is one involving so great an increase to the taxation of the country, that it carries its own condemnation with it, and does not need to be separately discussed.

7. Of the two schemes amalgamated by the director, the details alone differ. The principle in each is the same, viz. : the master of every school, on his qualifying by a certain standard, is to have a certain amount of assistance extended to him, according to the number of pupils he may have. The school of course is to be periodically inspected.

8. Under Mr. Richards' plan, village schoolmasters wishing to qualify themselves according to a fixed standard of attainments, are to be furnished with the necessary books and maps, at cost price, and also with directions for using them, and on their passing a satisfactory examination on the several subjects prescribed are to receive a monthly grant of two rupees on showing that they have 25 bona fide pupils. The objection entertained to this is the multiplicity of small money payments

, and it is further apprehended that there is not inducement enough to the masters to improve themselves or enlarge the school beyond the terms required to entitle to the grant.

Similar in principle, Captain Macdonald's plan proposes a grant, not of money but of books and maps to the value of two rupees. Then, at the end of a year the school would be inspected, and two annas and one anna for each lad allowed (according to the degree of proficiency exhibited) per mensem. This grant too would be in books, which the master would be at liberty to sell among his pupils at the rates inarked, and thus realise an addition to his fees. Teachers qualifying by a still higher standard would gain honorary certificates and be eligible for employment as junior masters of talook and other schools; and to enable industrious teachers thus to qualify themselves, normal classes should be attached to each provincial, zillah, and talook school, and stipends allowed to those under instruction.

9. The Government concur with the director that, experimental as any first attempts will necessarily be in the cultivation of this untried field, the suggestions here offered afford reasonable hope of success, and he is accordingly authorised to carry them out ; the expenditure being met, as proposed by him, out of the fund for scholarships and that for sub-deputy inspectorships. Should payment in books prove inadequate, part of the donation may be given, as suggested,

in money.

10. Mr. Arbuthnot has concluded his report by observing that no larger plans can be expected, pending the general imposition of a special tax for educational purposes. Within what period this may be looked for, it is not now necessary to inquire. The present scheme will not be unfruitful, if among the rising generation some few thousand shall be numbered, at once the grateful recipients of the benefits it is designed to convey, and the pioneers of those improvements in the social condition of the masses, to which the ryot's ignorance and apathy are now the chief obstacles.

(signed) E. Maltby,

Acting Chief Secretary.

II. Madras,

21. PAPERS referred to in Madras Public Despatch (Educational), dated

6 October 1858, No. 5, para. 68.

[ocr errors]

EXTRACT Public Letter from Fort St. George, dated 24th December,

No. 33, of 1857. Cons. 8th Sept. Para. 49. With his letter of the 26th August last, the director submitted one 1857, Nos. 48 and from Dr. Gundert, Deputy Inspector in Malabar and Canara, reporting on the

Anglo-vernacular school at Honore, in aid of which a grant was made. See Despatch, No. 50. The grant was sanctioned for one year, and its continuance was to depend 1 of 1856, paras.

on the report of the Government Inspector. 74 to 77

51. We approved the course adopted by Mr. Arbuthnot, as set forth in the 4th para. of his letter, and, as recominended by him, sanctioned the monthly grant of such sum, not exceeding 35 rupees, as might be equal to a moiety of the receipts from local sources, to be disbursed in arrears from the 15th May last, on which date the period for which the former grant was authorised expired, the school having been opened on the 15th May 1856.

No. 48.

READ the following Letter from A. J. Arbuthnot, Esq., Director of Public

Instruction, to the Acting Chief Secretary to Government, Fort Saint George, dated Coonoor, 26th August 1857, No. 807.

Sir,

Letter from the Director of ADVERTING to the correspondence* noted in the margin, I Public Instruction to the Chief have the honour to submit for the consideration of the Right Secretary to Governinent, dated

Honourable the Governor in Council the accompanying 220 November 1855.

Extract from the Minutes of Con- copy of a letter under date the 23d ultimo, from Dr. Gundert, sultation, Public Department, under Deputy Inspector in Malabar and Canara, reporting on the date the 8th December 1855, No. Anglo-vernacular school at Honore, in aid of which a grant 1547

was sanctioned in the extract from the Minutes of Consultation, under date the 8th December 1855, No. 1547. The grant was sanctioned for one year, and its continuance was to depend on the report of the Government Inspector.

