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provisions of books, maps, &c., and all contingent expenses. The salaries may be enume-
20 V. Rosario
15 E. Pires
15 Timappa (Canarese teacher)
19. The trustees have expressed a hope that you will be pleased to obtain for the school a maximum grant of 35 rupees per mensem. I feel it my duty earnestly to support their petition; 25 rupees should be granted in aid of the teachers' salaries and 10 for books, materials and other contingent expenses.
20. This institution is not perhaps calculated to come up to the requirements of a zillah school ; but it is no doubt already equal to two first class talook schools, and the character of the teachers is such as to hold out prospects of further improvement. The arrangements of the trustees are distinguished by practical aims, sound forethought, hearty co-operation and patient execution.
(signed) H. Gundert,
Deputy Inspector of Schools.
ORDER THEREON, No. 1258, dated 8th September 1857.
With the above letter the Director of Public Instruction submits one from Dr. Gundert, Deputy Inspector in Malabar and Canara, reporting on the Anglovernacular school at Honore, in aid of which a grant was sanctioned in extract from the Minutes of Consultation, under date the 8th December 1855, No. 1547.
2. The grant was sanctioned for one year, and its continuance was to depend on the report of the Government Inspector.
3. The Right Honourable the Governor in Council approves of the course adopted by Mr. Arbuthnot, as set forth in the 4th para, of his letter, and, as recommended by him, is pleased to sanction the monthly grant of such sum, not exceeding rupees (35) thirty-five, as may be equal to a moiety of the receipts from local sources, to be disbursed in arrears from the 15th May last, on which date the period for which the former grant was authorised expired, the school having been opened on the 15th May 1856.
E. Maltby, Acting Chief Secretary.
PAPERS referred to in Madras Public Despatch (Educational); dated 6th
October 1858, No. 5, Para. 69.
Extract Public Letter from Fort St. George, dated 24 December, No. 33
Coas, 22d Sept.
Para. 52. The director recently laid before us, with his own observations, a 1857, Nus. 36 and minute recorded by Surgeon Kellie, the President of the Medical College 37
Council, on the subject of admitting certain non-professional classes to an attendance on the readings of those professors, who leeture on subjects not altogether professional, and thus enlarging the scope of an institution, which, while turning out annually its dozen apothecaries and dressers for the service
of Government, was still unappreciated by the general public. See Despatch, 10th
53. Similar propositions had been previously broached, but the time, it was August, No. 31 of
thought, had arrived that the subject should receive final decision. Chemistry, botany, physiology, medical jurisprudence, and natural history were most of them subjects laid down in the course to be read for the degrees of B. A. and M. A., in the University. Some of them, it was also added, were entered in the list of studies in which candidates for public employment under the new rules might present themselves for examination. Consequently, the necessity of affording students for the University and the general public an opportunity of acquiring competent instruction in these branches of a liberal education, was a matter for immediate consideration.
54. After much debate and minuting, the majority of the council, it appeared, had been led to dissent from the President's proposal. They objected that with a mixed audience their lectures would insensibly lose much of the professional tone, that should in justice to the medical students be observed; and secondly, that the discipline of the lecture room was likely to be endangered.
55. We were unable to attach weight to these arguments. In both cases the remedy, as justly remarked by Mr. Arbuthnot, lay in the hands of the professor. The contingency contemplated in the second of the objections appeared particularly remote
56. The definite proposal made by the director was, that sanction might be given to his throwing open to the students of the Presidency College, those of all seminaries affiliated with the University, and to such limited number of the general public as might be accommodated in the space available, the lecture rooms of the professors in the undermentioned subjects :
Chemistry, Botany, and Physiology. Natural philosophy, he showed, would form one of the studies of the Presidency College ; and to the lectures in medical jurisprudence he would admit only medical and legal students, or those certifying that they are reading law with a view to enter the legal profession.
57. We did not approve of the lectures on medical jurisprudence being confined to the classes alluded to. We were in favour of ihe admission of the general public under the same rules as in the other cases. A knowledge of this particular science, we observed, was eminently useful to those employed in civil and judicial duties in the interior of the country, and one the cultivation of which should be in every way encouraged.
58. The director has been requested to prepare a notification to students, of the nature issued in the case of the lectures of the professor at law, and to transmit it for publication in the Official Gazette. The fee, 10 rupees in each subject every session, we considered to be a proper one to levy.
READ the following Letter from A. J. Arbuthnot, Esq., Director of Public
Instruction, to the Acting Chief Secretary to Government, Fort St. George, dated Palmanair, 31 July 1857, No. 723.
Sir, Some months ago the Medical College Council laid before me a minute recorded by their President, Mr. Kellie, a copy of which is annexed, proposing that the lectures in those subjects entering into the college course which may be designated as non-professional, viz., chemistry, botany, physiology, medical jurisprudence and natural philosophy should be thrown open to all persons employed in the uncovenanted service whose attendance could be permiited without detriment to their official duties, and who might be willing to pay an entrance fee.
