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2. Troy Weight
24 grains (gr.) make 1 penny-weight, marked
20 penny-weights, 1 ounce,
12 ounces,

1 pound,
3. Avoirdupois Weight.

pwt. Oz. 16.

16 drams (dr.) make

1 ounce,

OZ. 16 ounces,

1 pound,

lb. 28 pounds, 1 quarter of a hundred weight, gr. 4 quarters,

1 hundred weight,

cwt. 20 hundred weights

1 ton,

T. By this weight are weighed all coarse and drossy goods, grocery wares, and all metals except gold and silver.

4.. Apothecaries Weight. 20 grains (gr.) make 1 scruple, 3 scruples,

1 dram, 8 drams,

1 ounce, 12 ounces,

1 pound,

its Apothecaries use this weight in compounding their medicines.

Diom

5. Cloth Measure.

4 nails (na.) make
4 quarters.
3 quarters,
5 quarters,
6 quarters,

1 quarter of a yard, gr.
1 yard,

yd.
1 Ell Flemish, E. F.
1 EN English, E. E.
1 El French, E.Fr.

6. Dry Measure. 2 pints (pt.) make

1 quart,

gt. 8 quarts,

1 peck, 4 pecks,

1 bushel,

bu. This measure is applied to grain, beans, flax-sced, salt, oats, oysters, coai, &c

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7 Wine Measure.

pt.

gt.

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4 gills (gi.) make

i pint, 2 pints,

quart, 4 quarts,

1 gallon, 31gallons,

1 barrel, 42 gallons, 1 tierce,

tier. 63 gallons, 1 hogskeall,

hhd. 2 hogsheads,

p. 2 pipes,

T. All brandies, spirits, mead, vinegar, oil, &c. are mea. sured by wine measure. Note.-231 solid inches, make a gallon.

1 pipe,
1 tun,

8. Long Measure. 3 barley corns (b.c.) make 1 inch, marked in. 12 inches,

1 foot,

ft. : S feet,

1 yard,

yd. 51 yards,

1 rod, pole, or parch, rd. 4n coche,

1 furlong,

fur. 8 furlongs,

1 mile, 3 miles,

1 league,

lea. 693 statute miles,

1 degree, on the earth. 360 degrees, the circumference of the earth.

The use of long measure is to measure the distance of places, or any other thing, where length is considered, without regard to breadth.

N. B. In measuring the height of horses, 4 inches make 1 hand. In measuring depths, six feet make 1 fathom, or French toise. Distances are measured by a chain, four rulls long, containing one hundred links.

1 square

1 square mile.

9 Land, or Square Measure. 144 square inches make

1 square foot. 9 square fet,

1 square yard. 304 square yards, or

rod. 2721 square feet, 40 square rods,

1 square rood. 4 square roods,

1 square acre. 640 square acres,

10. Solid or Cubic Measure. 1728 solid inches make

1 solid foot.
40 feet of round timber, or

1 ton or load.'
50 feet of hewn timber,
128 solid feet or 8 feet long,

1cord of wood 4 wide, and 4 high, All solids, or things that have length, breadth and depth, are measured by this measure.

N. B. The wine gallon contains 231 solid or cubic inches, and the beer gallon, 282. A bushel contains 2150,42 solid inches.

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11. Time. 60 seconds (S.) make 1 minute, marked

S.M. 60 minutes,

1 hour,

k. 24 hours,

1 day,

d. 7 days,

1 week, 4 weeks,

1 month, 18 months, 1 day and 6 hours, 1 Julian year, yr. Thirty days hath September, April. June, and November, February twenty-eight alone, all the rest have thirty-one.

N. B. In bissextile, or leap year, February bath 29 days.

12. Circular Motion. 60 seconds (TM) make 1 minute, 60 minutes,

1 degree, 30 degrees,

1 sign, 12 signs, or 360 degrees, the whole great circle of the Zoljac.

Explanation of Characters used in this Book.

Equal to, as 12d. - 16. signifies that 12 pence are. oqual to 1 shilling.

+ More, the sign of addition, as 5+7=12, signifies

that 5 and 7 added together, are equal to 12,

Minus, or less, the sign of subtraction, as 6-2=4, signifies that 2 subtracted from 6, leaves 4.

* Multiply, or with, the sign of Multiplication; as 4x3=12, signifies that 4 multiplied by 5, is equal to 12.

The sign of Division ; as 8+2=4, significs that divided by 2, is equal to 4; or thus, =4, cacli of which signify the same thing. : Four points set in the middle of four numbers, denote them to be proportional to one another, by the rule of three; as 2:4::8:16; that is, as 2 to 4, so is & to 16.

Prefixed to a ny numoer, supposes that the square root

of that nuinber is required. 134 Prefixed to any number, supposes the cube root of that number is required. Denotes the biquadrate root, or fourth power, &,

1,5

ARITHMETIC. ARITHMETIC is the art of computing by numbers, and has five principal rules for its operation, viz. Numeration, Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, and Division.

NUMERATION. Numeration is the art of numbering. It teaches to express the value of any proposed number by the following characters, or figures :

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, Oror cypher. Besides the simple value of tig!rres, each has a local value, which depends upon the place it stands in, viz.. any figure in the place of units, represents only its sime ple value, or so many ones, but in the second place, on

NOTE.-Although a cypher standing alone signifies nothing; yet when it is placed on the right hand of liguss, itincreases their value in a tenfold proportion, by throwing then into higher places. . Thus 2 with it cypher annesed to it. becomes 20, twenty, and with two cyphers, thus, 200, two hundred.

2. When numbers consisting of many figures, are given 10 be read, it will be found convenient to divide them into as many periods as we can, of six figurrs cach, reckoning from the right hand towards the left, calling the first tlie period of units, the second that of millions, the third billions, the fourth trillions, &c. as in the following number:

2 0 7 3 6 2 5 4 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 5 0 0 7 9 4. Period of 3. Period of 1 2. Period of 11. Period of

7'rillions. Billions. Millions, Unils.

8073
625462
783012

506792 The foregoing rumber is read thus--Eiglit thousand and seventy-three trillions ; six handred and twenty-live thousand, lour liundred and sixty-two billions ; seven hundred and eighty-nine thousand and twelve millions ; five hundred and six thousand, seven hundred and ninety-two.

N. B. Billions is substituted for millions of millions.
Trillions for millions of millions of millions.
Quatrillions millions of millions of millions of millions

&c.

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