Εικόνες σελίδας
Ηλεκτρ. έκδοση

fifth century. See No. 29, article BIBLE.

VANITY, emptiness. It is often applied to the man who wishes. you to think more highly of him than what he really deserves; hence the vain man flatters in order to he flattered; is always fond of praise, endeavours to bribe others into a

by good offices, though often displayed with unnecessary ostentation. The term is likewise applied to this world, as unsatisfactory, Ecc. i, 2; to lying, Ps. iv, 2; to idols, Deut. xxxii, 21; to whatever disappoints our hopes, Ps. lx, 11. See PRIDE.


the Nous or Intelligence, which is the only Son, equal to and alone capable of comprehending the Bythos. The sister of Nous they called Aletheia or Truth; and these constituted the first quaternity of Eons, which were the source and original of all the rest; for Nous and Aletheia, produced the world and life, and from these two pro-good opinion of himself by his ceeded man and the church. But, complaisance, and sometimes even besides these eight principal Æons, there were twenty-two more; the last of which, called Sophia, being desirous to arrive at the knowledge of Bythos, gave herself a great deal of uneasiness, which created in her Anger and Fear, of which was born Matter. But the Horos or Bounder stopped her, preserved her in the Pleroma, and restor- from ubique, "every where," in restor-from ed her to Perfection. Sophia then produced the Christ and the Holy Spirit, which brought the Eons to their last perfection, and made every one of them contribute their utmost to form a Saviour. Her Enthymese or Thought, dwelling Brentius, one of the earliest near the Pleroma, perfected by the reformers, is said to have first Christ, produced every thing that broached this error in 1560. Luis in this world by its diverse pas- ther himself, in his controversy sions. The Christ sent into it the with Zuinglius, had thrown out Saviour, accompanied with angels, some unguarded expressions that who delivered it from its passi-seemed to imply a belief of the ons without annihilating it: from thence was formed corporeal matter. And in this manner did they romance concerning God, nature, and the mysteries of the Christian religion.

ecclesiastical history, a sect of Lutherans which rose and spread itself in Germany; and whose distinguishing doctrine was, that the body of Jesus Christ is every where, or in every place.

omnipresence of the body of Christ; but he became sensible afterwards that this opinion was attended with great difficulties, and particularly that it ought not to be made use of as a proof of VATICAN MANUSCRIPT, Christ's corporal presence in the one of the principal Greek manu- eucharist. However, after the scripts now extant. It contained death of Luther, this absurd hyoriginally the whole Greek Bible.pothesis was renewed, and dressed The age of this manuscript is sup-up in a specious and plausible form posed to be no higher than the by Brentius, Chemnitius, and An

UBIQUITY, omnipresence; an attribute of the Deity, whereby he is always intimately present to all things. See OMNISCIENCE.

dræas, who maintained the com- compounded of awe and love, and munication of the properties of which of all others becomes creaChrist's divinity to his human na-tures to bear toward their infinitely ture. It is, indeed, obvious that perfect Creator. See DEVOTION. every Lutheran who believes the VERACITY OF GOD is his doctrine of consubstantiation,what- truth, or an exact correspondence ever he may pretend, must be an "and conformity between his word Ubiquitarian. and his mind. Moses says, "he is a God of truth." He is true in and of himself; he truly and really exists; he is the true and living God: all his perfections are true ÚCKEWALLISTS, a sect and real; truth is essential to him; which derived its denomination it is pure and perfect in him; it from Uke-Walles, a native of is the first and original in him; he Friesland, who published his sen- is the fountain of truth: all his timents in 1637. He entertained works in creation, providence, and a favourable opinion of the eter-grace, are according to truth. See nal state of Judas and the rest of FAITHFULNESS OF GOD. Christ's murderers. His argument VERSCHORISTS, a sect that was this, that the period of time derived its denomination from Jawhich extended from the birth of cob Verschoor, a native of FlushChrist to the descent of the Holy ing, who in the year 1680, out of Ghost was a time of deep igno- a perverse and heterogeneous mixrance, during which the Jews were ture of the tenets of Cocceius and destitute of divine light; and that, Spinosa, produced a new form of of consequence, the sins and enor-religion, equally remarkable for mities which were committed dur-its extravagance and impiety. His ing this interval were in a great disciples and followers were called measure excusable, and could not Hebrews, on account of the zeal merit the severest displays of the and assiduity with which they all, Divine justice. This denomina-without distinction of age or sex, tion strictly adhered to the doc-applied themselves to the study of trine of the Mennonites. the Hebrew language. Their sen. VEDAS, the sacred books of timents were nearly the same the Hindoos, believed to be reveal-as the Hattemists. See HATTEed by God, and called immortal. MISTS.