2. I entirely concurred with Mr. Kellie, as to the advantages which might be expected from throwing open the very valuable lectures delivered at the college on the subjects adverted to in his minute, to a larger body of students than those at present able to profit by them, but it appeared to me that if any alteration were to be made in the present regulations under which the advantages of all these lectures, excepting natural philosophy, are restricted to
candidates for admission into the medical service, it would be desirable that the lectures should be thrown open to the public at large, under such restrictions as might be deemed necessary, but without reference to the circumstance of candidates for admission being employed in the service of Government.
It is, I conceive, of great importance, that in all our educational measures, we should do our utmost to counteract the impression which so generally prevails among the people of this country, that the service of Government is the only avenue to honourable advancement, and for this reason I thought it unadvisable to lay down any rule which would have the effect of restricting the advantages of the lectures under notice to persons in Government employment.
3. I communicated these views to the Council, and requested them to prepare a draft of rules for the admission of the public to the lectures on nonprofessional subjects, at the same time suggesting that with the view of preventing a greater influx of non-professional students than could be properly accommodated in the college building, the entrance fee named by Mr. Kellie should be raised, or that some slight test sufficient to determine the ability of those admitted to profit by the lectures should be enforced.
4. A lengthened correspondence ensued, some of the members of the council who had originally concurred in Mr. Kellie's proposals having altered their opinions, and with others forming a majority, opposed to the admission of any other than medical students to the college lectures.
5. The reasons urged against the proposed opening of the non-professional lectures did not appear to me to be conclusive, but as the Session was somewhat advanced when the correspondence was brought to a close, and as it was probable that the subject would have to be fully considered whenever the university scheme should be brought into operation, I deemed it expedient to defer moving further in the matter until the requirements of the university degrees were laid down.
6. The time has now come for providing some means of instruction for the public generally in each one of the subjects specified in Mr. Kellie's minute. A knowledge of chemistry and physiology will be required from all candidates for the degree of B.A., who may select the physical sciences as the fifth of the five subjects in which candidates for that degree have to be examined. Botany will be required from candidates for the degree of M.A. in natural history and the physical sciences, and medical jurisprudence from all candidates for a degree in law. Natural philosophy is also one of the three subjects to be selected as a fifth subject by candidates for the B.A. degree, but as the examination in this subject will probably necessitate a more scientific course of study than could be given in the Medical College, it need not be considered here. It enters into the course of the Presidency College, and in that institution it can be more efficiently taught.
7. As regards chemistry, botany, physiology and medical jurisprudence, it appears to me that the obvious course for providing instruction in these subjects in an efficient and at the same time an economical manner, is to throw open the lectures delivered at the Medical College to the students of the Presidency College, and of all other institutions which may be affiliated to the University, if not to the public at large.
8. It will be in the recollection of his Lordship in Council that this is not by any means a new proposal. So far back as May 1855, when submitting a scheme for the organization of the Presidency College on its present footing, I adverted to the eventual necessity of making such an arrangement, and recommended its adoption in preference to uniting the two institutions in a single building as had been proposed and determined at Calcutta. 9. The grounds urged against the proposed opening of the lectures are,
1st. That the accommodation in the lecture room is insufficient
2d. That the admission of the public will interfere with discipline. 10. I cannot admit the validity of either of these objections. The insufficiency of accommodation is of course a difficulty, and one which, so long as it continues, must limit the number of those admitted, but if a fee be required from all, except students belonging to other Government institutions, I do not
apprehend II. Madras.
apprehend such an influx of non-medical students as would cause any material inconvenience.
11. On the score of discipline, I am altogether unable to share in the apprehensions of the Council. It appears most improbable that any students will voluntarily attend the lectures with any other object than that of profiting by the instruction given, but if it should be otherwise the Council will have the remedy in their own hands, inasmuch as they will of course be at liberty to dismiss from the lectures any persons whose conduct may be found to interfere with the discipline of the other students. Some of the professors represent that the mere presence of strangers will be likely to embarrass them in enforcing discipline among the medical students, and that it will lead to the course of instruction being made more popular but less scientific, and will consequently impair the efficiency of the college as a school of medicine. To this I would answer that I see no necessity for making a distinction between medical and non-medical students while in the lecture room, and that there is no intention of making the instruction less scientific or less thorough than it is at present.
12. With these remarks, I beg to recommend that I may be authorised to throw open the lectures at the Medical College in the subjects above adverted to, to the students of the Senior Department of the Presidency College, and of any other institutions which may be affiliated to the University, as well as to such a limited number of other candidates for admission, as it may be possible to accommodate in the lecture room, all non-medical students not actually prosecuting their studies in another Government institution, being required to pay an entrance fee of 10 rupees for each session. The admission to the lectures on medical jurisprudence, I propose to confine to medical students and to students in the legal branch of the Presidency College or others who may be able to afford satisfactory evidence that they are bonâ fide prosecuting the study of law with a view to being admitted into the legal profession, or that they are already engaged in it.
