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arm may rest lightly on the edge of the desk, or table, be. tween the elbow and the wrist; but the stomach should not press against the desk. The pen must be held very lightly; for if it be griped hard, the learner will never acquire an ease and expedition in writing.

The learner, having acquired a juft habit of holding the pen, may copy the fmall letters i, e, 0; having his lines ruled according to the dotted lines in the plate. He may next copy the other small letters; taking care to be perfect in each, before he proceeds to the next. Then the capital letters ; ruling his copy in squares, according to the pattern in the plate ; and also join-hand copies, as soon as he can make the capitals. When the learner can write an indifferent good round-hand text, he may proceed to the small round-hand, and running hand; in writing which last, the pen Mould never be taken off the paper till the word is finished.

The learner should imitate the best copies. Copper-plate copies are to be preferred to those written by the pen, as being more correct. Those small letters which have tops or ftems, as b, d, f, h, k, l, S, must all be of the fame height, And those with tails, asf, s, j, p, q, l, y, must be all of the same length. A due distance must be observed between the words, and between the letters of the same word. The capitals must be all of the fame fize. The upright strokes, or those that are formed by the upright stroke of the pen, must be fine or hair strokes; and the downright strokes must be fuller and blacker; but a constant attention to the copy would in a great measure fuperfede the necessity of most of the foregoing rules. The learner Nould not fit long at one time, left he grow tired of learning, in which case hiç will not improve; nor be ambitious of writing fast, for five or fix lines, well written, will improve the learner more than fifty lines, written in the same time, without attention to their correctness.

When the learner has arrived to some proficiency in writing, it is requisite that he know how to make and mend

his pen. This is sooner to be acquired by an attentive observance of those who can make a pen well than by any verbal directions; the following rules, however, may be of service. Being provided with a gond goose quill (those called feconds are the best), scrape the scurf from it, with the back of the penknife, fcraping the back of the quill moft, that the flit may be clear; then cut the quill half through, near the end, on the back part; and cut the other fide of the quill quite through, near balf an inch from the end. The quill will now appear forked; next cut away a very fhort flit in the back notch, where the flit of the pen is to be; and putting the peg of the penknife haft, or the end of another quill, under this flit, and holding the nail of the left thumb pretty hard on the back of the quill, as high as it is intended the flit fhall go, with a quick fudden force rend up the flit: it must be very sudden and quick, that the flit may be clear and close; for if the Nit be clear and close, that it cannot be seen through, it is done well. Then, by several necessary cuts, the quill is to be brought into the form of a pen; and having brought it to a fine point on each side of the flit, it is' to be nibbed in this manner; place the infide of the nib on the left thumb nail, holding the pen between the fore and middle fingers of the left hand, and enter the knife at the extremity of the nib, and cut it through a little floping; then, with an almost downright cut of the knife, cut off the nib; lastly, by other proper cuts, the pen is to be brought into an handsome form. But the nib is not afterwards to be mended by any cutting or scraping, for that causes a rough. ness, and absolutely fpoils it. If the nib, therefore, be altered or mended with the knife after it is nibbed, it inuft be nibbed again, as before directed. And obferve that the breadth of the nib must be equal to the breadth of the downright ftrokes of the letters.

Copies for Round Hand Text. Avoid bad company.

Be wise betimes. Care destroys the body, Do the things that are juft. Expect to recieve as you give. Frequent good company. God is perfect in his works. Hours fly swift away. Innocency need not fear. Join experience to theory. Keep faith with all men. Learn in the time of youth. Money corrupts many.

No talk is too hard to learn. Opportunities are slighted. Provide against poverty. Quiet men have quiet minds. Remember your duty. Sin produces Name. Time aid tide stay for none. Value a good conscience. Understand

your

trade. Wisdoin is valuable.

Xerxes wept at mortality. Yield patiently to fate.

Zeal is sometimes proper,

Copies for Round Hand.
All letters even at head and tail must stand :
Bear light your pen, and keep a steady hand.
Carefully strive in each line to excel;
Do every thing, that is to be done, well.
Excel in each new line, in every part:
Faults for the future Thun, by rules of art.
Gripe not your pen, but hold it very slight,
Hold in your elbow, have a left hand light.
In all your writing at the copy louk;
Join all your letters by a fine hair-stroke:
Keep free from faults, and blots, your copy-book
Learn the command of hand by frequent ofe,
Much practice will good penmanship produce.
Never strive to write too fast at first;
of all a learner's faults, this is the worst.
Practice alone can produce expedition ;
Quick writing is most learners' vain ambition,
VOL. I.

K

Rulc

Rule your lines straight, and make them very fine;
Set stems of letters fair above the line,
The tops above the stems, the tails below,
Use pounce to paper, if the ink go through.
View well your copy, see how much you mend;
Wipe clean your pen, your task being at an end.
Your spelling mind, write each word true and well;
Zealously strive good writers to excel.

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A Receipt for making black Ink. To one quart of soft water, put four ounces of fresla blue galls of Aleppo, bruised pretty small; two ounces of copperas; and two ounces of gum-Arabic. Bottle it up, and Thake it once a day, and in three or four weeks it will be fit for use.

The green peelings of walnuts, soaked in the water before the ink is made (if they be in season), will render it the stronger, and more beautiful.

A Receipt for red Ink, Sinimer three pints of ftale beer, or vinegar, with four ounces of ground Brazil wood, for an hour; then strain it through a fannel, and bottle it up for use.

Or a little gum-water and vermillion will make a curious red ink for present purpose.

SECT. II.

OF SECRET WRITING.

SECRET writing may be performed several ways. Former ages were very fertile in inventions of this kind; and, by these means, intelligence has been obtained by countries, from

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other

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others, with whom they were in a state of hostility; and that not unfrequently in modern times. It may also serve individual purposes, where fecrecy is required.

There are principally three ways of writing, so as not to be read by any, but those who can discover the manner in which it is written.' First, writing in cipher, which requires great ingenuity, and of which, iny limits will not permit me o speak. Secondly, fubftituting other arbitrary marks or characters, for words or letters, than the words or letters themselves. And, thirdly, writing with some ink or liquid which will not appear legible, till rendered fo by some me chanical operation.

The second method, of substituting one character for another, is easily performed; as any person might make an alphabet of his own, consisting of twenty-six characters, each of which might stand for some one letter of the English alphabet ; and thus the writing would be unintelligible to any but those who have the key or index. Or, the numerical figures may be used to the same purpose: as for example a may be represented by 1; 6, by 2; C, by 3 ; &c. as follows: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 a,b,c,d,e,f,g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, v, u, w, x, y, z.

According to this index, the following sentence, riches gain friends, will be written thus : 18, 9, 3, 8, 5, 19. 7, 1, 9, 14. 6, 18, 9, 5, 14, 4, 19. Or the figures, to correspond to the letters, may be placed in any other order. Or the letters in the alphabet may be transposed. Certain confonants may be substituted instead of the vowels, and the vowel, instead of the confonants: as, instead of the vowels, a, e, i, 0, u, y, use l, m, n, 1,9, r, and vice versa, respectively; then the foregoing fentence will stand thus: ynchms glni fynmids. And an infinite number of other ways might be invented, by this mode of substitutional writing, which the ingenious reader will discover; such as, dividing the alphabet into two parts, and tranfpofing the letters which stand in the first or

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second

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