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gentlemen and landowners of his parish ; and out of thirty such applications, he realized a donation of one pound. He has assured me that the religious and political feeling of the district is such as may be justly expected to tally with such a state of things. The great proprietors have never resided in the district: there is in fact no gentleman living in it except himself; there is very little communication kept up with any town except the small metropolis of the county, twelve miles distant, and the ignorance and prejudices of the small freeholders and farmers are great almost beyond precedent. The picture of this parish, which indeed is one of the worst cases of the kind I have met with, will suit, with a few alleviations, the features of many others all throughout these counties; and there is hardly a country incumbent anywhere in my district but who, on reading this statement will be ready to back it by corresponding illustrations drawn from his own knowledge.
On the other hand, I can quote more than one instance in which when, in the course of my duties as Her Majesty's Inspector, I had to examine the accounts of a school, and could not avoid remarking the immense disproportion between the sums received and expended, the latter being in an excess of 401. or 50l. per annum, out of a total of 701. or 801., I made the pleasing discovery that this annual deficiency was made up in a private and unostentatious manner by the regular contributions of two or three, and several times of one munificent person. And I am glad of having an opportunity of testifying that in general the more elevated in rank, and the more distinguished for intellectual culture and eminence the gentlemen of a district may be, so, in almost an invariable proportion, the more generous are their contributions to schools and other local public purposes. Nevertheless, the main observation I have made above still holds good, that the gentry and landowners of these counties do not contribute as they should and could ; and, in my humble opinion, until the contrary can be proved, the representations which have been often made of the necessity that Her Majesty's Government should make some special grant of public funds for the support of schools in the agricultural districts of Wales have a very narrow basis to rest upon. Until a numerously-signed subscription list can be produced by any parish, I do not see the justice of that parish coming forward and pleading inability to support a school.
In some portions of my district I have found the notion subsisting that education ought to be entirely gratuitous, and that, at all events, it was impossible to extract from the poorer and labouring classes of the community any funds for supporting school expenses : in other and more familiar ternis, that the parents of the children were totally unable to pay schoolpence for their education. My own conviction is, that such an
idea is almost always erroneous; and I am further fully per-
tricts, as adopted by the Rev. James Williams, Llanfairynghornwy,
58. per quarter.
2s. 6d. each.
4s. per quarter,
38. each. All above two children
2s, each. Assessed (or Rental) to 101., and under 301.-Handicraftsmen and Tradesmen. For one child
38. per quarter. For two children
28. 6d. each.
Is. 6d. each.
18. 6d. per quarter.
1s, each. All above two children
1s. 6d, each.
If day-labourers or others under 52., a further reduction is made according to circumstances.
A day or two before the commencement of each quarter, tickets of admission for the coming quarter, are issued and paid for according to the above scale.
The tickets are all the same, so that the master knows no difference between the highest and the lowest. He gives a check ticket in return to the parent. The parents, having paid before hand, are more careful to send their children to school than if it were left to an indefinite time. The more destitute are supplied with money to buy tickets.
Mr. Williams informs me that, after an experience of nearly two years, he has found no reason to doubt of the effective working of the above scale; and, in proof of it, gives the following table of attendance and payments :First Quarter, 1848.
First Quarter, 1849.
2 children paid each 5 0
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89 Mr. Williams adds: “Though there may be some trifling difference between the two quarters, it does not arise from any material change of system: I have never heard an objection raised in the parish."
In the district of Llanfairynghornwy there is nothing to distinguish it from many others in the remoter parts of Wales. Wages are not particularly good, and their amount may be judged of from the subjoined remarks of Mr. Williams :
As to the average of labourers' wages, I am the only person in this neighbourhood that employs men without feeding them; and my wages are regularly 88. a-week, summer and winter, without house or any perquisite. At the present moment it may be rather a high average, but it is perhaps the fairest available. The farmers' wages are composed of so many elements, that it is scarcely possible to calculate the sum total; there being taken into account sometimes house, food (viz., one, two, or three meals a-day), firing, hay for the cow, ihe keep of so many sheep, pew in the dissenting chapel, &c. &c. The actual payment in money does not perhaps exceed 38. or 48. a-week.
