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With regard to the found of these double vowels, there are no rules, that can be given, which will hold good in all cases, “as words are founded according to the caprice or affectation of the age, or the fpeakers: a knowledge of them must, therefore, be acquired by experience and observation.

And concerning the sound of single letters, the following rules are all that can safely be depended upon. 11. C is pronounced hard like k, before a, e, u; and soft like s, before ci, and y,

G is also founded hard before a, o, x ; sometimes hard, and fumetimes soft, tefore i and y; and generally soft before é. 2. E is mostly filent at the end of a word; but in that case it lengthens the foregoing vowel; as, kid, hide; and that some. times in the middle of a word; as ungrateful. But fometimes it only foftens a preceding &, as in lodge, judge.

His only an aspiration of the breath, and sometimes at the beginning of a word is not founded at all: as, 'an hoảr, an honeft man. :1 .W is either a vowel or a diphthong; its proper sound is the fame as win the Italian, ou in the French, or so in the English. Sometimes it is not founded at all after o, sometimes like av.

.X is a double consonant, composed of a hard c or k, and s; and at the beginning of a word mostly founded like x. - Y has exactly the same found as i ; and is only a fubftitute for it at the end of a word, or before i: aś, cry, flying. It is a perfect vowel ; and when used as a confonalat at the beginning of a word, it answers to the ancient Saxon i; as, yew, iw; young, iong.

"Z is a double consonant ; it sounds as much coarser and thicker than s, as v does than f.

J and v, though confounded by some old writers with i and y, are entirely different letters; the former having the found of a soft g, and the latter that of a coarser f. The fc.mer is called ja, and the latter vee.

SECT.

SECT. IT.

OF SYLLABLES.

A SYLLABLE is a constituent part of a word, or a whole word; it consists of one or more letters, and is formed by a Angle impulse of the voice.

Spelling is the art of rightly naming the letters fingly that conflitute a word, and dividing them into fyllables.

The art of spelling perfectly is not to be acquired (particularly in the English) but by practice : but a few rules for the dividing of syllables may possibly be of service.

1. A fyllable in the beginning, or middle of a word ends in a vowel, except such vowel be followed by x, or ļwo or more confonants: as in re-li-gi-on.

2. When two or more consonants follow a vowel, which is pronounced thort, they must be separated ; and one, at leaft, always belongs to the preceding syllable: 'as in ab-Ai-nence.

3. When 'two or more consonants follow a vowel, which is pronounced long, they sometimes belong to the following fyllable : as, di-giress

. 4. A particle, though placed immediately before a vowel

, is seldom divided : as, un-e-qual.

5. A mute with a liquid following are seldom divided; but a liquid or a mute, with a mute following, are mostly divided.

6. When le or re follow a mute they are never divided.

These are the fundamental rules for the dividing of fyllables: but some grammarians recommend them to be divided as they are founded in a just pronunciation,

A

SECT. II.

OF THE NINE PARTS OF SPRECH,

When mankind had arrived at some perfection in the art of writing, they soon discovered the propriety of reducing

5

language

language into different forms of words; or, as they are commonly called, parts of fpeech.

In English we have nine forms of words, or parts of speech,

1. The ARTICLE-placed before nouns to help to determine their fignification : as, a man, the man,

2. The SUBSTANTIVE, or noun--which is the name of any object whatever, of which we have any idea : as, a man, a korse, a spirit, grief, love.

3. The PRONOUN-used as a substitute for the noun: as, ke, she, it

4. The ADJECTIVE-added to the noun to denote its quality : as, an honest man, a white horse, an evil spirit.

5. The VERB—which fignifies a state of existence, a&ting, or suffering: as, “the centinels slept, the enemy entered, and the fort was taken."

6. The ADVERB-used to qualify or enforce the meaning of other words. It is added sometimes to a verb: as, he reads well. Sometimes to an adjective: as, “ an exceeding high moun . tain.” Sometimes to another adverb: as, moff divinely fair."

7. The PREPOSITION--placed between words to connect them together : as, “ the path to fame lies through the road to danger.”

