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CASE III. When there are cyphers on the right hand of either or both of the factors, neglect those cyphers; then place the significant figures under one another, and multiply by them only, and to the right hand of the product, place as many cyphers as were omitted in both the factors.

21200
70

LXAMPLES.
81800
36

84600
34000

[blocks in formation]

7065000 X 8700=61465500000 749643000 x 095000=521001885000000 360000 X1200000=482000000000

CASE IV. When the multiplier is a composite number, that is, when it is produced by multiplying any two numbers in the table together; multiply first by one of those figures and that product by the other; and the last product will be the total required.

Multiply 41364 by 35. to X5535

7

EXAMPLES.

289548 Product of

5

1447740 Product of 35

2. Multiply 764131 by 48. 3. Multiply 342516 by 56. 4. Multiply 209402 by 72. 5. Multiply 91738 by 81. 6. Multiply 34469 by 108. 7. Multiply 615213 by 144.

Ans. 36678288.
Ans, 19180896.
Ans. 15076944.

Ans. 7430778. · Ains. 3721896. Ans. 88594992.

CASE V. To multiply by 10, 100, 1000, &c. annex to the inula tiplicand all the cyphers in the multiplier, and it will make the product required.

EXAMPLES. 1. Multiplý 365 by 10.

Ans. 3650. 2. Multiply 4657 by 100.

Ans. 465700, 3. Multiply 5224 by 1000. Ans, 5224000. 4. Multiply 26460 by 10000. Ans. 264600000.

EXAMPLES FOR EXERCISE. 1. Multiply 1203450 by 9004. Ans. 10835863800. 2. Multiply 9087061 by 56708. Ans. 515309055188. S. Multiply 8706544 by 67089. Ans. 584113330416. 4. Multiply 4321209 by 123409. Ans. 533276081481. 5. Multiply 3456789 by 567090. Ans. 1960310474010. 6. Multiply 8496427 by 874359. Ans. 7428927415298.

98763542X98763542=8754237228385764.

Application and Use of Multiplication. In making out bills of parcels, and in finding the value of goods; when the price of one yard, pound, &c. is given in Federal Money) to find the value of the whole quantity.

RULE. Multiply the given price andquantity together, as in whole numbers, and the separatrix will be as many figures from the right hand in the product, as in the given price.

1. What will 35 yards of broad. 8. d.c. m. cloth come to, at

$ 9,4 9 6 per yard :

3 5

EXAMPLES

4 80 104 8 8

Ans. $122, 3 6 0 -122 dol

[lars 36 cents. 2. What cost $5 lb. cheese at 8 cents per lh ?.

,08

Ans. Smo 80-2 dollars 80.cento.

[graphic]

yard :

per ream:

per lb.

5. Wļiat is the value of 29 pairs of men's shoes, at 1 dollar 51 cents per pair? Ans. $43, 79 cents. 4. What cost 131 yards of Irish linen, at $8 cents per

Ans. 849, 78 cents. 5. What cost 140 reams of paper, at 2 dollars 35 cents

ins. $329. 6. What cost 144 lb of hyson tea, at 3 dollars 51 cents

Ans. $505, 44 cents. 7. What cost 94 bushels of oats, at 33 cents per buslael ?

Ans. $$1, 2 cents. 8. What do 50 firkins of butter come to, at 7 dollars 14 cents per firkin ?

Aus. $357. 9. Whât cost 12 civt. of Malaga raisins, at 7 dollars $1 cents per cwt. ?

Ans $87, 72 cents. 10. Bought 37 horses for shipping, at 52 dollars per tead ; what do they come to ?

Ans. 81924. 11. What is the amount of 500 lbs of logos-lard, at 15 cents per lb. ?

Ans. 875. 12. What is the value of 75 yards of satin, at s dollars 75 cents per yard ?

Ans. $281, 25 cents, 13. What cost 367 acres of land, at 14 dols. 67 cents

Ans. $5583, 89 cents. 14. What does 857 bls. pork come to, at 18 dola. 95 cents per bl. ?

Ans. 816223, 1 cent. 15. What does 15 tons of Hay come to, at 20 dols. 78 cts. per ton ?

Ans. $311, 70 cents. 16. Find the amount of the following

BILL OF PARCELS.

New-London, March 9, 1814. Mr. James Paywell, Bought of William Merchant

$. cts 28 lb. of Green Tea, at 2, 15 41 lb. of Coffee,

at 0, 21 34 lb. of Loaf Sugar, at 0, 13 13 cwt. of Malaga Raisins, at 7, S1 per cut. 35 firkins of Butter, at 7, 14 per fir: 27 fairs of worsted Hose, at 1, 04 per pair. 94 bushels of Vats, at 0, 33 per busho 29 pairs of men's Shoes, at 1, 12 per pair.

Amount,

5510, 78. f{eceived payment in full,

WILLIAM MERCHANT.

per acre ?

per lb.

A SHORT RULE. Note. The value of 100 lbs. of any article will be just as many

dollars as the article is cents a pound. For 100 lb. at 1 cent per lb.=100 cents=1 dollar.

100 lb. of beef at 4 cents a Ib. comes to 400 cents=4 dollars, &c.

DIVISION OF WHOLE NUMBERS. SIMPLE DIVISION teaches to find how many times one whole number is contained in another; and also what remains; and is a concise way of performing seve. ral subtractions.

Four principas parts are to be noticed in Division : 1. The Dividend, or number given to be divided. 2. The Divisor, or number given to divide by,

3. The Quotient, or answer to the question, which shows how many times the divisor is contained in the dividend.

4. The Remainder, which is always less than the divisor, and of the same name with the Dividend.

RULE. First, seek how many times the divisor is contained in as many of the left hand figures of the dividend as are just necessary, (that is, find the greatest figure that the divisor can be multiplied by, so as to produce a product that shall not exceed the part of the dividend used) whert found, place the figure in the quotient; multiply the divisor by this quotient figure; place the product under that part of the dividend used; then subtract it therefrom, and bring down the next figure of the dividend to the right hand of the remainder ; after which, you must seek, multiply and subtract, till you have brought down every figure of the dividend.

Proor. Multiply the divisor and quotient together and add the remainder if there be any to the product; if the work be right, the sum will be equal to the dividend.*

* Another method which some make use of to prove divi. şion is as follows : viz. Add the remainder and all the produets of the sereral quotient figures multinlied by the divise

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work ;

Reinains
18

0 Rem. together, according to the order in which they stand in the

and this sum, when the work is right will be equal to the dividend.

À third method of proof by excess of nines is as follows, vizo

1. Cast the nines out of the divisor and place the excess on the left hand.

2. Do the same with the quotient and place it on the right nand.

3. Multiply these two figures together, and add their product to the remainder, and reject the nines and place the ex. cess at top:

4. Cast the nines out of the dividend and place the excess at bottom.

Note. If the sum is right the top and bottom hipures will b, alike.

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