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12 denari 20 soldi
s soldi 24 grolle
Example 13. In 846 piastres to foldi 8 denari, how many pounds sterling, exchange 481d. per piaftre?
pia. fol. der.
6)846 10 8 For Sd. 5)141 94
16) 28 4 4
I 15 31
Qu. 14. In 8311. 145. 8d, sterling, how many ducats, &c. current, exchange at 53d, per ducatagio 20 per cent, ?-Anf. 4519 ducats 14 grolle.
The foregoing examples will be found sufficient to instruct the learner in the method of performing this rule ; I shall therefore insert the remainder of the tables of foreign coin, and a few questions with their answers, omitting the operation for the practice of the learner.
In Russia Accompts are kept in rubles and copecs; and the exchange is by the ruble; and.when made immediately with Loudon, is from 45. to 55. per ruble; but when made by the way of Hamburgk or Amsterdam is from 48 to 50 stivers per ruble. 3 copecs
ruble 2 rubles
ducat 2:4. 15. In 2337 rubles 73 copecs, how many pounds sterling; exchange, by way of Amsterdam, at 122 copecs per rix-dollar of 50 stivers; and exchange between Holland and England at 345, 7d, Flemish per pound sterling Ans. 2301. 175. 3d.
make one palpolitin
Qu. 16. For 9431. 145. 8d. paid in London, how many rubles must be received at Petersburgh, exchange by way of Holland at 345. gd. Flemish per pound sterling, and exchange from Holland to Petersburgh at 50 stivers per ruble --Anf. 7370 rubles 36 copecs.
In Poland and Prussia
Accompts are kept in florins, gros, apd penits. The exchange is by the way of Holland, and from 240 to 295 gros per pound Flemish. 18 penins
gros 30 gros
make one forin, or Polish gilder 3 florins
rix dollar 2 rix-dollars
gold ducat Qu. 17. In 4371. 175. 4d. sterling, how many rix-dollars Polish, exchange 290 gros per pound Flemish, and 345. 4d. Flemish per, pound sterling ?---Anf. 2422 rix-dollars 4 gros 13 penins.
Accompts are kept in copper dollars, and oorts or silver dollars. The exchange is by the copper dollar, and moftly from 46 to 56 copper dollars per pound sterling. 8 penins
1 runstychen 3 runstycher
stiver S stivers 10 stivers and 2 runstychens, or 32 runstychens
} 3 copper dollars and 32 stivers, or 96 runstychens, or
Glver dollar 4 marcs 24 marcs
Lcopper rix.doi. Qu. 18. In 5838 filver dollars g runstychens 3) penins, how many pounds sterling, exchange at 49 copper dollars per pound sterling Anf. 3571. Ss. Sld.
In Ireland, America, and the West Indies, Accompts are kept in pounds, shillings, and pence, as in England, but the course of exchange between England and Ireland is from 5 to 12 per cent. iu favour of England, and the course of exchange of the paper of America and the West Indies is never at any certain standard.
Qu. 19. If 21721. be remitted to Ireland, how much money sterling may be drawn for it, exchange at 8 per cent. ? - Anf. 23451. 155. 21d.
Qu. 20. A merchant sells goods in London, and remits to his correspondent in Boston, the value amounting to 11511. 195. how much must the merchant at Bolton receive in paper currency, exchange at 33 per cent. in favour of England ? - Ans. 15354 18s. Ed.
Questions of the nature of these two are resolved by the rule of three: thus, in the 19th question, I say, if 100l. require 108l. what will 21721. require and the answer is 23451. 155. 214.
The arbitration of exchange is the method of finding the course of exchange between any two places, by having the course of exchange between each of these two places and a third place.
By comparing the par of exchange thus found with the course of exchange, a person can tell which way to draw or remit his money to the most advantage.
All questions in arbitration of exchange are resolved by the rule of three direct, comparing the course of exchange between any two places, with that of a third place to a fourth.
Example 2 If the exchange between London and Paris be 33 d. per ecu, and the exchange between London and Amsterdam be 345. 6d. per pound sterling, what is the par of arbitration between Paris and Amsterdam?
As 240d. London is to 345.6d, Amsterdam, fo is 33d. Paris to
for Paris. Here I say, as 240d. the pence in a pound sterling of London, is to 345. 6d. the Flemish exchange, so is 3 3d. the exchange for an ecu, or crown tournois of Paris, to 56d. 376 farthings the Flemish exchange for an ecu, and is the course of exchange between Paris and Amsterdam.
This example will be sufficient, as the rule never varies, though the course of exchange between several countries be given to find a proportional course between any two; in which case they may be resolved into as many questions as is necessary in the rule of three, and all the first numbers multiplied together for a divisor, and the second and third numbers in each question multiplied together for a dividend, then the quotient will be the answer,
Qu. 22. A merchant in London is drawn upon by his correspondent in Ruflia for money to the amount of 12500 rubles; the exchange between England and Ruflia being at god. per ruble; between Ruslia and Holland god. per ruble; and between England and Holland 365. 4d. per found sterling ; which is the most advantageous method for the London mercliant to pay by; directly to Russia or by way of Holland, and what is the advantage? - Answer, the London merchant will gain 23l. 175. 10 d. by making payment by way of Holland.
OF THE RELATION OF NUMBERS.
Any set of numbers that constantly increase or decrease by a common difference are said to bear a relation to each other, which relation is called progreffion, and is divided into two kinds: arithmetical progression and geometrical progression.
Arithmetical progression is, when any set or series of numbers constantly increase or decrease by a given number, called from thence their common difference ; such are the natural orders of numbers, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, &c. each of which increases by 1 ; and the same in inverted order 8, 7, -6, 5i 4, &c. decrease by 1; 1 is therefore their common difference.
Again, the numbers 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, &c. increase by 3; and 27, 23, 19, 15, 11, 7, &c. decrease by 4: therefore 3 is the common difference of the former, and 4 that of the latter.
The numbers themselves that form the series are called the terms of the progression.
of every series of arithmetical progreffion having any three of the five following terms the other two may be found readily;
called the extremes.
1, the first term or number