2. In the application originally made for a grant from the Public Treasury, it was stated that the local subscriptions amounted to 50 rupees per mensem, and, in forwarding the application, I recommended a grant “ of such monthly sum as the subscription actually paid each month might amount to,” which recommendation was complied with by the Right Honourable the Governor in Council.

3. The terms of this recommendation were somewhat indefinite, considering that the grant-in-aid fund is restricted to a fixed sum, but when submitting it I had no expectation that the amount of subscription specified in the application would be materially increased, and accordingly, in the calculation which I laid before Government with reference to the disposal of the grant-in-aid funds in my letter of the 10th July 1856, I set apart for the Honore school the sum of 50 rupees per mensem.

4. This sum, however, has been generally exceeded, and, in one month, the grant amounted to 83-8 rupees. Under these circumstances.I deemed it proper, shortly after the submission of my last report on applications for grants-in-aid, to intimate to the managers of the Honore school that the Government would not be prepared again to sanction any grant, the maximum of which was not limited, but which might be increased indefinitely according to the amount of local subscriptions raised, and suggested that the community should determine definitely what sum they would contribute for a given period, and the manner in which they proposed to apply it. I, at the same time, furnished them with copies of paras. 4, 5, 6, and 7 of my letter of the 19th February last, and recommended that they should fix the amount of their subscriptions on the assumption that the grant allowed by Government would be equal to one-half of whatever sum they might be able to guarantee from local sources.

II. Madras.

5. In reply they have informed me that they are prepared to guarantee a monthly payment of 50 rupees towards the maintenance of the school, which they hope shortly to raise to 70 or 80 rupees, and they request a maximum grant of 35 rupees may be sanctioned.

6. This application, it will be observed, is supported by the Deputy Inspector, whose report on the present condition of the school is, on the whole, favourable. The managers of the school have, I am aware, had great difficulties to contend with, and their exertions to keep up the school and to procure competent masters have been most praiseworthy. I beg therefore to recommend that a monthly grant of such sum not exceeding 35 rupees, as may be equal to a moiety of the receipts from local sources, be sanctioned, to be disbursed in arrears from the 15th May last, on which date the period for which the former grant was authorised expired, the school having been opened on the 15th May 1856.

(signed) A. J. Arbuthnot,

Director of Public Instruction.

From Doctor H. Gundert, Deputy Inspector of Schools in Malabar and Canara, to

A. J. Arbuthnot, Esq., Director of Public Instruction, dated Mangalore, 23d July 1857,
No. 29.

Sir, I HAVE the honour to report on the Anglo-vernacular school at Honore, which I have inspected in the beginning of the present month (2d to 5th July).

2. Disquieting rumours having reached me, which represented the Honore school as going decidedly down since the dismissal of Mr. Whittle, and as being gradually replaced by the kindred institution flourishing at Sirey under the same master, I expected to find but little worth mentioning at Honore. It is now my duty to state that the condition in which I found the school was, if not very bright, still deserving of commendation and full of hope for the future.

3. The three or four classes of the school I found cooped up within a verandah room of the Talook Cutcherry, the accommodation provided by which was certainly inconvenient, though not at present altogether insufficient. But a very spacious school building has been erected in a suitable locality, capable of accommodating nearly twice the present number of

a pupils. It consists of a long and airy hall, from which a room is cut off at each end. Within a few weeks it will be ready for receiving the school, which holds in it a valuable property. It is chiefly the work of prisoners, who built it under the direction of the judge Mr. W. N. Molle, in whom the school has a zealous and constant friend. The materials have been supplied by the trustees at a cost of about 100 rupees. The prisoners' work is estimated at more than 400 rupees, so that the school building is worth from 500 to 600 rupees.

4. The English school has at present 100 pupils, of whom 77 are Brahmins, 20 Roman Catholics, two Mussulmans, and one Tamalian. In July 1856 the number of pupils amounted to 94, of whom 71 were Brahmins, 21 Roman Catholics, two Mussulmans. Thus there has been some increase in the total number of pupils, although a notable diminution has taken place in the first class. Of those now attending 2 are in the 10th year. Ditto

2

11
Ditto
12

12
Ditto
16

13
Ditto

Consequently the pupils 16

14
Ditto

5
15

are below the 15th year of
Ditto
13

16
Ditto

age, half above it. Several 6

17
Ditto

7
18

of the older pupils have
Ditto

2

19
Ditto

3
20

already appointments, and
Ditto

5
21

can therefore attend in the
Ditto

3

22
Ditto

3
23

mornings.
Ditto

2

24 Ditto

2

25 Ditto

1

26

ور

وو

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

99

رو

[ocr errors]

