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To their. Conforts-Madam, or May. it please your Lady ship.
To all the other Clergy-Reverend. Sir, or Sir.
To an Ambassador-Sir, or Your Excellency.
To the Lord Mayor of London, York, of Dublin, and Lord

Provost of Edinburgh, during their office-My Lord, or

May it please your Lordfhip. To an Alderman, Recorder, or Sherif-Sir, or May it please

your Worship To the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland-My Lord, or May it please

- your Lordship. To the Houfe of Lords-My Lords, or May it please your

Lord thips. To the House of Commons-May it please your Honours. To the Lords of the Treasury, or Almiralty-My Lords, or May

it please your Lordshipso To the Commiffioners of the Euftoms, or Excis-Gentlernen, dr

May it please your Honours. To the Bencher's of an Inn of Court-Gentlemen, or May it

please your Honours. To the Directors of the East India Company-Gentlemen, or

May it please your Honours. To the Governors of Cbrif's Hospital-Gentlemen, or May it

please your Worships. To a Company of the City of London Gentlemen, or May it

please your Worships. ->

It may not be annils, in this place, to insert a table of precedence, by which the reader will see the rank which each individual bears in England, according to his office and occupation, Taken from the Henalds' books,

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The King
Queen.

Talle of Precedence.
The King's Brethren.

Uncles.
The King's Children, and a Nephews.
Grandchildren.

1

Archbihop of Canterbury. M 2

Lord

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Lord Chancellor, or Keeper, 1 Lords Commiflioners of the if a Baron.

Great Seal. Archbishop of York. Viscounts' eldest Sons. Lord Treasurer,

Earls' younger Sons. Lord President of

Barous' eldeft Sons.

Sif barons the Council,

Knights of the Garter. Lord Privy Seal,

Privy Couusellors. Lord Great

Chanceilor of the Exchequer. Chamberlain,

Chancellor of the Dutchy. Lord High

Chief Justice of the King's
Constable,

Bench.
Lord Marshal, above all Master of the Rolls.
Lord Admiral

Peers of
their own

Chief Justice of the Common Lord Steward of degree.

Pleas. the Household,

Chief Baronof the Exchequer. Lord Chamber

Judges and Barons of the Coif. lain of the

Knights Bangerets, royal.
Household,

Viscounts' younger Sons.
Dukes.

Barons? younger Sons. Marquisies.

Baroncts. Dukes' eldest sons.

Knights Bannerets. Earls.

Knights of the Bath, Marquiffes' eldeft Sons. Knights Bachelors. Dukes' younger Sons.

Baronets' eldest Sons. Viscounts.

Knights' eldeft Sons.
Earls' Gideli Sons.

Baronets' younger Sons.
Marquisses' younger Sons. Knights' younger Sons.
Secretary of State, if a Bishop. Colonels.
Bifhop of London.

Serjeants at Law,
Durham.

Doctors.
Winchester, Esquires.
Bishops.

Gentlemen. Secretary of State, if a Baron. Yeomen. Barons,

Tradesmen. Speaker of the House of Artificers. Commons

Labourers,

Married

Married women and widows are entitled to the same rank among each other as their husbands would have been entitled to among themselves; except such rank be merely profefGonal, or official :-and unmarried women to the fame rank as their eldest brothers would bear during the lives of their fathers.

SECT. IV.

THE ART OF STENOGRAPHY, OR SHORT HAND.

STENOGRAPHY, or Short Hand, is the art of writing in a more expeditious manner than by the common mode, for the purpose of taking down a speech, or discourse, as delivered by the speaker.

For this purpose, the writer of short hand is permitted to avail himself of several advantages which no other writer is allowed. He has the liberty of inventing an alphabet of his own, consisting of certain arbitrary marks, or characters, which, for the sake of expedition, are of a lefs complex form than those of the other alphabets. He may reje&t any of the letters in the common alphabet, which are not absolutely neceffary for the writer to recollect the fenfe; or substitute one and the fame character to serve for two diftinet letters ; as is done here in the short-hand alphabet, where f and vare used indiscriminately the one for the other, and represented by the same character; as are alfo ihe k and hard c, the s and the soft - He also omits the vowels, except where they are indispensably necessary to discover the fense. Consequently, he is not to follow the customary mode of spelling; but is to infert no more letters in a word than are precisely neceffary to express the found.

The

The Mort-hand writer, besides these advantages, sometimes makes use of single characters to express whole words, and even whole sentences; but of this hereafter.

The first and principal rule in short hand is, to make use of 'no more letters than are necessary to give the reader an idea of the found of the word. For if the writer use all the letters that are necessary to express the found itself, he will gain but little advantage by it; as he will be obliged to use too many letters to be very expeditious.

But it must be here observed, that this rule must not be followed tou strictly at first, and during the learner's exercises ; left it render his writing too imperfect, and unintelligible to himself. He dould, therefore, at firft, content himself with ufing every character for every consonant, till be be perfectly acquainted with them all, and can very readily form them; marking the points for the vowels, as is bereafter directed,

Of the Short-hand Aiphalet. The short-hand alpliabet confifts of the following consopants: b, d, f or v, g or j, k or hard a, l, m, n, p, q, r, s or soft c, and %, f, w, x: each of which has its proper character, as seen in the plate. The characters standing for these letters are to be neatly joined together, to forın words; and written in the most expeditious manner possible, without taking the pen off the paper till the word be fiothed; and the vowels are to be noted afterwards (if pecessary) by points.

Though the omission of the vowels may at first somewhat puzzle the reader, to read even his own writing, yet a little practice will render it perfectly, familiar to him; as the chief difficulty, both in writing and reading short hand, arises from the novelty of the characters, and from the waqt of a familiar acquaintance with them. :

In order to perfect the learner in the construction of all the characters in the short-hand alphabet, it is absolutely necessary that he frequently copy them. He should, daily,

write a copy of the short-hand alphabet; ruling his lines according to the dotted lines in the first line of the first lesson in the plate; and writing the fignification of each character at the end of each line, and the letter it represents at the beginning of the line; using three or four lines of a quarto copy for each letter.

In the aiphabet given, I doubt not but the characters will be found as convenient for practice as any extant. I have endeavoured to make it consist of the most simple, and, at the same time, the most diftin&t characters. I shall only observe, that by the help of this alphabet, and the abbreviations that follow, I have been able to follow the most rapid speakers,

This alphabet, though conîsting of the characters for fifteen consonants ouly, will be found quite sufficient. The c being supplied by either & or s, according as it is pronounced, hard or foft. The h may very well be omitted in Mort hand, as it is only an aspiration of the breath; and the sound of the word (which is all that is minded in this species of writing) may be discovered without it. The j is supplied by the g soft, which has the same found. V is also supplied by f, being only a coarser found than that letter. Y is represented, if necessary, by the vowel i, having exactly the same found; and z by s, from which it differs in sound but a little, being of a coarser nature:

The vowels are seldom used in short hand; but when it is necessary to insert any of them, they are represented by points, as will be seen hereafter,

Three of the characters in this alphabet are horizontal figures: viz. d, k, and m; as are also the three chara&ters which represent the double letters, ch, th, th. Seven of them are vertical or lineal, running dire&ly from the top line to the bottom; viz. f, g, h, n, q, r, and x. The other five, b, p, i, s, and w, are inclined characters.

In forming the fhort-hand characters fingly, the learner may observe (if he wishes to have his writing look exact),

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