CASE VIII. 39 To reduce English or Sterling Money to Federal Money. RULE-Multiply English money by 40,-divide the product by 9, and the quotient will be dollars, or dollars, cents and mills.* Shewing the rates at which the following foreign coins and currencies are estimated at the Custom-House of the United States, Pound sterling of Great-Britain, Pound of Ireland, Livre tournois of France, Franc, do. ,50 NOTE-Any number of either of the above coins or currencies may be easily reduced to Federal money, by multiplying the value of one in cents by the given number, and the product will be cents. * As a dollar is equal to nine fortieths of a pound, therefore multiplying by 40, and dividing the product by 9, must give dollars, cents and mills. 74. How is sterling money reduced to federal?- 75. money of the pound sterling of Great-Britain ?the Livre tournois of France? the tale of China ? What is the value in federal -76. Of the Irish pound?-78. Of the silver rouble of Russia ?-79. Of 77. Of -80. And of the rupee of Bengal? COMPOUND ADDITION. COMPOUND ADDITION is the adding together of several numbers having different denominations, as, pounds, shillings, pence, &c.; tons, hundreds, quarters, &c. RULE. 1. Place the numbers, so that those of the same denomination may stand directly under each other. 2. Add the first column or denomination together as in whole numbers; then divide the sum by as many of the same denomination as make one of the next greater, setting down the remainder under the column added; carry the quotient to the next superior denomination, continuing the same to the last column, which add as in simple addition.* * The reason of this rule is evident from what has been said in addition of simple numbers: for in addition of money, as 1 in the pence is equal to 4 in the farthings; 1 in the shillings, to 12 in the pence; and 1 in the pounds, to 20 in the shillings; therefore, carrying as directed, is arranging the money arising from each column, properly, in the scale of denominations: and this reasoning will hold good in the addition of compound numbers of any denomination whatever. -82. 81. What is Compound Addition ? What is the rule?-83. What the method of proof?—84. How many mills, &c. are there in an eagle ? £. 47 S. 17 d. 11 24 13 36 10 21 15 -17 14 303 9 7 6 6 5 15 11 In this example, we begin by placing the numbers of one denomination under each other, that is to say,-pounds under pounds, shillings under shillings, and pence under pence. We then begin with the least denomination, which is pence, and find the amount to be 46, which we bring into shillings by dividing them by 12-we write the remainder 10 under the column, and carry the quotient 3 to the column of shillings; we then find the amount of the column of shillings to be 93, which we bring into pounds by dividing them by 20; we write the remainder 13 under the column of shillings, and carry the quotient 4 to the pounds; we then find the amount of the column of pounds to be 174, which we write under the column of pounds, and find the answer to be 174£. 13s. 10d. Ans. 174 13 10 126 15 11 Prf.174 13 10 85. What is a farthing?- 86. Repeat the table of English Money.87. How many pence and farthings are there in a pound? F By this weight are weighed Gold, Silver, Jewels, Electuaries, and all Liquors. * The original of all weights used in England, was a grain or kernel of wheat, gathered out of the middle of the ear, and, being well dried, 32 of them were to make one pennyweight, 20 pennyweights one ounce, and 12 ounces one pound. But in latter timesit was thought sufficient to divide the same pennyweight into 24 equal parts, still called grains, being the least weight now in common use; and from thence the rest are computed. 88. What is Troy Weight?89. What are its denominations? NOTE.-Gold is tried by fire, and reckoned in carats, or the 24th part of any quantity. Such gold as will abide the fire without loss is accounted 24 carats fine; if it lose 2 carats, it is called 22 carats fine, &c. A pound of silver which loses nothing in trial, is 12 ounces fine. Alloy is the base metal mixed with gold or silver, which abates its fineness. 175 Troy oz. are equal to 192 Avoirdupois oz., and 175 lbs. Troy are equal to 144 lbs. Avoirdupois. 1 lb. Troy-5760 grains, and 1 lb. Avoirdupois 7000 grains. 3. AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT. By Avoirdupois are weighed all coarse and drossy goods, groceries, bread, tallow, hay, leather, and all metals, except gold and silver. NOTE.-In Avoirdupois Weight, several other denominations are 90. 12 particular things, 12 dozen, What is a Carat? -91. What is the difference between Troy and Avoirdu pois ?-92. What is the use of Avoirdupois? other denominations are used in Avoirdupois? -93. Repeat the table.- -94. What |