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CONJUNCTIONS are used to connect sentences together ; so as from two or more simple sentences to form one, which is called a compound sentence.'
What a fimple sentence is has been thewn in page 12. A compound sentence is formed of two or more such simple sentences: as,
John and Thomas love their book, but Edward is a dunce." This is a compound sentence, formed by uniting the three following fimple sentences together, by the conjunctions and and but ; John loves his book; Thomas loves his book; Edward is a dunce.
Conjunctions are principally divided into cupulative conjunctions, and disjunctive conjunctions. They both serve to connect the sentence; but the disjunctive conjunction expresses an opposition in the sense, as has been seen by the conjunction but. Also the conjunctions or, than, except, unless, although (though), yet, nevertheless, &c. are disjunctives.
INTERJECTIONS, though reckoned one of the parts of speech, are only a kind of natural sounds, thrown into a sentence by the speaker, as the result of his feeling, and to express his own affections: as, O! alas! &c.
When the interjection is placed before a substantive, it shews that an address is made to that particular person or thing of which the substantive is the name; and the fubflan. tive is, in what in Latin is called, the vocative case.
SYNTAX is the right ordering and framing of words, in order to form sentences with grammatical propriety. And for this purpose, words are said to govern, or agree with each: or her,
When a word governs another, it causes that particular word which it governs, to be in such a particular number, gender, case, person, time, or mode.
When a word agrees with another, it is in that particular mode, number, case, &c. which is required by the word that governs it. Thus: “ And the shall bring forth a Son, and thou shalt call his name Jesus; for he shall fave his people from their sins.”—Matt. i. 21. In this sentence she is a pronoun of the third person, singular, feminine gender, and ought to agree with the subject foregoing, namely, the Virgin Mary ;-Shall bring, the future time of the active verb bring (referring to the time of the birth of the child), the third perfon, singular number, to agree with the pronoun fhe, and indicative mode, as it fimply declares the event ;--forth, a preposition added to the verb bring, and which alters its meaning from bring, to bring forth, which signifies to bear or produce;-a, the indefinite article ;-Son, noun substantive, fingular number, masculine gender, objective case ;-and, a conjunction copulative, connecting the following and foregoing sentences together ;-thou, the pronoun of the second perfon, fingular, and agent of this fentence ;-afhalt call, the future time of the active verb call, second person, singular, being governed by thou, indicative mode, as it only foretels or declares the name of the child, but does not command it; --his, a possessive pronoun, third person, singular, masculine gender, governed by the noun Son ;-name, a substantive
common, and the object of the sentence ;-Jefus, a substantive proper, masculine gender, agreeing with the noun Son, and nominative case ;--for, a copulative conjunction ;-he, a pronoun, third person, singular, masculine gender, nominative cafe, being a fubftitute for the noun Jefus, and governed by it, and the agent of this sentence ;--all fave, the future time of the active verb (agreeing in time with the other verbs in the sentence,' which are all future), third person, fingular, governed by the pronoun lie, indicative mode ;-his, a pofferfive pronoun;- people, a plural noun, neuter gender, o5jective case ;--from, a preposition, thewing the relation between the nouns people and faris ;-sheir, a poffeflive pronominal adjective, and as such joined to the plural noun fins, objective case.
SENTENCES are either fimple or compounded.
A simple sentence hath but one subject, or agent, and one verb in the indicative, imperative, or fubjun&ive mode; and consists of three parts, if the verb be active; the agent, the attribute, and the object : as was seen page 12.
A compound sentence consists of two or more fimple sentences united together by the aid of conjunctions, as hath been shewn before : or by relatives, as will be seen hereafter.
As language and style is only an assemblage of sentences, too much attention can hardly he bestowed upon their construction. We will therefore take a view of the rules of English Syntax, as they regard the several parts of fpeechi respectively.