وو

99

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

99

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

II. Madras,

وو

[ocr errors]

5. The attendance is, I believe, steadily improving since February, when lowest. In that month,

4 out of 12 on an average attended the 1st Class.
14
24

2d
7
21

3d
8
10

4th
In June 1857, the average attendance according to the books had risen to,

5 out of 21 in 1st Class.
28

28 2d 25 28 3d 23

26

4th

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

وو

ور

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

It is impossible to believe the number, especially of classes 2 and 3, to be strictly correct, the less so, as they refer to the first monsoon month. The masters, however, persisted in declaring that the number of attendants is accurately noted every day. It varied during the days of my inspection from 72 to 78, which I suppose to be the highest possible average. In April, when the number of boys on the list amounted to the astoishing number of 126, the attendance only reached the average of 72. At this rate 100 boys on the rolls would give the probable average of less than 60 daily attendants.

6. When the school was opened on the 15th May 1856, there was an interesting 1st class composed of young men who had learned the rudiments of English at Mangalore and else where. This class being left several months without a teacher, is now reduced to eight or nine pupils, of whom four or five only are generally attending the school. A full half of the 21 names on the rolls ought to have been struck off, but as the trustees indulged the hope of obtaining soon another head master, they encouraged the youths to frequent the school and content themselves meanwhile with repeating their old lessons. A few were induced to do so; the others, without declaring their withdrawal from the school, followed Mr. Whittle to Sircy, or dispersed to their homes.

7. The remnant of the 1st class followed still the time-table introduced by Mr. Whittle. By it five hours were given to translation from English into Canarese and vice versâ, two to composition, to transposition (or paraphrase of English poetry), two to grammar, two to grammatical exercises, one to parsing, three to dictation and five to reading, chiefly the series of lessons. The history of India was studied in two lessons, geography in two, arithmetic in three. One hour was given to Joyes' Arts and Sciences, and one to discussion, which, together with repetition, occupied also the Saturday mornings.

8. Little was done under this system in the way of storing the pupil's mind witha definite knowledge of things; but they have acquired a considerable degree of correctness and ease in speaking and writing English. Some of their essays are well written, and display, in an unaffected manner, the genuine feelings of the youths. Also the reading is good ; mistakes in etymology were very rare. In history, the life of Sultan Mohmud of Ghizni

, (Garret's, chap 8.) had been read; the leading facts were correctly stated. Little had been done in geography, but some youths have a fair knowledge of it, acquired before they entered the school. In arithmetic they had some practice in simple proportion. A son of the moonsiff, Mr. Rosario, a very intelligent youth, has also a competent knowledge of Latin, which he had studied with De Costa, a very old schoolmaster, at Mangalore.

9. As I found that the absence of the head master and the desultory character of the studies pursued by the 1st class had a very depressing effect on the few remaining pupils of this, as well as on the most forward youths of the 2nd class, I proposed to the trustees what

I was originally a suggestion of some 1st class pupils, viz.: to appoint as temporary head master a writer in the place, who had passed with credit through the English school of the German Mission at Mangalore. He would only be able to teach three hours in the mornings; but even this much of superior teaching would be valuable until more could be obtained.

This arrangement has been carried out after my departure from Honore, and appears to work well.

10. The 2d class consisted formerly of two divisions, which have of late been made two distinct classes. In the upper division, Canarese and English translations occupied four hours, grammar four, idiomatic sentences two, meaning of words two, dictation two, speaking lessons six, and copy writing two; four hours were assigned to Indian history and geography, and four to arithmetic and geography, and four to arithmetic, whilst Saturday was given up to repetition.

11. The 2nd class had just mastered in grammar the auxiliary verbs, and they answered well all questions I put to them on this and other grammatical subjects; of the series of lessons, they hadt ranslated four stories, and knew well how to render short English sentences in Canarese and vice versâ. A work on idiomatical expressions, printed at Bombay for the use of Mahratta schools, has done good service, Mahratta being easily understood by the Con

Both in reading and writing the pupils did well. What they had learned of the geographical primer (five chapters) was accurately repeated, although not clearly understood in every particular. In arithmetic they had commenced simple proportion, and the majority worked them correctly.

12. The

canese.

II. Madras.

a

12. The lower division of the 2d class has nearly the same lessons as the upper, with the exception of geography and history of India. In grammar and arithmetic they, on the

, whole, equal their seniors, but are considerably behind them in their knowledge of English words and phrases, as also in their writing. Considering that some of these boys have commenced the study of English only a year ago, their progress is truly creditable.