They are considered as the foun- VICAR, a priest of a parish, tain of all knowledge, human and the predial tythes whereof are imdivine, and are four in number.propriate or appropriated; that is, The principal part of them is that which explains the duties of man in methodical arrangement. The fourth book contains a system of divine ordinances. See the first volume of the Asiatic Researches.

VENERATION, an affection

belong either to a chapter,religious house, &c., or to a layman who receives them, and only allows the vicar the small tythes, or a convenient salary.

VICE, a fault; the opposite to virtue.

for a communication of divine love, or for any calamity afflicting a nation.

UNBELIEF, the refusing assent to testimony. It is often taken for distrust of God's faithfulness, but more particularly for the discrediting the testimony of God's word concerning his Son, John iii, 18, 19. John xvi, 9. " It includes," says Dr. Guise, "disaffection to

VIGIL, the eve or day before,, in his diocese, to examine into the any solemn feast, because then state of the church. In a divine Christians were wont to watch, || or spiritual sense, it is taken either fast, and pray in their churches. VIRTUE, a term used in various significations. Some define it to be "living according to nature;" others, "universal benevolence to being." Some, again, place it "in regard to truth: others in "the moral sense." Some place it in "the imitation of God;" others, "in the love of God and our fellow creatures." Some, again, think it consists "in medi-God, disregard to his word, preocrity," supposing vice to consist judices against the Redeemer, reain extremes; others have placed it diness to give credit to any other in "a wise regard to our own in- than him, inordinate love to the terest." Dr. Smith refers it to the world, and preferring of the apprinciple of sympathy; and Paley plause of men to the approbation defines it to be the doing good to of God."-" Unbelief," says the mankind, in obedience to the will great Charnock, "is the greatest of God, and for the sake of ever- sin, as it is the fountain of all sin : lasting happiness. Some of these it was Adam's first sin: it is a sin definitions are certainly objection- against the Gospel, against the able. Perhaps those who place it highest testimony; a refusal to acin the love of God and our fellow-cept of Christ upon the terms of creatures may come as near to the the Gospel. It strikes peculiarly truth as any. See Edwards and at God; is the greatest reproach Jameson on Virtue; Grove's and of him, robs him of his glory, a Paley's Moral Phil.; Cumberland's contradiction to his will,and a conLaw of Nature, cap. 1, § 4; Beat-tempt of his authority. The causes tie's Elements of Mor. Science, vol. of unbelief are Satan, ignorance, ii, p. 8, 77; Dr. Watts's Self Love pride and sensuality." The danger and Virtue Roconciled, 2d vol. of of it is great: it hardens the heart, his works, last edition. fills with presumption, creates impatience, deceives with error, and finally exposes to condemnation, John iii, 18. Charnock's Works, vol. ii, p. 601; Case's Sermons, ser. 2; Bishop Porteus's Sermons, vol. i, ser. 2; Dr. Owen's Reasons of Faith; Hannam's Compendium, vol. ii, p. 26.

VISION, the supernatural representation of an object to a man when waking, as in a glass which places the visage before him. It was one of the ways in which the Almighty was pleased to reveal himself to the prophets, Is. i, 1. Is. xxi, 2.

VISITATION, the survey or inspection performed by a bishop

UNBELIEVERS are of three

sorts: 1. Those who having heard

the Gospel reject it.-2. Those who verbally assent to it, yet know not to what they assent, or why they believe.-3. They who, whatever knowledge they may have of certain speculative points of divinity, yet obey not the truth, but live in sin.

annihilation shall soon equalize the just and the impious, and for ever confound them both in the dreary mansion of the tomb. What monsters, then, must such be upon the earth!"