8. The CONJUNCTION-used to connect sentences, as prepositions connect words: as, “ fear God and honour the King." *

2. The INTERJECTION—used to express the surprise or affection of the speaker : as, O! alas !

These are the nine parts of speech in the English tongues every word in which is reducible to one of these parts.

The ARTICLE is placed before substantives to thew bow far their fignification extends.

There are in English only two articles; a and the. A is called the indefinite, and the the definite article.

The indefinite article, a is changed into an when the next word begins with a vowel, or a silent k before the vowel; except fuch vowel be y or w. This article, as its name imports, is used in an indefinite and undetermined sense : as, a

man,

man, means one man, without determining who in particular; leaving that to be explained, if necessary, by the other parts of the sentence.

This article can, therefore, be joined to substantives in the Angular number only, except it come before the adjectives. few and many : as, a few days, a (great) many men ; or before, the complete numerical adje&tives, a dozen, a score, an hundred, a thousand, a million, a myriad: as, a dozen pound, a score of eggs, an hundred men, &C.

The definite article the determines which particular thing is meant; or of many, which they are: this is therefore employed both with fingular and plural nouns: as," the fterk in the heavens."

It is also used sometimes before adverbs in the comparative and superlative degrees; as, the more, the better, the leaft (of all).

The SUBSTANTIVE is the name of any object whatever of which we have

any

idea. There are two forts of substantives, Proper and Commion. Proper naines are such as belong to individual objects, whether animate or inanimate; but not to every individual, or obje& of the same fort or species: thus, Johx is the name of a man, but not the name of every man; Chance may be the name of a dog, but it is not the name of every dog; London the name of a city, but not of every city. These are therefore proper naines; but man, dog, and city are common names: for mar is the common name of every man; dog, the common name of every dog; and city, the common naine of every city. :,

Proper names have no articles nor plural number, unless by a metaphor : as when a cruel tyrant is called a Nero; or when a common name is underfood, as the (ship) Royal George; or when there are many of the same name, as the twelve Cæfars.

There are three attributes belonging to the English noun, viz. number, gender, and cafe.

The number is either fingular or plural. The fingular number expresses one object : as, a king; the plural, two or more, as, kings.

The

The plural' number is mostly formed, in English, by the addition of sor'es : as, boy, boys goat, goats; fox, foxes.

Some change the f into v: as, cvife, wives ; leaf, leaves.
Some plurals end in en : as, ox, *oxen"; child, children ;

man, men; brother, brethren. In the latter, and some others, the o in the first fyllable is changed into“e. This form is the remains of the Teutonic language, and the following of the Saxon ; loufe, lice; moufe, mice; tooth, teeth.

Some nouns ending in y, change it into i: as, city, cities; gallery, galleries.

Some nouns have no plural: as, corn, gold, pitch, fioth, &c. And others no fingular numbers : as, annals, bellows, feilfars, lungs, &c. The words fleep and deer have no variation of number.

All fubftantives in Englisli, whether common or proper, are considered with relation to gender, as being either of the masculine, feminine, or neuter gender. That is, either of the male or female fex, or neither.

The mafculine or feminine genders are applied to the names of animals only, and such whose fex is obvious: as, many Thomas, ox, which are the masculine gender : Mary, woman, hen, cow, which are the feminine gender. Those whose fex is '

not evident,' with all inanimate objects, are of the neuter gender : as, oyster, worm, horse, tree; except in poetry, and the elegant species of composition, where inanimate objects, and the human paffions, are perfonified into men and women, and consequently have their genders.

A few fubstantives are marked by their terminations: as prince, princess ; lion, lioness; aflor, actress.

The chief use of gender is to agree with the pronoun.

In Englith there are three different cases of the noun: the noninative, pofleflive, and objective case.

The nominative cafe is the simple name of the noun, without relation to other oljects: as, “ John."

The poffeflive signifies the relation of posseflion: as, "John's. book," and was formerly written “ Johnis book,"and noi" John his book," as is vulgarly written. It may also be expressed by

inverting

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