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MISSOURI, - continued.

republication of amended statutes, 137, n.
when acts to take effect, 156, n.
protection to property by law of the land, 352, n.
liberty of the press in, 416.

disqualifications for suffrage, 599, n.
MONEY,

coinage and regulation of, 10, 15.
legal tender, 15.
punishment of counterfeiting, 10, 18.
bills for raising, to originate in lower house in some States, 131, 132.

cannot be appropriated under right of eminent domain, 527.
MONOPOLIES,

odious nature of, 393.
grant of, not presumed, 395.

in navigable waters, 591.
MORTGAGES,

right to possession under, cannot be taken away by legislature, 290, 291.
MOTIVES,

of legislative body not to be inquired into by courts, 135, 136, 186, 187.

nor those of municipal legislative body, 208.

good, when a defence in libel cases, 464.
MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS,

question of formation or division of, may be submitted to people inter-

ested, 118, 119.
powers of local government may be conferred upon, 118-125, 191.
whether they may engage in internal improvements, &c., 119, 213-219.
general view of the system, 189-192.
legislature prescribes extent of powers, 191.
charter of, the measure of their authority, 192.
complete control of, by legislature, 170, n., 191, 193.
whether it may compel them to assume obligations aside from their ordi-

nary functions, 230-235.
charter of, not a contract, 192.
implied powers of, 194, 209, 210.
effect of changes in, 192, n.
charter to be strictly construed, 195.
contracts, ultra vires, void, 196, 211, 212, 215, and n.

negotiable paper issued by, when valid, 212, 215, and n.
may exist by prescription, 197.

powers thereof, 197.
what by-laws they may make, 195, 198.
must not be opposed to constitution of State or nation, 198.

nor to charter, 198.
nor to general laws of the State, 198.
nor be unreasonable, 200.

nor uncertain, 202.
cannot delegate their powers, 204, 205.

nor adopt irrepealable legislation, 206–208.
por preclude themselves from exercise of police power, 206–208.

MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS, - continued.

nor grant away use of streets, 207, 208.
incidental injuries in exercise of powers give no right of action, 208.
may indemnify officers, 209, 210.

but not for refusal to perform duty, 212.
may contract to pay for liquors destroyed, 211, n.
powers of, to be construed with reference to the purposes of their cre-
ation, 211.
will not include furnishing entertainments, 211.

or loaning credit or making accommodation paper, 212.
must be confined to territorial limits, 213.
power of, to raise bounty moneys, &c., 219–229.
legislative control of corporate property, 235-239.
towns, counties, &c., how differing from chartered corporations, 240, 247,
248.
judgments against, may be collected of corporators, 241–247.

but only in New England, 246, 247.
not liable for failure of officers to perform duty, 247.
chartered corporations undertake for performance of corporate duty, 247.

liability to persons injured by failure, 247-253.
corporate organization how questioned, 254.
imperfect acts of, may be validated, 373, 374, n., 379.
must tax all property within their limits alike, 502.
cannot tax property not lying within their limits, 500.
bounds of, cannot be arbitrarily enlarged in order to bring in property for

taxation, 500-504.
obtaining water for, under right of eminent domain, 533.

taking of lands for parks for, 533, 534, n.
MUTE,

wilfully standing when arraigned, 311.

N.

NATION,

definition of, 1.
distinguished from State, 1.

(See UNITED STATES.,
NATURALIZATION,

power of Congress over, 10.
NAVIGABLE WATERS,

made free by ordinance of 1787, 25, n.
right of States to improve and charge toll, 26, n., 592.
what are, and what not, 589.
are for use of all equally, 590.
general control of, is in the States, 591.
Congressional regulations, when made, control, 591.
States cannot grant monopolies of, 591.
States may authorize bridges over, 592.
when bridges become nuisances, 592.
States may establish ferries across, 593.

NAVIGABLE WATERS, - continued.

States may authorize dams of, 593, 594.
regulation of speed of vessels upon, 594.
rights of fishery in, 524.
frontage upon, is property, 544.

(See WATER-COURSES.)
NAVIGATION,
right of, pertains to the eminent domain, 524.

(See NAVIGABLE WATERS.)
NEBRASKA,

legislature of, not to grant divorces, 110, n.
privilege of members of legislature from arrest, &c., 134, n.
title of acts to express the object, 141, n.
republication of amended statutes, 151, n.
liberty of the press in, 416, n.

religious tests forbidden in, 469, n., 478, n.
NECESSITY,

is the basis of the right of eminent domain, 524, 538.
extent of property to be taken is limited by, 539.

destruction of buildings to prevent spread of fire, 594.
NEGLIGENCE,

as a foundation for rights under betterment laws, 388.
carriers of persons may be made responsible for deaths by, 581.

in the construction of public works may give right of action, 571.
NEGOTIABLE PAPER,

when municipal corporations liable upon, 212, 215, and n.
NEVADA,

special statutes licensing sale of lands forbidden, 98.
legislature of, not to grant divorces, 110, n.
republication of amendatory statutes, 151, n.
when acts to take effect, 156, n.
special legislative sessions in, 155, n.
title of acts to express the subject, 142, n.
protection by the law of the land, 352, n.
liberty of the press in, 416, n.
religious liberty in, 478, n.