It should be understood that Llanfairynghornwy is at some distance from any market town, in a retired corner of the island, and far away from any public thoroughfare. Nevertheless here the system of weekly pence is found perfectly practicable, and the school succeeds; whereas, in other part's of the principality, I have met with parishes, in the immediate vicinity of market towns, in rich agricultural districts, and on much-frequented roads, where the wages rarely fall below 128. a-week, and yet where the payment of weekly pence is declared an utter impossibility, and the direct aid of Her Majesty's Government is considered almost indispensable. Again, in most of the schools that have fallen under my inspection in the county of Pembroke, where the rate of wages may certainly be called low, and ranges from 78. 6d. to 8s. per week (the men finding their own food), the payment of weekly pence exists as a matter of course, and is seldom objected to; but in the county of Cardigan, immediately adjoining it to the north, in no way inferior in natural advantages, and where the rate of wages is the same, the payment of weekly pence is firmly believed and asserted to be a burthen too heavy to be borne. In one particular instance of a small town, where wages are rather better than the usual range, it is considered expedient to tempt the parents to send their children to school *by giving them annual gratuities of clothing as a reward for regular attendance. These anomalies, however, will doubtless disappear as years roll on; and I am sanguine enough to look forward to the time when the necessity of maintaining efficient schools, and of properly rewarding the teachers, will be admitted, and acted up to, in every parish of the principality.
In the larger towns, and especially in the mining and manufacturing towns of these counties, schools are supported with much less difficulty than in the agricultural districts. In Merthyr Tydfil, in Cardiff, in Swansea, in Pembroke-Dock, for instance, large schools exist as a inatter of necessity, and payments are readily obtained, though even there not to the amount which the high rate of wages would justify. To give an instance of the scale of payments found practicable in such places, I will quote that of Swansea, the centre of the copper trade, where the National Schools are based upon the contributions indicated in the subjoined circular :Swansea National, Infant, and Sunday Schools, Oxford Street.
Boys' School.-Scale of Weekly Payments.
grammar, history, geography, and higher branches of
3d. . Parents are requested to notice that all books, copy-books, slates, pencils, and all materials, are provided for the use of the children without any extra charge. But it is strongly recommended to their parents that boys
who are fitted for the three higher classes, and girls in the two higher classes, should purchase a set of books and a satchel, so that they may take them home daily. The cost of this will be 58.; and the managers of the schools agree to pay one-half of this sum: the books to be considered the property of the children.
Infants' School. Boys and girls under six years of age are received into this school at 2d. per week. Every additional child in the same family, 1d. per week.
Parents may enter children in these schools every Monday morning. The schools open at nine in the morning, and two in the afternoon; on Sunday at half-past nine in the morning, and half-past two in the afternoon.
In consequence of the great inconvenience and loss of time to the teachers, occasioned by children not bringing their school-money on Monday morning, for the future the rules must be strictly enforced, and children will not be received without their school pence, which is the only security to the teachers that the children have not disposed of it in an improper manner.
A clothing fund is attached to the girls' and also to the infants' school, payments to which are made every Monday afternoon. And the clothes are made up in the school. An Account of the Income and Expenditure of the Swansea National Schools, from their opening (28th August, 1848), to 31st December, 1849. INCOME. £. 6. d.
EXPENDITURE. £. 8, d. Special Grant from the Na.
Ground-rent and Insurance 37 10 tional Society for a New
Salaries of teachers.
271 11 2 School (not renewable). 50 0 0 Books and materials, inEndowment, and dividend
cluding first cost at openon stock invested for the
ing the schools
129 15 2 purchase of site, &c. 66 4 0 H. T. Arnold, Brazier
6 17 0 Annual subscriptions (two
J. M. Ellery, Painter 52 0 0 years)
182 2 10 Benjamin Fitt, Blacksmith 1 17 0 Children's pence
251 12 9 Incidental expenses, viz. :Books sold to the children 17 10 4 Coals, cleaning,
gas, Collections after Annual
school furniture, printSermons, 1849
27 10 0 ing, casual repairs, &c. 56 10 6 Rent of library room, for
Balance of building account upper school, for three
13 17 months, to Christmas,
Balance in treasurer's hands 1849.
5 0 0 (to pay sundry outstand-
30 17 6
The schools were founded upon this system by the present vicar of Swansea, the Rev. E. B. Squire, and they are rapidly increasing. At Dowlais, in the same county, where schools are established for that wonderful town, created by the ironworks of Sir John Guest and Co., and where the upper boys' school has no parallel in any of the counties that have yet fallen under my inspection, a certain weekly sum (I believe of 4d.), is deducted from the wages of each working man, and out of this not only are the schools partly supported, but medical advice, and other charitable aids, are given to each person that requires it. Other owners of iron-works in Glamorgan, and the masters of the great copper-works, such as Mr. Vivian,