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character of her sons, springing in part at least, from her Collegiate system, the character of her studies, and the uprightness of her administration, producing in return confidence and goodwill on the part of those committed to her care. In all her members she believes that she possesses a body of men who, strong in their historical remembrances, cling to what is truly good, would seek for no needless change, and would admit of no change which had not the fair promise of scientific, moral, and religious benefit." (Report, Cambridge University Commission, pp. 2, 23, 24, 202.)
1647. The Right Honourable JOHN, LORD CRAVEN, of Riton, vested certain estates in the hands of six trustees to found two Classical Scholarships, each of £25 per annum. In case of a vacancy, any undergraduate may become a candidate, and the successful candidate may retain his Scholarship till he is of fourteen years standing in the University, unless, in the mean while, he obtain preferment of double the annual value of the Scholarship.
It is provided by the will of the founder that if any one of his name or kindred should be in indigent circumstances, and a student in the University, such a person is to be preferred to other candidates.
By a decree of the Court of Chancery, in 1819, in consequence of the increase of the rents of the estates, the income of the Scholars was augmented to £50 per annum each, and three additional Scholarships were founded, under the same regulations as the preceding, except that they cannot be held for more than seven years. By another decree of the Court of Chancery, in 1841, the value of these Scholarships was further augmented to £75 per annum.
1657. The Right Honourable ELIZABETH, VISCOUNTESS LUMLEY, by deed left to Trustees, certain estates, from the rents of which they should pay yearly to ten poor Scholars, at Oxford and Cambridge, the sum of £4 each, until they should have time to become graduates.
These Exhibitioners are nominated by the Convocations of each University, and a preference is given to Scholars educated
at the Free Grammar School at Thornton, and in default of such candidates, to any poor Scholars.
These Exhibitions have been reduced to five; and by an order of the Court of Chancery, in 1820, the value of each was raised to £15 per annum.
1724. His Majesty KING GEORGE THE FIRST, in a letter to the Senate of the University of Cambridge, after stating that " opportunities are frequently lost to the Crown of employing and encouraging members of the two Universities, by conferring on them such employments, both at home and abroad, as necessarily require a competent skill in writing and speaking the modern languages,” declares his royal intention to found a Professorship of Modern History, and twenty Scholarships. His Majesty also directed that the Professor shall appoint two teachers of modern languages, and concludes by ordering that “the Professor and teachers shall be obliged, once every year, to transmit an attested account of the progress made by each scholar committed to their care, to our principal Secretaries of State, to be laid before us, that we may encourage the diligence and application of such among them as shall have qualified themselves for our service, by giving them suitable employments, either at home or abroad, as occasion shall offer."
By letters patent, of date 28 Sept., 1724, his Majesty founded the Professorship, and endowed it with a stipend of £400 a year, charged on the Civil List: and by two instruments under the sign manual of his Majesty, dated 27 Feb., 1724-5, and 31 May, 1725, in one fifteen and in the other five Scholars were nominated for the studying of Modern History, and the learning of Modern Languages, in the University of Cambridge.
On the accession of Her Majesty, the Civil List was relieved from the charge for the Professorship. Parliament has since granted £371. 88. yearly for the maintenance of the office. In point of law, Sir James Stephen remarks, that if Parliament should at any time withhold the annual grant, the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury might, by process of law, be compelled to make the payment, to the amount for which the revenues of the crown were pledged by King George I.
1746. WILLIAM BATTIE, M.D., Fellow of King's College,
in consideration of his having formerly enjoyed the benefit of one of Lord Craven's Exhibitions, left an estate to found an University Scholarship for the encouragement of Classical Literature. Its present value is between £20 and £35 per annum. Candidates must be under three years' standing in the University, and the successful candidate may retain his Scholarship till he is of nine years' standing, unless within that time he shall have obtained any ecclesiastical benefice or preferment. There are certain conditions connected with the tenure of this Scholarship.
In 1749, the Rev. THOMAS SEATON, M.A., late Fellow of Clare Hall, bequeathed to the University the rents of his estate at Kislingbury, to be given yearly, without restriction, to that Master of Arts who should write the best English Poem, on a subject which shall be judged by the Vice-Chancellor, the Master of Clare Hall, and the Regius Professor of Greek, "to be most conducive to the honour of the Supreme Being and the recommendation of virtue." The successful candidate is required to print and publish his Prize Poem.
In 1796 the estate produced £16 per annum. In 1811 the premium was £40: and in 1831 and 1838, premiums of £100 each were adjudged for this Exercise.
The following subjects have been proposed for this Prize:
1750 The Eternity of the Supreme
1778 The Nativity.
1780 The Ascension.
1781 The Destruction of Jerusalem by
1751. His Grace THOMAS HOLLES, Duke of Newcastle, then Chancellor of the University, gave annually two Gold Medals, each of the value of fifteen guineas, to two commencing Bachelors of Arts, who not having been lower than Senior Optimes, have shewn themselves the greatest proficients, after examination, in Classical Learning. His Grace continued his
gift yearly until his death in 1768, and succeeding Chancellors have ever since followed his noble example.