13. The 3rd class in two divisions is occupied with reading, writing, the multiplication table, and learning by heart a vocabulary of English words with their meanings in Canarese. They appear to be well drilled and earnestly intent on their tasks and lessons.

14. The teacher of the 2nd class, K. Santappa of Mangalore, about 21 years of age, had frequented the English school of the German Mission for about seven years (49-56), during which he learned English grammar and practised composition and translation from Canarese with considerable success; with geography and history he has a pretty good acquaintance. Arithmetic he can teach as far as division of fractions, and several branches of physical science, according to Nicol's introduction to the sciences. He is a person of moderate talents, quiet, unassuming and industrious. In November 1856, he has first undertaken the tuition of the 2nd class; at present, he also gives some lessons to the lower classes, chiefly in translating. His salary has been raised from 17 to 20 rupees.

The teacher of the 3rd class, Mr. Rosario, of the same age as Santappa, had first passed through a Latin course under the old schoolmaster of the Roman Catholic church at Mangalore, before he learned English with Mr. Fitzgerald and with a writer in the Mangalore court. After serving for some time in the Collector's Office as volunteer, he has of late been induced by his relations at Honore (the Moonsiff and Sheristedar of the court) to lend a helping hand in the Anglo-vernacular school. He is well acquainted with English grammar, and translates with ease from plain English into Portuguese and Canarese. In geography he has made little progress; in arithmetic he is conversant with the rule of three inverse. He appears intelligent and active, but has as yet no experience in teaching; for the present his salary is but 15 rupees. .

E. Pires, successively a pupil of the German Missionaries and Mr. Fitzgerald at Mangalore, and lastly of Mr. Baptist at Cannanore, has not succeeded in fitting himself for a higher position than that of an elementary teacher in English. He is, however, steady and diligent in his calling, and teaches the 4th class. His salary is 15 rupees per

а

[ocr errors]

mensem.

a

[ocr errors]

15. There was a teacher of the 5th class (or sub-division of the 4th), Narasinga Rao, a mere monitor, paid five rupees per mensem, and just competent to teach spelling and reading. But under the new arrangements, completed on the 16th instant, Manjanathiah (to whom I alluded in par. 9) has taken charge of the school as head master, at a salary of 20 rupees per mensem. He gives every morning three lessons to the 1st class, and superintends the lower classes. The classes have now been re-arranged, so that 15 pupils belong to the 1st, 28 to the 2nd, 28 to the 3rd, and 29 to the 4th. Consequently, the services of Narasinga Rao have been dispensed with.

16. A Canarese class is connected with the English school. From 20 to 24 boys attend it at the average age

of 8-9 years. Of the 22 whom I saw there, 18 were Brahmins, three Christians, and one a Mahomedan. They learn merely the elements of Canarese, but with great energy and determination, in order to fit themselves within a short space of time for entering the higher institution. The schoolmaster, Timappa, is a painstaking teacher, fully competent for this work.

His salary, formerly six rupees, had been raised to eight. 17. The finances of the school are still in a prosperous condition. The monthly subscriptions have not indeed been maintained at the high rate they reached in September 1856, (when they rose to 83 rupees); on the contrary, they sank in January 1857 to 62, in February to 53, in March to 44 rupees; and on a superficial comparison of the different items, the interest taken at first in the school might be supposed to be gradually expiring, as has been the case with so many benevolent undertakings in this land. But after all, it appears that the subscriptions have not undergone any immoderate diminution, but were only allowed to fall in arrears; these are now being paid up, so that the trustees were perfectly justified in stating as they did to you (under date the 8th May 1857) that the subscriptions have not fallen below 56 rupees on the average.

Considerable irregularity obtained still as regards the fees; difficulties arising repeatedly in maintaining the rule established at the outset, that a fee of two annas be demanded from subscribers' children, of one rupee from every pupil sent by non-subscribers. With the sanction of the trustees, the new head master has now introduced the system of fining for non-attendance, according to certain rules similar to those observed in the Mangalore school. There is every hope that, even in a financial point of view, a greater measure of strictness will be found to answer well. I trust that the average income of the school will soon amount to 65-70 rupees.

For the current expenses a balance of 234 rupees was still in hand at the end of June.

18. The monthly charges will now amount to 82 rupees at the most moderate computation, without taking into account the fitting up of the new school house, the necessary

a

a

« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »