Note 1. To write any number of cents less than ten-Write a figure representing the number of cents, then write a cipher at the left hand in the ten's place. Five cents are written thus-,05. 2. To write any number of mills less than ten, when there are no cents in the sum- -Write a figure representing the number of mills, then write two ciphers at the left hand in the place of cents. Fiye mills are written thus-,005. 3. Parts or fractions of a cent are sometimes used instead of mills and tenths of a mill; as,123 cents for,125.—,061 cents ,0625. As Federal money increases in a tenfold proportion, the rules for addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of simple numbers, are applied to Federal Money. The rules for the operations in Decimals are strictly also applicable. [See Decimal Fractions.] REDUCTION OF FEDERAL MONEY. The method of changing or reducing the denominations of Fed. eral Money is very simple, and needs perhaps no illustration, were the scholar always presumed to comprehend the preceding observations. In any case, the following concise rules will be easily understood. RULES. 1. To reduce dollars to cents: Add two ciphers to the given number. } 2. To reduce dollars to mills: Annex three ciphers to the given number. 3. To reduce any sum of several figures) to the lowest denomination mentioned: Read the whole sum in the lowest denomination. 4. To reduce cents to dollars: Cut off the two right hand figures of the given number, which will be cents-those remaining on the left are dollars. 5. To reduce mills to dollars: Cut off the three right hand figures; those at S EXAMPLES. Given No. Reduced. $25-2500 cents. Mills. c. m. the left are dollars-the two first on the 75125=$75,12,5 right are cents, the third mills. 62. How do you write a number of cents less than 10?-63. How is a less number of mills than 10 written ?- -64. How are dollars reduced to cents and to mills? 65. How do you reduce cents or mills to dollars? REDUCTION OF OTHER CURRENCIES TO FEDERAL MONEY, &c. CASE I. To reduce Lawful Money, or the Currency of New-England, Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee, to Federal Money-the dollar being 6 shillings. RULE. As the value of a dollar is equal to three tenths of a pound, when pounds are given to be changed, annex three ciphers to the sum, and divide the whole by 3; the quotient is the answer in cents. When pounds and shillings are given, to the pounds annex half the number of shillings and two ciphers, if the number of shillings in the given sum be even; but if the number be odd, annex half the number, and then 5 and one cipher, and divide by 3; the quotient is the answer in cents. When there are shillings, pence, &c. in the given sum, annex for the shillings as before directed, and to these add the farthings 66. How is lawful money changed into the federal currency ?- How, when there are different denominations, as pounds, shillings, pence, &c.? in the given pence and farthings, observing to increase their number by one when they exceed 12, and by two when they exceed 37, and divide as before. EXAMPLES. 1. Change £21 8s. 44d. to Federal Money. 3)21419 71392 cents. 4 is annexed to the pounds for half the shillings, and 19 for the farthings in 4 d. and excess of 12. Ans. $71 393 cents. 2. Change £721 88. 114d. to Federal Money. 3)721497 In this example, 4 is annexed to the pounds for half the even shillings, and 47 for the farthings in 111d. and excess of 37, and then 5 is added to the figure next 240499 cts. to half the shillings, making it 9 in place of 4 for the odd shilling. Ans. $2404 99 cents. 3. Change £24 11s. 73d. to Federal Money. 4. Change £2001 1s. 34d. to Federal Money. CASE II. Ans. $81 94. Ans. $6670 21 To reduce New-York and North-Carolina Currency to Federal Money-the Dollar being 8 shillings. RULE. Add a cipher, and divide by 4.* Note. If there are shillings, pence, &c. given in any case, they must always be reduced to the decimal of a pound, and annexed to the given pounds before dividing by 3, &c.; and in all such cases three figures must be cut off at the right hand for decimals of a dollar. EXAMPLES. 1. Reduce £44 New-York currency to Federal Money. 4)440 110 2. Reduce £24 12s. to Federal Money. Ans. $110. * As a dollar is equal to four-tenths of a pound, dividing pounds, or pounds and decimals of a pound, by 4, must, evidently, give dollars, cents and mills. 68. What is your rule for changing New-York currency, &c. to Federal Money? CASE III. To reduce Pennsylvania, New-Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, and Ohio Currency to Federal Money-the dollar being Ts. 6d. RULE.-Multiply by 8, and divide the product by 3, the quotient will be the * answer. EXAMPLE. Reduce £243 New-Jersey to Federal Money. 8 3)1944 648 federal money. CASE IV. Ans. $648. To reduce South-Corolina and Georgia Currency to Federal Money -the dollar being 4s. 8d. RULE.--Multiply by 30, and divide the product by 7, the quotient will be the answer.t EXAMPLE. Reduce £300 South-Carolina and Georgia to Federal Money. 300 7)9000 1285,71,4federal. CASE V. Ans. $1285, 71,4. To change Sterling into Lawful Money-the dollar being 4s. 6d. RULE. Add to the Sterling-the sum will be lawful. * As a dollar is equal to three-eighths of a pound, dividing by, or which is the same, multiplying by 8 and dividing the quotient by 3, must give dollars, cents and mills. † As a dollar is equal to seven-thirtieths of a pound, dividing by 7, or which is the same, multiplying by 30 and dividing the quotient by 7, must give dollars, cents and mills. 69. What is the rule for changing Pennsylvania, &c. to the same currency ?———70. How is Georgia and South-Carolina currency changed?—71. How is sterling reduced to lawful money? EXAMPLE. In £347 Sterling, how much Lawful? RULE. Sterling. 3)347 sterling. 115 13 4 added. 462 13 4 lawful. CASE VI. Ans. £462 13 4. To Change Lawful to Sterling Money. From the Lawful subtract, the remainder will be EXAMPLE. Reduce £462 13 4 Lawful to Sterling. 4)462 13 4 lawful. 115 13 4 subtract. 347 00 0 sterling. CASE VII. Ans. £347. To change Canada and Nova-Scotia Currency to Federal Moneythe dollar being 5 shillings. RULE. As the value of a dollar is equal to one-fourth of a pound, multiply the sum, when in pounds, by 4, for dollars. When there are shillings, &c. reduce the given sum to pence, annex two ciphers, and divide by 60, for cents. EXAMPLES. 1. Change £36 Canada Currency to Federal Money. 36 Ans. 144 dolls. 2. Change £528 12s. 6d. Canada Currency to Federal Money. 20 10572 12 6(0)12687000 211450 cts. 72. Lawful to Sterling ?-73. How is the currency of Canada and Nova-Scotia changed to federal money? |