1752. The Honourable EDWARD FINCH and the Honourable THOMAS TOWNSHEND, then Members of Parliament for the University, gave yearly four prizes, of fifteen guineas each, to two senior and two junior Bachelors of Arts, who shall compose the best Dissertations in Latin Prose, to be recited publicly on a day to be appointed near the Commencement. These prizes have been given annually ever since by the late and present Members for the time being, of the University.
In 1826, these Prizes, called "The Members' Prizes," were
modified. It was then arranged that in future two of them should be open to all Bachelors of Arts who are not of sufficient standing to be admitted to the degree of M.A., and the other two to undergraduates who may have resided not less than seven terms at the time when the Exercises are required to be sent in to the Vice-Chancellor.
The following subjects have been proposed for these prizes ; the first for the Senior and the second for the Middle Bachelors in each year until 1827; and after that year the first for the Bachelors and the second for Undergraduates. 1753 Examen vitæ et philosophiæ M. Bruti, præcipue habita ratione carminum
quæ moriturus recitavit :
Ω τλήμον αρετή, λόγος άρ' ησθ' · εγώ δε σε
Ως έργον ήσκουν: συ δ' άρ' εδούλευες τύχη. (Senior Bachelors.) Quod Ratio docet, idem testatur Historia, 'veram Gloriam nisi ope Virtutis
comparari non posse.” (Middle Bachelors.) 1754 Athenis et Roma inter se collatis, exquirendum est, quodnam adjumenti
singulæ artes acceperint ex ipsis iinperii formis in iis urbibus consti
tutis. (S. B.)
Enarratio, et comparatio, doctrinarum moralium Epicuri et Stoicorum. (M. B.) 1755 Utrum Veteris Comædiæ apud Athenienses licentia magis ad emendandos
mores, an corrumpendos, contulerit? (S. B.) Utrum Leges Solonis an Lycurgi magis tam ad singulorum virtutem, quam ad
Reipublicæ honorem et emolumentum, contulerint? (M. B.) 1756 Quidnam adjumenti ab institutis Christianis Morales Ethnicorum Doctrinæ
acceperint? (S. B.) Quousque Romanorum depravati mores ad labefactandam et evertendam
Rempublicam valuerint? (M. B.) 1757 Utrum liceat Civi bono, Republica in partes divisa, neutris se adjungere?
Utrum Historias legentibus emendentur magis, an corrumpantur, Mores ? 1758 Utrum summa hominum felicitas juxta Epicurum, in Sensuum delectationibus
præcipue ponatur? (S. B.) Utrum diversarum gentium mores et instituta a diverso earum Situ explicari
possint? (M. B.) 1759 Pro Socrate, ad populum Atheniensem, Oratio. (S. B.),
Utrum in bene constitutam civitatem Ludi Scenici admitti debeant? (M. B.) 1760 Qualis fuerit in Academia Veteri et Nova philosophandi ratio, et quænam sit
ad verum exquirendum accommodatior ? (S. B.)
Utrum, quo auctior sit hominum Eruditio, eo magis corrumpantur mores? 1761 Utrum sit præstantius nova invenire, an inventis cultum addere et ornatum?
Utrum boni plus, an mali, reportent fere qui peregrinantur adolescentuli? 1762 Num credibile videatur populum Romanum magis sub Pompeio, quam sub
Cæsare Victore fore liberum? (S. B.)
Utrum Virtus magis emineat in rebus secundis, an in adversis? (M. B.) 1763 Utrum institutio Civilis Societatis ad humani generis felicitatem contulerit?
Quænam commoda Reipublicæ ex artium liberalium cultura proveniant? 1764 Examen Philosophiæ M. T. Ciceronis. (S. B.)
Quibus Modis institui debeat ad exteras regiones Peregrinatio? (M. B.) 1765 Vtrum civitati perniciosior sit Epicuri, an Zenonis, Philosophia ? (S. B.)
Quomodo intelligendum sit effatum illud, Recte fit quodcunque evenit?
(M. B.) 1766 Quomodo vera Historia a falsa distingui possit? (S. B.)
Post mortem Julii Cæsaris, a quibusnam stare partibus civem Romanum opor
tuerit? (M. B.) 1767 Utrum Censoris Romani disciplina Reipublicæ utilis fuerit? (S. B.)
Utrum possessorem bearint sæpius, an perdiderint, Divitiæ? (M. B.) 1768 Quidnam causa fuerit, quare Gentes Septentrionales homicidia olim compensa
verint pecunia; apud hodiernas autem leviora crimina morte et suppliciis
crudelissimis puniantur? (S. B.) Utrum Societatis, nuper institutæ ad promovendas Artes et Commercia, mag
nos artifices et commercia effecerint? (M. B.)