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gentlemen and landowners of his parish ; and out of thirty such applications, he realized a donation of one pound. He has assured me that the religious and political feeling of the district is such as may be justly expected to tally with such a state of things. The great proprietors have never resided in the district: there is in fact no gentleman living in it except himself; there is very little communication kept up with any town except the small metropolis of the county, twelve miles distant, and the ignorance and prejudices of the small freeholders and farmers are great almost beyond precedent. The picture of this parish, which indeed is one of the worst cases of the kind I have met with, will suit, with a few alleviations, the features of many others all throughout these counties; and there is hardly a country incumbent anywhere in my district but who, on reading this statement will be ready to back it by corresponding illustrations drawn from his own knowledge.

On the other hand, I can quote more than one instance in which when, in the course of my duties as Her Majesty's Inspector, I had to examine the accounts of a school, and could not avoid remarking the immense disproportion between the sums received and expended, the latter being in an excess of 401. or 50l. per annum, out of a total of 701. or 801., I made the pleasing discovery that this annual deficiency was made up in a private and unostentatious manner by the regular contributions of two or three, and several times of one munificent person. And I am glad of having an opportunity of testifying that in general the more elevated in rank, and the more distinguished for intellectual culture and eminence the gentlemen of a district may be, so, in almost an invariable proportion, the more generous are their contributions to schools and other local public purposes. Nevertheless, the main observation I have made above still holds good, that the gentry and landowners of these counties do not contribute as they should and could ; and, in my humble opinion, until the contrary can be proved, the representations which have been often made of the necessity that Her Majesty's Government should make some special grant of public funds for the support of schools in the agricultural districts of Wales have a very narrow basis to rest upon. Until a numerously-signed subscription list can be produced by any parish, I do not see the justice of that parish coming forward and pleading inability to support a school.

In some portions of my district I have found the notion subsisting that education ought to be entirely gratuitous, and that, at all events, it was impossible to extract from the poorer and labouring classes of the community any funds for supporting school expenses : in other and more familiar ternis, that the parents of the children were totally unable to pay schoolpence for their education. My own conviction is, that such an

idea is almost always erroneous; and I am further fully per-
suaded that any given parish throughout my district might
maintain an efficient school, without any direct aid from Her
Majesty's Government, if the inhabitants would only consent to
a proper method of self-assessment and weekly payment. In
cases where it was objected that the poverty of the labouring
families disqualified them from paying school pence, a very
trifling refutation was required. These objections I have found
started in places where wages ranged at 12s. a-week with as
much pertinacity as in others where they never reached 98.; and
the mere fact of numerous parishes where wages do not exceed
the last-named sum, taking the year round, having schools in
which the weekly pence are paid without difficulty, is a suffi-
cient proof that such ideas have no solid foundation. Except
in cases of severe sickness, or some other unforeseen calamity,
there is always the possibility of a labouring man paying
weekly such a small contribution as one penny, and frequently
twopence, for the education of each of his children. To give
a practical instance of how such a system of local payment may
be made efficacious in a purely agricultural and even a remote
district, I am glad to have this opportunity of bringing under
their Lordships' notice the plan adopted in the parish of Llan-
fairynghornwy, in the isle of Anglesey, where it has been found
to work well, and has now been for some time in operation.
It should be observed, that the incumbent clergyman of that
parish possesses courage and experience not to be overcome
by slight difficulties, and that, having the interest of his country
and his flock most thoroughly at heart, he has never allowed
himself to be daunted by obstacles, from which others might
have recoiled.
Mode of Paying National and other Schoolmasters in Rural Dis-

tricts, as adopted by the Rev. James Williams, Llanfairynghornwy,
Anglesey.
Parents Assessed to the Poor-Rates at 50l. and upwards to pay--
For one child

58. per quarter.
For two children

48. each.
All above two children

2s. 6d. each.
Assessed to 301. and under 501.
For one child

4s. per quarter,
For two children

38. each. All above two children

2s, each. Assessed (or Rental) to 101., and under 301.-Handicraftsmen and Tradesmen. For one child

38. per quarter. For two children

28. 6d. each.
All above two children

Is. 6d. each.
Assessed under 101,
For one child

18. 6d. per quarter.
For two children

1s, each. All above two children

1s. 6d, each.

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If day-labourers or others under 52., a further reduction is made according to circumstances.

A day or two before the commencement of each quarter, tickets of admission for the coming quarter, are issued and paid for according to the above scale.

The tickets are all the same, so that the master knows no difference between the highest and the lowest. He gives a check ticket in return to the parent. The parents, having paid before hand, are more careful to send their children to school than if it were left to an indefinite time. The more destitute are supplied with money to buy tickets.

Mr. Williams informs me that, after an experience of nearly two years, he has found no reason to doubt of the effective working of the above scale; and, in proof of it, gives the following table of attendance and payments :First Quarter, 1848.

First Quarter, 1849.

$. d.
3 children paid each 5 0

2 children paid each 5 0
10
4 0

4 0
2
3 0

3 0
2
4

2 6
2 0

2 0
8

13
7
1 3 21

1 0
0

09 11

06 10

0 0

10

8. d.

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73

89 Mr. Williams adds: “Though there may be some trifling difference between the two quarters, it does not arise from any material change of system: I have never heard an objection raised in the parish."

In the district of Llanfairynghornwy there is nothing to distinguish it from many others in the remoter parts of Wales. Wages are not particularly good, and their amount may be judged of from the subjoined remarks of Mr. Williams :

As to the average of labourers' wages, I am the only person in this neighbourhood that employs men without feeding them; and my wages are regularly 88. a-week, summer and winter, without house or any perquisite. At the present moment it may be rather a high average, but it is perhaps the fairest available. The farmers' wages are composed of so many elements, that it is scarcely possible to calculate the sum total; there being taken into account sometimes house, food (viz., one, two, or three meals a-day), firing, hay for the cow, ihe keep of so many sheep, pew in the dissenting chapel, &c. &c. The actual payment in money does not perhaps exceed 38. or 48. a-week.

