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place of tens, it becomes so many tens, or ten imes its simple value, and in the third place, or place of hundreds, it wecomes an hundred times its simple value, and so on, as in the following

TABLE:

Tens,
C. of Milliops,
Millions, -
X. of Millions,
Units,
C. of Thousands,
Thousands,
Hundreds,
X. of Thousands,

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1 One.
2 1 - Twenty-one.
321 - Three hundred twenty-one.
4 3 2 1 Four thousand 321.

5 4 3 2 1 - Fifty-four thousand 321.
1 6 5 4 3 2 1 - 654 thousand 321.

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 .7 million 654 thousand 321. 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 - 87 million 654 thousand 321. 9.8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 - 987 million 654 thousand 321. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 - 123 million 456 thousand 789. 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 4 8 - 987 million 654 thousand 348.

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To know the value of any number of figures.

1

RULE. 1. Numerate from the right to the left hand, each fig. ure in its proper place, by saying, units, tens, hundreds, &c., as in the Numeration Table.

2. To the simple value of each figure, join the name of its place, beginning at the left hand, and reading to the right.

EXAMPLES.

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Read the following numbers. 365, Three hundred and sixty-five. 5461, Five thousand four hundred and sixty-one. 11234, One thousand two hundred and thirty-four. 54026, Fifty-four thousand and twenty-six

123461, One hundred and twenty-three thousand four

hundred and sixty-one. 4666240, Four millions, six hundred and sixty-six thou

sand two hundred and forty. Note.For convenience in reading large numbers, they may he divided into periods of three figures eacn, as follows :

987, Nine hundred and eighty-seven. 987 000, Nine hundred and eighty-seven thousand. 987 000 000, Nine hundred and eighty-seven million. 987 654 321, Nine hundred and eighty-seven million,

six hundred and fifty-four thousanu, three hundred and twenty-one.

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To write numbers.

RULE. Begin on the right hand, write units in the units place, tens in the tens place, hundreds in the hundreds place, and so on, towards the left hand, writing each figure according to its proper value in numeration; taking care to supply those places of the natural order with cyphers which are omitted in the question.

EXAMPLES.

Write down in proper figures the following numbers :
Thirty-six.
Two hundred and seventy-nine.
Thirty-seven thousand, five hundred and fourteen.
Nine millions, seventy-two thousand and two hundred.

Eight hundred millions, forty-four thousand and fifty. five.

SIMPLE ADDITION, Is putting together several smaller numbers, of the same denomination, into one larger, equal to the whole or sum total; as 4 dollars and six dollars in one sum is 10 dollars

RULE.

Having placed units under units, tens under tens, &c. draw a line underneath, and begin with the units; after adding up every figure in that column, consider how many tens are contained in their sum; set down the remainder under the units, and carry so many as you have tens, to the next column of tens; proceed in the same manner through every column, or row, and set down the whole amount of the last row.

EXAMPLES.

(1.)

(2.)

(3.)

(4.)

Hundreds.
Tens.
Units,

Units.

C. of Thousands.
X. of Thousands.
Thousands.
Hundreds.

Thousands.
Hundreds.
Tens.
Units.

Tens

Tens.
Units.

42
5 3
5 2
1 3
8 9

4 1 4
2 91
8 5 1
1 5 2
6 98

17.5 6
0 4 3 2
9 4 7 8
1 6 6 6
7 4 2 2

5 5 2 6 2 1 3 4 6 9 7 7 4 1 3 S 3 9 3 2 1 0 1 2 8 7 6 5 4 3

(5.)
3 1 4 8 5
6 7 2 5 7
4 2 7 1 9
9 7 1 4 5
3 2 8 5 1
1 4 5 7 2

(6.)
6 4 1 7 9
2 5 7 1 2
8 4 1 94
3 2 5 1 6
7 14 3 2
3 2 7 1 9

(7.)
3 7 1 4 5
5 1 7 1 4
60 8 4 5
3 7. S 5
6 1 7 8 4
5 2 1 0 1

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To prove Addition, begir. at the top of the sun, and reckon the figures downwards in the same manner as they were added upwards, and if it be right, this sun total will be equal to the first: Or cut off the upper

line of figures, and find the amount of the rest; then if the amount and upper line, when added, be equal to the tota). the work is supposed to be right.

EXAMPLE.

Excess of 9's.
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2. There is another method of proof, as follows :

Reject or cast out the nines in each row or sum of figures, and set down the 3 7 8 2 | 2 remainders, each directly even with the 5 7 6 6

6 figures in its row; find the sum of these 8 7 5 5 remainders; then if the excess of nines in the sum found as before, is equal to the 18 3 0 S excess of nines in the sum total, the work is supposed to be right.

15 Add 8635, 2194, 7421, 5063, 2196, and 1245 together.

Ans. 26754. 16. Find the sum of 3482, 783645, 318, 7530, and 9678045.

Ans. 10473020. 17. Find the sum total of 604, 4680, 98, 64, and 54.

Ans. Fifty-five hundred. 18. What is the sum total of 24674, 16742, S4678, 10467, and 13439 ? Ans. One hundred thousand. 19. Add 1021, 3489, 28763, 289, and 6458 together.

Ans. Forty thousand. 20. What is the sum total of the following numbers, viz. 2340, 1066, 3700, and 4005 ?

Ans. 11111. 21. What is the sun total of the following numbers, viz.

Nine hundred and forty-seven,
Seven thousand six hundred and five,
Forty-five thousand six hundred,
Three hundred and eleven thousand,
Nine millions, and twenty-five,
Fifty-two millions, and nine thousand ?

Answer, 61374177

22. Required the sum of the following numbers, viz.

Five hundred and sixty-eight,
Eight thousand eight hundred and five,
Seventy-nine thousand six hundred,
Nine hundred and eleven thousand,
Nine millions and twenty-six.

Answer, 9999999

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