The ARTICLE, as hath been seen, if definite, is placed before both the singular and plural noun: as, the
the men : the indefinite article a is placed before the fingulas noun only: as, a man.
The SUBSTANTIVE governs both the pronoun and tie verb: for if the fubftantive be plural, it requires both the pronoun and verb to be plural also ; and if singular, they must alfo be fingular : as, "nothing has so much exposed men of learning to contempt and ridicule, as their ignorance of things which are known to all but themselves." Johnson's
• Rambler. Example of the fingular : “ Seneca speaks in the
natural and genuine language of a man of hofiour, when he declares, that were there no God to see or punish vice, he would not commit it.”—Guardian.
There are some nouns called nouns of multitude, which fignify many, and bave the pronoun and verb agreeing with them, either in the fingular or plural number ; but if they convey a plural idea, the verb and pronoun should be plural likewise; if they convey a fingular idea, the verb and pronoun should be fingular : as," the affembly of the wicked have enclosed ine".-Psalm xxii, 16. inftead of hath enclosed me. “ My people is foolish"-Jer. iv. 22. instead of are foolish.
Two or more singular nouns, joined by copulative conjunctions, have the verbs, nouns, and pronouns agreeing with them in the plural number: as, “ Shakespeare and Milton were the most eminent poets of the English nation.”
But sometimes the verb follow's in the fingular number, and refers to each of the preceding nouns taken separately, as, “ fand, and salt, and a mass of iron is easier to bear than a man without understanding."
Nouns of number, weight, and measure, are often used in the fingular form, when they are joined to numeral adjectives; though they denote plurality : as, án hundred thousand, inftead of rhousands ; an hundred pound weight; fix foot ; forty fathom.
Nouns, whether of the masculine, feminine, or neuter gender, always govern the same gender in the pronoun: as, “I have a friend, who, because he knows his own fidelity and usefulnefs, is never willing to fink into a companion." “ I have a wife, whose beauty first seduced me, and whosc wit confirmed her conqueft."- Johnfon's Rambler. • Every noun in the nominative case belongs to some verb, either expressed or understood, except the case! absolute, as will be seen hereafter ; and when an address is made to a perfon, called the vocative case. Thus in the answer to this question, Who conquered the Perlians-Alexander; that is, Alexander conquered them.
Every noun in the postellive case has also some noun belonging to it: as, St. Paul's, that is, St. Paul's Cathedral ; St. James's, St. James's Palace.
The noun has no different form in English for the ob jective case, though this case be founded in nature and gramrmar: as, “ books can never teach the use of books."
The Pronoun, being a substitute for the noun, must consequently have the same nature, with regard to the go. vernment and agreement of nouns and verbs.
When two or more pronouns of the singular number are joined together, to make the plural pronoun agree with them in person, the second person is preferred before the third, and the first person before both: as, he and you did as you were commanded; I, thou, and he loft our characters by it.
The neuter pronoun it is employed in a threefold fenfe: -first, it expresses the subject of any discourse : as, it so happened; who is it !_secondly, the state of any person or thing: as, how is it with you ?-thirdly, the thing that is the cause of any event: aš, it was I that did it; it is these that
corrupt the mind.
PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES have some substantive belong. ing to them, either expressed or understood.
The definitives this, that, in the plural these, those, must always agree with their substantive in number: thus, - By this means thou shalt have no portion on this side the river." Ezra, iv. 16. “ I have wept not this forty years.” It should be these means; these forty years. Again, “They are these kind of gods which Horace mentions in his allegorical ves. fel.”-Addison's Dialogues, ii. on Medals. Here it should be theft kinds, or this kind.
The relatives who, which, that, have no variation of gen. der, and therefore must agree with their antecedent in this respect. For every relative must have a noun or pronoun, to which it refers, either expressed or understood; which is therefore called its antecedent: as, “Who steals my purse, steals trash.”-Shakespeare. That is, the man who steals my purse, steals trash. VOL. I.