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disqualifications for suffrage, 599, n.
NEW ENGLAND CONFEDERACY,

of 1613, why formed, 5.
NEW HAMPSHIRE,

judges of, to give opinions to legislature, &c., 40.
causes of divorce to be heard by courts, 110, n.
revenue bills to originate in lower house, 132, n.
approval of laws, 153, n.
retrospective laws forbidden in, 370.
protection by the law of the land, 352, n.
liberty of the press in, 414, n.
religious liberty in, 469, n., 478, n.

disqualifications for suffrage, 599, n.
NEW JERSEY,

special statutes licensing sale of lands forbidden, 98, n.

9

NEW JERSEY, - continued.

legislature of, not to grant divorces, 110, n.
title of acts to express the object, 142, n.
revenue bills to originate in lower house, 132, n.
liberty of the press in, 415, n.
religious tests forbidden in, 469, n.

disqualifications for suffrage, 599, n.
NEWSPAPERS,

publication of privileged communications in, 418-451.
whether they have any privilege in publishing news, 451.
privilege not admitted by the courts, 453-457.
when publisher not liable to vindictive damages, 457.

(See LIBERTY OF SPEECH AND OF THE Press.)
NEW STATES,

admission of, 27-37.
NEW TRIALS,

not to be granted by the legislature, 95, 392.
not granted on application of State in criminal cases, 321.
may be had after verdict set aside on application of defendant, 327, 328.
but not on counts on which he was acquitted, 328.

(See JEOPARDY.)
NEW YORK

divorces only to be granted in judicial proceedings, 110, n.
title of private and local acts to express the subject, 142, n.
amendment of first constitution in, 31.
protection by law of the land, 352, n.
liberty of the press in, 414, n.
witnesses not rendered incompetent from want of religious belief, 478, n.

contested election of governor in, 623, n.
NOBILITY,

titles of, forbidden to be granted, 17.
NOLLE PROSEQUI,

when equivalent to acquittal, 327.
NON COMPOTES MEVTIS,

legislative authority for sale of lands of, 97–106.

excluded from suffrage, 599.
NON-RESIDENT PARTIES,

subjecting to jurisdiction of court by publication, 403-406.
restricted effect of the notice, 404.

discrimination in taxation of, 487.
NORTH CAROLINA,

ratification of Constitution by, 8, 9.
legislature of, not to grant divorces, 111, n.
protection by the law of the land, 352, n.
liberty of the press in, 417, n.

infidels disqualified for holding office, 468.
NOTICE,

necessity for, in legal proceedings, 402-406.
bringing in non-resident parties by publication of, 403, 404.
of elections, when essential to their validity, 602, 603.

NUISANCE,

when bridges over navigable waters are, 593.
when dams are, and may be abated, 594, 595.
obstructions in navigable streams are, 590, n.
forbidding use of cemeteries which have become, 595.
general power in the States to abate, 596.
created by public, not to be abated at expense of individual, 596, n.

0.
VATH,

of attorneys, 330, 331, n.
test, may be punishment, 263, n.
of voter, when conclusive of his right, 617.

blasphemy and profanity punishable by law, 471-476.
OBJECT OF STATUTE,

in some States required to be stated in title, 141-151.
OBLIGATION OF CONTRACTS,

States not to pass laws violating, 15, 33, 126, 273.
what is a contract, 273-281.

agreements by States are, 274, 275.
executed contracts, 275.
appointments to office are not, 276.
municipal charters are not, 192, 193, 276.
franchises granted to municipal corporations are not, 277.
but grants of property in trust are, 277-279.

and grants of property for municipal use, 236.
private charters of incorporation are, 279.
whether an exemption from taxation is, 127, 280-284.

it is if granted for a consideration, 281.
whether right of eminent domain can be relinquished, 281.

or the right to exercise the police power, 282, 283.
change in general laws of the State does not violate, 284.
nor divorce laws, 284.

such laws not to divest rights in property, 284, 285.
what obligation consists in, 285-287.
remedies for enforcement of contracts may be changed, 287–289.

imprisonment for debt may be abolished, 287.
exemptions from execution may be increased, 287.
rules of evidence may be changed, 288.
but all remedy cannot be taken away, 289, 290.

repeal of statute giving remedy cannot destroy contracts, 290.
appraisement laws cannot be made applicable to existing debts, 290.
right to possession under mortgages cannot be taken away, 290,

nor time to redeem lands shortened or extended, 291.
laws staying execution, how far invalid, 292, 293.
when power of municipal taxation may not be taken away, 292.
stockholders liable for corporate debts may not be released by law, 292.
whether a party may release, by contract, a privilege granted for reasons

of State policy, 293.

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