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help the Indians and not the whites. It made the Indians happy to find out this.
Good Thunder, Cloud Horse, Yellow Knife, and Short Bull visited the place again in the 1890 year, and saw the Messiah.
This is their story of their visit to the Messiah:
"From the country where dwell the Arapahoes and Shoshones we start towards the Northwest, and go in train for five nights, and arrive at the foot of the Rocky Mountains. Here we saw him and also several tribes of Indians. The people said that the Messiah would come at a place in the woods which was prepared for him. When we went there a great smoke descended from heaven around the place where he was to come.
When the smoke disappeared there was a man about forty years, which was the Son of God. The man said:-My grandchildren! I am glad you have come far away to see your relatives. These are your people who have come back from your country.”—Then he said he wanted us to go with him. We looked and saw a land created across the ocean on which all the nations of Indians were coming home. But as the Messiah looked at the land, which was created and reached across the ocean, it disappeared, he saying that it was not time for that to take place.
The Messiah then gave to Good Thunder some paints, Indian paint and a white paint-a green grass, and said: ‘My grandchildren, when you get home, go to farming and send all your children to school. On the way home if you kill any buffalo cut off the head, the tail and the four feet, and leave them, and that buffalo will come to life again.
When the soldiers of the white peoples' chief want to arrest me, I shall stretch out my arms which will strike them to nothingness. If not, then the earth will open and swallow them in. My father commanded me to visit the Indians on a purpose. I came to the white people first, but they were not good; they killed me, and you can see the marks of my wounds on my feet, my hands and on my back. My father has given you life--your old life--and you have come to see your friends, but you will not take me home with you at this time. I want you to tell, when you get home, your people to follow my examples. If any Indian does not obey me, and tries to be on the whites' side, he will be covered over by a new land that is to come over this old one. You and all the people will use the paints and grass I give you. In the spring when the green grass comes, your people, who have gone before you, will come back, and you shall see your friends then, for you have come to my call.'
Then the people from many tepees sent for us to visit them; some were those who died years ago. Chasing Hawk who died not long ago, was there, and we went to his tepee. He was living with his wife who was killed in war many years past. They live in a buffalo-skin tepeea very large one-and he wanted all his friends to go there to live. A son of Good Thunder who died in war a long time ago also took us to his tepee, so that his father saw him.
When returning, we came to a herd of buffaloes; we killed one and took everything except the four feet, head and tail. When we moved a little ways from it there was the buffalo come to life again, and he went away. This was one of the Messiah's words that came to truth..
The Messiah also said: 'I will make short your journey when you feel tired of the long ways, if you call me.'-This we did when we were very tired. The night came upon us, we stopped at a place, and we called upon the Messiah to help us because we were tired of the long journey. We went to sleep and in the morning we found ourselves at a great distance from where we stopped.”
The people came back here from the visit to the Messiah and they got those loyal to the Government and those not in favor of the whites, and held a council. The agent's soldiers were sent after them, and brought Good Thunder and two others to the agency and they were confined in prison. They were asked by the agent and Captain Sword whether they saw the Son of God, and whether they were holding councils over their return from this visit, but Good Thunder refused to say "yes." They were confined in the prison for two days, and upon their promising not to hold councils about their visit, they were released. They went back to the people, and told them about their trouble with the agent, then they dispersed without a council.
In the following spring the people at Pine Ridge agency began to gather at the White Clay Creek for councils. At this time Kicking Bear from the Cheyenne River
agency, went on a visit to the Arapahoes, and said that the Arapahoes there had ghost dancing. He said that the people participating in the dance would get crazy and die. Then the Messiah is seen and all the ghosts. When they die they see strange things; they see their relatives who died long before. They saw these things when they died in the ghost dance, and then came to life again. The persons dancing become dizzy, and finally drop dead, and the first thing they see is an eagle that comes to them, and carries them to where the Messiah is with his ghosts. They say this. The persons in the ghost dancing all join hands. A man stands and then a woman, in that way forming a very large circle. They dance around in the circle continuously until some of them become tired and so over-tired that they become crazy and finally drop as though dead, with foam in the mouth and all wet with sweat.