UNCTION, in matters of religion, is used for the character conferred on sacred things by anoint

The following is a striking description given by Massilon of an unbeliever (Ser. i, vol. iii, Eng. trans.). "He is a man without morals, probity, faith, or charac-ing them with oil. Unctions were ter; who owns no rule but his passions, no law but his iniquitous thoughts, no master but his desires, no check but the dread of authority, no God but himself; an unnatural child, since he believes that chance alone hath given him fathers; a faithless friend, seeing he looks upon men merely as the wretched fruits of a wild and fortuitous concurrence to whom he is connected only by transitory ties; a cruel master, seeing he is convinced that the strongest and the most fortunate have always reason on their side. Who could henceforth place any dependance on such? They no longer fear a God; they no longer respect men; they look forward to nothing after this life virtue and vice are merely prejudices of education in their eyes, and the consequences of popular credulity. Adulteries, revenge, blasphemies, the blackest treacheries, abominations which we dare not even name, are no longer in their opinion but human prohibitions established through the policy of legislators. According to them, the most horrible crimes or the purest virtues are all equally the same, since an eternal

very frequent among the Hebrews. They anointed both their kings and high priests at the ceremony of their inauguration. They also anointed the sacred vessels of the tabernacle and temple, to sanctify and consecrate them to the service of God. In the ancient Christian church, unction accompanied the ceremonies of baptism and confirmation. Extreme unction, or the anointing persons in the article of death, was also practised by the ancient Christians, in compliance with the precept of St. James, 5 chap. 14th and 15th verses; and this extreme unction the Romish church has advanced to the dignity of a sacrament. It is administered to none but such as are affected with some mortal disease, or in a decrepit age. It is refused to impenitent persons, as also to criminals. The parts to be anointed are, the eyes, the ears, the nostrils, the mouth, the hands, the feet, and the reins. The laity are anointed in the palms of the hands, but priests on the back of it, because the palms of their hands have been already consecrated by ordination.

The oil with which the sick per

son is anointed represents, it is || cap. 4, called the Act of Uniforsaid, the grace of God, which is mity. poured down into the soul; and

[ocr errors]

UNION TO CHRIST, that the prayer used at the time of act of Divine grace by which we are anointing expresses the remission joined to Christ; and is considerof sins thereby granted to the sicked, 1. As virtual, or that which was person; for the prayer is this; formed from all eternity, Eph. i, 4. By this holy unction, and his-2. Vital, or spiritual, formed in own most pious mercy, may the the moment of our regeneration, Almighty God forgive thee what- John xvii, 26. 1st John iv, 13. It ever sins thou hast committed by is represented in the scripture by the sight," when the eyes are the strongest expressions language anointed; by the hearing, when can admit of, and even compared the ears are anointed; and so of to the union between the Father the other senses. and the Son; John xvii, 11, 21, &c. It is also compared to the union of a vine and its branches, John xv, 4, 5. To the union of our food with our bodies, John vi, 56, 57. To the union of the body with the head, Eph. iv, 15, 16. to the conjugal union, Eph. v, 23, 30. To the union of a king and his subjects, Matt. xxv, 34, 40. To a building, 1st Pet. ii, 4, 5. Eph. ii, 21, 22. It is also represented by an identity or sameness of spirit, 1st Cor. vi, 17. By an identity of body, 1st Cor. xii, 12, 27. By an identity of interest, UNDERSTANDING, the fa- Matt. xxv, 40. John xx, 17. This culty of perceiving things distinct- union must be considered not as a ly; or that power of the mind by mere mental union only in consort which we arrive at a proper idea or notion; nor a physical union as or judgment of things. See JUDG-between the head and the memMENT, MIND, SOUL.

The passage before mentioned from St. James respecting the anointing with oil has been a source of difficulty to some pious minds; but in order to understand it, is necessary to observe, that anointing with oil was an ordinance for the miraculous cure of sick persons (Mark vi, 13). But since those extraordinary gifts are ceased, as being no longer necessary for the confirmation of the Gospel, of course there can be no warrant now for using that cere


UNIFORMITY, regularity; a similitude or resemblance between the parts of a whole. The word is particularly used for one and the same form of public prayers, administration of sacraments, and other rites, &c., of the church of England, prescribed by the famous stat. 1 Eliz. and 13, 14. Carol. II, VOL. II. 3 P

bers; nor as an essential union, or union with the Divine nature; but as a mystical union, Eph. v, 32. Honourable union, 1st John iii, 1, 2. Supernatural union, 1st Cor. i, 30. Holy, 1st John iii, 24. Necessary, John xv, 4. Inviolable, Rom. viii, 38, 39. Some state it thus: 1. An union of natures, Heb. ii, 11.-2. Of actions, his obedi

« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »