2. of 18 are 24; 24 is of 27; 4 of 35 i: 5; 27 is 5 times 5 and 2 of 5. C. This article contains the multiplication table, in which the numbers from 10 to 20 are multiplied by the ten first numbers. SECTION VIII. Explanation of Plate II. PLATE I, which has been used in the preceding sections, presents each unit as a simple object and undivided. Plate II, presents the units as divisible objects, the different fractions of which form parts, and sums of parts of unity. This plate is divided into ten rows of equal squares, and each row into ten squares. The first row is composed of ten empty squares, which are to be represented to the pupil as entire units. The second row presents ten squares, each divided into two equal parts by a vertical line, each of these parts of course represents one half. In the third row, each square is divided into three equal parts, by two vertical lines, each part representing one third, &c. to the tenth row, which is divided into ten equal parts, each part representing one tenth of unity. N. B. In plates II and III, the spaces and net the marks are to be counted. Be careful to make the pupil understand, 1st, that each square on the plate is to be considered as an entire unit, or whole one. 2d, explain the divisions into two, three, four, &c. parts. 3d, teach him to name the different parts. Make him observe that the name shows into how many parts one is divided, and how many parts are taken, in the same manner as it does when applied to larger numbers. # for example, shows that one thing is to be divided into 7 equal parts, and 4 of those parts are to be taken. 4th, make the pupil compare the different parts together, and observe which is the largest. Ask him such questions as the following: Which are the smallest halves or thirds? Ans. Thirds. Why? Because, the more parts a thing is divided into, the smaller the parts must be. A. 15. On plate II., count two squares in the second row, and then ascertain the number of spaces or halves in them. There are 4 halves. 21. In the 2d row take 3 squares and 1 space in the 4th square; then count the spaces. Ans. 7 halves. 37. In the 3d row take 5 squares, and 2 spaces in the 6th; then count the spaces or thirds. Ans. 17 thirds. 54. In the 5th row take 6 squares, and 4 spaces in the 7th square; then count the spaces or fifths. Ans. 34 fifths. B. 2. This operation is the reverse of the last In the 2d row count 4 spaces or halves, and see how many squares or whole ones it takes. It will take 2. 38. In the 9th row count 48 spaces or 9ths, and see how many squares or whole ones it takes. It will take 5 squares and 3 spaces in the 6th. Ans. 5 whole ones and 2. SECTION IX. A. 2. signifies that 1 thing is divided into 3 equal parts, and 1 part taken. Therefore 2 times 1 third is 2 parts, or 3. 6. 7 times is 1, or 21. 10. On the plate in the 3d row, 5 times which takes 3 squares and 1 space. are 1, Ans. 31. 24. In the 9th row take 4 spaces or 9ths, and repeat them 5 times, which will make 2, and will take 2 squares and 2 spaces. Ans. 23. B. 4. 4 times 2 are 8, and 4 times 1 half are 4 halves, or 2, which added to 8 make 10. 18. 4 times 3 are 12, and 4 times are 12, or three whole ones, which added to 12 make 15. 32. 2 times 3 are 6, and 2 times are, which added to 6 make 69. 40. 10 barrels of cider at 3 dollars and a barrel; 10 barrels at 3 dollars, would be 30 dollars, then 10 times is 50, or 8 and of a dollar. Ans. 38 dollars. C. 2. to each would be 3 times, or, which are 2 oranges. 0 3. or 2 bushels. 4. 7 times are 21, or 51 gallons. 5. 8 yards and & or 2 yards, that is, 10 yards. 6. 4 times 2 are 8, and 4 times which added to 8 make 103 bushels. are, or 23, 12. It would take 1 man 3 times as long as it would 3 men. Ans. 13 days. 14. 3 men would build 3 times as much as 1 man; and in 4 days they would build 4 times as much as in 1 day. Ans. 381⁄2 rods 15. Ans. 12 yards. SECTION X. A. 21. of 1 is . of 4 is, or 14. of 2 is 2 times as much or of 5 is, or 13. is, or 2. of 7 is 1, or 21. 27. of 1 is. 7 is 7, or 13. of 6 of 2 is . of 3 is of This manner of reasoning may be applied to any number. To find of 38: it is, for of 38 is 38 times as much as of 1, and 4 of 1 is 4, consequentyof 38 is, and is 5. 40. To find of a number, and then will be 2 times as and 2 times are 14, or 43. 74. of 50 is 50, or 5; 4 times 5 are 20, 4 times added to 20 make 224. must be found first, much. of 7 is 1, ; is 4 times as much are 20, or 2, which NOTE. The manner employed in example 40th is best for smal numbers, and that in the 74th for large numbers. B. 2. Ans. 1 apiece. 3. of 3 is ; of a bushel apiece. 4. 3 of 7 is 4; he gave away 41 and kept 2}. 6. 1 half dollar a yard, or 50 cents. 7. of 7 is, or 13; cents, which is 40 cents. a bushel. of a dollar is of 100 Ans. 1 dollar and 40 cents 8. of 8 is 1. of 100 is 333. Ans. 1 dollar and 33 cents, or it is 1 dollar and 2 shillings. 9. If 3 bushels cost 8 dollars, 1 bushel will cost 2 dollars and, and 2 bushels will cost 5 dollars. Ans. 5 dollars and 2 shillings, or 33 cents. 13. If 7 pounds cost 40 cents, 1 will cost 54 cents; 10 pounds will cost 574 cents. 16. 1 cock would empty it in 6 hours, and 7 coeką would empty it in of 6 hours, or of 1 hour, which is of 60 minutes; of 60 minutes; is 517 minutes. SECTION XI. A. 2. 2 halves of a number make the number; consequently 1 and 1 half is the half of 2 times 1 and 1 half, which is 3. 15. 4 is of 5 times 4 and, which is 224. 17. 4 is of 9 times 43, which is 399. times of 5, which is 5, or 13. of some number, of 8 is B. 4. 5 is 3 30. If 8 is same number. which is 103; of the of 8 is 23, 24 is of 4 times 24, therefore 8 is 2 of 103. 40. If 8 is, of 8 is 4; or 93; therefore 8 is 4 of 9 2. of 8 is, is 4 of 5o, 52. If of a ton cost 23 dollars, of a ton must be of 23, that is 43 dollars, and the whole would cost 9 times as much, that is, 413. 69.of 65 is 73; 72 is of 5 times 7%, which is 361. 65 is of 361. C. 4. 37 is 2 of 323, which taken from 37 leaves 4. Ans. 4 dollars. 5. 7 feet must be 3 of the whole pole. 6. If he lost, he must have sold it for 7 of what it cost. 47 is 7 of 603. Ans. 60 dollars and 42% cents. Miscellaneous Examples. 1. The shadow of the staff is of the length of the staff; therefore the shadow of the pole is of the length of the pole. 67 is of 833. feet. Ans. 833 2. 9 gallons remain in the cistern in 1 hour. It will be filled in 10 hours and ; 7 of 60 minutes |