All the men and women make holy shirts and dresses they wear in the dance. The persons who drop in the dance all lie in the great dust the dancing makes. They paint the white muslins they make the holy shirts and dresses out of, with blue across the back, and alongside of this is a line of yellow paint. They also paint the front part of the shirt and dresses. A picture of an eagle is made on the back part. On the shoulders and on the sleeves they tie eagle feathers. They said that the bullets would not go through these shirts and dresses, so they all have them for war. The enemies' weapons will not go through these garments.
The ghost dancers all have to wear an eagle's feather on the head. With this feather any man would be made crazy, if fanned with it. In the ghost dance no person is allowed to wear anything made of metal, except that guns made of metal are carried by some of the dancers.
When they come from the ghosts, or after recovery from the craziness, they bring meat from the ghosts, or from the Messiah. They also bring water, fire, and wind with which to kill all the whites, and the Indians who help the chief of the whites. They make a sweat house and holes in the middle of the sweat house, and they say that water will come out of these holes.
Before they begin to dance all arise from the ground, raise their hands toward the Northwest, and cry aloud in
supplication to the Messiah. They then commence the dance, singing,
Ina he kuye, ina he kuye,
The ghost songs--Wanagi Olowan K'in,-as sung by the tribes of the Sioux, were composed of a number of separate stanzas, each usually ending with the refrain,
Ate heye lo, ate heye lo.
Saith my father, saith my father. Some of the stanzas concluded with the words,
Nihun quon he heye lo, nihun quon he heye lo.
Saith thy mother, saith thy mother. Others terminated with the phrase,
Unci heye ce, unci heye ce.
Saith my grandmother, saith my grandmother, And occasionally was heard the closing melody of
Tuwa heye ce, tuwa heye ce.
Saith somebody, saith somebody. Some of the stanzas were chanted by the women, and others by the men. Again stanzas were divided, and the parts sung alternately by those of each sex.
Both men and women, however, usually joined in the refrain. The terminal words lo and ye seem to be added for the purposes of euphony rather than for any change of meaning. These words are given a gender, the former being masculine and the latter feminine, as regards the speaker or singer; and this characteristic appears in the language generally.
Another peculiarity of the Dakota tongue, which is noticed in these songs, is the use of words having entirely distinct and different roots to indicate the first, second and third persons, and especially in the gender of nouns. To illustrate: my mother is ina, thy mother, nihum, and his mother, hunku. My father is ate, thy father, niyati, and his or her father, athuku. Brother is hunkawanjitku; my older brother, cinye; my younger brother, misunka; and a brother-in-law, tahanka. The diminutive is found by adding the syllable na or la to the noun; as sitkana, a little bird, misunkala, my little brother.
The song was in the nature of a chant, with some variations of the general melodious monotone. An accent, or emphasis, was given at about every second beat of common time. The refrain was at times a musical wail, whose plaintive melody seemed to come from a sorrowladen heart, the memory of which will remain for years.
The following song of the ghost dance, iwahuni, was arranged by Mrs. Mary Parmerlee and Mr. R. C. Bower, through the assistance of Short Bull, a Brule Sioux, of the Rosebud agency, South Dakota. Short Bull was one of the Dakota delegates who twice visited the sacred place in the mountains where the Messiah was said to be, and who brought back the report that the Indian Christ had surely come.
The language and music can be regarded as but a distant echo of the wild, incoherent words and pathetic melody heard across the broken canyons of White River, in the Mauvaises Terres, or by the crimson waters of the Wounded Knee.
The conversation indicated in the song is supposed to take place between the Great Spirit and the ghost dancer after the latter, having fainted from exhaustion and mental excitement, has mounted upon wings like a bird, met and talked with the spirits of his departed friends, and finally entered the realm of the sun.