(signed) A. J. Arbuthnot,
Director of Public Instruction.
MINUTE. 1. The Madras Medical School was established about 23 years ago, for the purpose of imparting professional knowledge to the subordinate branch of the medical service, and during that period it has fulfilled, with great success, the object for which it was instituted, in having trained up for the Medical department a highly intelligent and most useful class of public servants. But while this institution has been undergoing a variety of changes, and the humble school with its two teachers, has now expanded into the liberally endowed college, presided over by seven professors, all eminent in their respective departments of science, we do not observe any corresponding effort to extend its sphere of usefulness. It continues still a mere school for medical subordinates, and the annual results of its labours, amounting to 13 assistant apothecaries and 13 dressers (vide Appendix 2), seems not only meagre, but altogether incommensurate with the magnitude and importance of the means employed.
2. While admitting therefore, to its fullest extent, the benefits which the medical service has derived from the college, it seems to me a matter of regret that the advantage of such a scientific institution should be confined to a small section of the community," while many individuals in other departments of the public service, holding appointments of equal . Vide Appendix, importance to the state, are desirous of obtaining that very description of knowledge, which No. 1. in youth they had no opportunity of acquiring, and which the Medical College now is alone capable of affording.
3. The experience of past years, the general poverty of the inhabitants, and the inferior position which a “ Native doctor” holds in their estimation, entirely forbid the hope of the Medical College drawing to it, for many years to come, a body of independent medical students, so unless a change is made in the object of that institution, and the doors opened as freely to the non-professional as to the professional student, its power of usefulness will continue to be very circumscribed, and the cominunity generally will derive no direct advantage from an institution capable of effecting much good, without any additional expense to Govern
+ During the last five years only five private students have attended the College.
• Proposed as an evening class.
ment, and without in any way trenching upon the main object of the college, the education of medical subordinates.
4. Amongst the political changes which are almost daily taking place in this country, we may confidently reckon on the steady advancement of the Eurasians to offices of greater emolument and importance than they have hitherto held, and no one can witness the growing intelligence of this large portion of the community, their anxiety for improvement, and their peculiar aptitude for official business, without taking a deep interest in them as a class, and feeling an anxiety to assist them individually, in qualifying themselves for the higher duties which they may expect to devolve upon them.
5. As education alone will accomplish the above important object, I beg most respectfully to suggest that Government should take a more active part in placing within the reach of all Eurasians, already in the public service, the means of obtaining a liberal and more scientific education, an education adapted to all the necessities of the State, that would expand the mind, improve and strengthen the judgment.
6. Courses of lectures are delivered at the medical college on five subjects of a nonprofessional character, viz. : chemistry, natural philosophy,* botany, medical jurisprudence and physiology, a knowledge of which would aid, in no slight degree, the important objects we have in view.
7. It is unnecessary, and might seem presumptuous on my part, to particularise the advantages which would follow from the study of any of the above sciences, but I may be permitted to remark, that the study of chemistry and natural philosophy are not only considered in Europe a part of a liberal education, but are recommended as a discipline for the mind, as well as the basis of much useful and practical knowledge, and in regard to medical jurisprudence, an acquaintance with it is deemed essential to a complete legal education. In India especially, this branch of study might be pursued with great advantage by those Eurasians who belong to the magistracy, or who are desirous of employment in the judicial department of the public service. Physiology, having especial reference to the preservation of health, is a subject which every one must take an interest in, and is one of much practical value.
8. Keeping in view, therefore, the main objects of this minute, viz., to extract from the Medical College a greater amount of good than it at present confers upon the State, and to affort to the Eurasians and natives employed in the public service an opportunity of acquiring a liberal and scientific education, I beg respectfully to suggest for the consideration of Government, the expediency of allowing their uncovenanted servants the privilege of attending the non-professional lectures delivered at the Medical College.
9. From the vicinity of the college to the public offices in the Fort and Black Town, the proposed attendance on the lectures referred to, need not interfere injuriously with regular attendance at office.
10. The hours of lectures might be arranged thus :
11. Comparatively few students would attend the botanical class, and if necessary, it might be limited to two or three from each office, and if an hour and a half was allowed them, instead of one hour as at present for tiffin, those students who were anxious to acquire a knowledge of botany might easily arrange for their attendance at this class.
12. Should the above scheme be approved of, I would suggest that a matriculation fee of five rupees be exacted from each non-professional student, with the view of imparting due value and importance to the lectures, as well as for meeting the charges for lights and other incidental expenses.
(signed) J. Kellie, Madras, 2 August 1856.
President Medical College Council.