It should be understood that Llanfairynghornwy is at some distance from any market town, in a retired corner of the island, and far away from any public thoroughfare. Nevertheless here the system of weekly pence is found perfectly practicable, and the school succeeds; whereas, in other part's of the principality, I have met with parishes, in the immediate vicinity of market towns, in rich agricultural districts, and on much-frequented roads, where the wages rarely fall below 128. a-week, and yet where the payment of weekly pence is declared an utter impossibility, and the direct aid of Her Majesty's Government is considered almost indispensable. Again, in most of the schools that have fallen under my inspection in the county of Pembroke, where the rate of wages may certainly be called low, and ranges from 78. 6d. to 8s. per week (the men finding their own food), the payment of weekly pence exists as a matter of course, and is seldom objected to; but in the county of Cardigan, immediately adjoining it to the north, in no way inferior in natural advantages, and where the rate of wages is the same, the payment of weekly pence is firmly believed and asserted to be a burthen too heavy to be borne. In one particular instance of a small town, where wages are rather better than the usual range, it is considered expedient to tempt the parents to send their children to school *by giving them annual gratuities of clothing as a reward for regular attendance. These anomalies, however, will doubtless disappear as years roll on; and I am sanguine enough to look forward to the time when the necessity of maintaining efficient schools, and of properly rewarding the teachers, will be admitted, and acted up to, in every parish of the principality.

In the larger towns, and especially in the mining and manufacturing towns of these counties, schools are supported with much less difficulty than in the agricultural districts. In Merthyr Tydfil, in Cardiff, in Swansea, in Pembroke-Dock, for instance, large schools exist as a inatter of necessity, and payments are readily obtained, though even there not to the amount which the high rate of wages would justify. To give an instance of the scale of payments found practicable in such places, I will quote that of Swansea, the centre of the copper trade, where the National Schools are based upon the contributions indicated in the subjoined circular :Swansea National, Infant, and Sunday Schools, Oxford Street.

Boys' School.-Scale of Weekly Payments.
Reading, writing on slates, and elementary instruction 2d.
Reading, writing on slates, first four rules of arithmetic,
elements of English grammar, and gergraphy :

3d.
Reading, writing in copy-books, and from dictation, English

grammar, history, geography, and higher branches of
arithmetic

4d.
Girls' School.-Scale of Weekly Payments.
Reading, writing on slates, elementary instruction, and sewing 28.
Reading, ciphering, English grammar, geography, writing in
copy-books, sewing, knitting, and marking:

3d. . Parents are requested to notice that all books, copy-books, slates, pencils, and all materials, are provided for the use of the children without any extra charge. But it is strongly recommended to their parents that boys

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who are fitted for the three higher classes, and girls in the two higher classes, should purchase a set of books and a satchel, so that they may take them home daily. The cost of this will be 58.; and the managers of the schools agree to pay one-half of this sum: the books to be considered the property of the children.

Infants' School. Boys and girls under six years of age are received into this school at 2d. per week. Every additional child in the same family, 1d. per week.

Parents may enter children in these schools every Monday morning. The schools open at nine in the morning, and two in the afternoon; on Sunday at half-past nine in the morning, and half-past two in the afternoon.

In consequence of the great inconvenience and loss of time to the teachers, occasioned by children not bringing their school-money on Monday morning, for the future the rules must be strictly enforced, and children will not be received without their school pence, which is the only security to the teachers that the children have not disposed of it in an improper manner.

A clothing fund is attached to the girls' and also to the infants' school, payments to which are made every Monday afternoon. And the clothes are made up in the school. An Account of the Income and Expenditure of the Swansea National Schools, from their opening (28th August, 1848), to 31st December, 1849. INCOME. £. 6. d.

EXPENDITURE. £. 8, d. Special Grant from the Na.

Ground-rent and Insurance 37 10 tional Society for a New

Salaries of teachers.

271 11 2 School (not renewable). 50 0 0 Books and materials, inEndowment, and dividend

cluding first cost at openon stock invested for the

ing the schools

129 15 2 purchase of site, &c. 66 4 0 H. T. Arnold, Brazier

6 17 0 Annual subscriptions (two

J. M. Ellery, Painter 52 0 0 years)

182 2 10 Benjamin Fitt, Blacksmith 1 17 0 Children's pence

251 12 9 Incidental expenses, viz. :Books sold to the children 17 10 4 Coals, cleaning,

gas, Collections after Annual

school furniture, printSermons, 1849

27 10 0 ing, casual repairs, &c. 56 10 6 Rent of library room, for

Balance of building account upper school, for three

transferred .

13 17 months, to Christmas,

Balance in treasurer's hands 1849.

5 0 0 (to pay sundry outstand-
ing accounts, &c.)

30 17 6

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The schools were founded upon this system by the present vicar of Swansea, the Rev. E. B. Squire, and they are rapidly increasing. At Dowlais, in the same county, where schools are established for that wonderful town, created by the ironworks of Sir John Guest and Co., and where the upper boys' school has no parallel in any of the counties that have yet fallen under my inspection, a certain weekly sum (I believe of 4d.), is deducted from the wages of each working man, and out of this not only are the schools partly supported, but medical advice, and other charitable aids, are given to each person that requires it. Other owners of iron-works in Glamorgan, and the masters of the great copper-works, such as Mr. Vivian,

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