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He also founded four Bye-fellowships, each of £16 a year with a preference to such as have held the Parke Scholarships if such scholars be found qualified in learning and morals. The election to these fellowships rests with the College and the heir male of Archbishop Sandys.
1661. Mr Woodward, gent. of Bedfordshire, founded two Scholarships, each of £10 a year, and tenable till B.A.
1662. Bernard Hale, D.D. Master of the College, devised his lands &c. by will upon trust, that out of the rents and profits, besides other uses, seven Scholars should be maintained for ever in the College of St Peter at Cambridge, and each be allowed 20 marks per annum, so that every year for ever, one of them should proceed to the degree of Master of Arts, and that every year for ever one scholar fitly qualified should be elected from the free-school of Hertford, of his grandfather's foundation there, and that his heir-at-law should have the nomination of the scholars. In the case of no fit scholar from the Hertford school, his heir was left free to choose the best grammar scholar he could find elsewhere: and in failure of this, he willed that the Master of the College should choose, either in the College, or in the University, the best scholar he could get to accept of the vacant scholarship.
He likewise ordered that when the surplus of the rents might amount to any considerable sum, additional scholarships should be founded. These scholarships, now 25 in number, are in the patronage of Viscountess Palmerston.
He directed also that once every year a dinner of £5 should be provided at Cambridge, at which his heir-at-law, or some one by his appointment, with the Master and two deans of the College, and such as they should invite, might be present; and at that time he desired it might be examined what proficiency the said scholars had made in their learning.
1669. John Cosin, D.D. formerly Master of the College, and Bishop of Durham, founded five Scholarships, of the value of £10 each per annum, for students from the grammar-school at Durham, and in failure, from that at Northallerton, or Norwich.
1683. Thomas Miller, Esq. gave lands at Brampton and Barham in the county of Huntingdon, the rents of which (about
£20 a year) he designed "for maintaining a scholar at Peterhouse, from the time of his admittance until he commences M.A." He directed that a student from the grammar-school of Huntingdon should have the preference when a vacancy occurs: but if there be no scholar duly qualified, one shall be appointed by the Master and Fellows.
John Worthington, Esq., founded one Scholarship, about £7 per annum.
1824. The Rev. Francis Gisborne, M.A. formerly Fellow, anonymously gave £20,000 to the College to be disposed of as the Master and Fellows should deem best. From this fund, a new Court, called "the Gisborne Court," has been added to the College. Four Scholarships have been founded from this fund, each of the clear value of £30 a year without any deductions for non-residence, and tenable till B.A.
There have also been founded two Bye-fellowships which are tenable for seven years, but are vacated by marriage, or by the possession of property of £250 a year. The annual value of these fellowships is under £70 a year, but the College has raised them to that sum out of funds which would be otherwise wholly appropriated to the Master and Fellows.
Dr Fuller, in his History of Cambridge, speaking of Peterhouse, observes, "I cannot but commend one peculiar feature of this College, in preserving the pictures of all the principal benefactors in their parlour. For, though the bounty of the judicious is grounded on more solid motives than to be flattered by the fancy, that their effigy should be kept; yet such an ingenious memorial may be an encouragement to a patron's liberality." 1854. The present society consists of the Master, fourteen foundation Fellows, and ten Bye-fellows, there being no foundation Scholars.
The foundation fellowships are open without any restriction to persons born in Great Britain and Ireland, or in any of the British Colonies. Formerly, they were restricted to seven persons born in the Northern division of England, and seven in the Southern, of whom not more than two fellows might be natives of the same county (Cambridge and Middlesex excepted). This restriction, on the petition of the Visitor and
the College, was removed by Royal Letters Patent in the sixtl year of William IV. and it was decreed after the expiration o four years, "That no more than one third part of the fellow ships shall at any one time be filled by natives of the same county." In the first year of her Majesty Queen Victoria, Letters Patent were granted on the petition of the College, for the removal of all restrictions with respect to the place of nativity of the candidates for fellowships, the petitioners believing such to have been the intention of the Founder of the College. By these letters patent the fellowships were opened to free competition in 1839.
When a vacancy occurs, a fellow is elected from the scholars under the standing of M.A. by the Master and Fellows, and after a year of probation, if no complaint is made against him, he is instituted by the Bishop of Ely. The Master and Fellows are bound by the oath of obedience to the College Statutes, to select for the vacant fellowship an indigent person, who possesses moral and intellectual eminence. The Statutes enjoin that a fourth part of the fellows shall be in holy orders. A fellowship is vacated by marriage, or by the possession of a living estimated in the king's books at £5 a year, or a pension of the same amount.
The stipends of the Master and Fellows are not fixed by the Statutes, but it is directed that the annual income of the College shall be divided equally among them. The income of the Master has been augmented by various private benefactions since the Statutes were given. The average annual dividend for the seven years ending 1851 received by a foundation fellow was £258. Os. 5d., the rent of rooms being included, and income-tax deducted. Each of the eight senior foundation fellows received a small additional sum, varying in their respective cases, from £1. 18s. Od. to £6. 16s. 2d. income-tax being deducted.
The bye-fellowships are open and unrestricted, but these fellows have no voice in the affairs of the College, and like all other members, are under the general authority of the Statutes.
The several fellowships on two of the bye-foundations are fixed in yearly value; those on the other two are not so fixed,
A considerable increase has taken place in modern times, in the annual rental of the estates belonging to one of the two latter foundations, and a proportionate increase has accordingly been made in the yearly stipends of the bye-fellowships attached to it. Each of the bye-fellows on the Parke foundation, receives weekly £1. 14s. ; on the Ramsey, 58. 63d. ; on the Perne, 4s. 71d., subject to deduction for non-residence exceeding three months in the year.
The scholars on the several bye-foundations receive respectively sums varying from 1s. to 5s. 11d. per week, subject to deductions for non-residence. Almost all the scholarships are fixed in yearly value by the terms of the respective foundations.
The vacant scholarships are filled up from the most distinguished students at the College examination at the division of the Easter Term.
A very deserving candidate may be elected to more scholarships than one at the end of his first year, and if he continue to be deserving, to other scholarships after the examinations at the end of his second and third year of residence.
Four sizars are admitted, one every year, a freshman, after an examination in Classics and Mathematics in October. Each sizar is permitted to dine with the other undergraduates in hall free from expense, except in the long vacation. One of the sizars holds the office of chapel-clerk, the emoluments of which are about £20 a year.
The College from its funds expends annually about 20 guineas in books as prizes for the most distinguished students in Classics and Mathematics at the annual examination. There is also one prize given for Classical composition and one for Divinity. The average annual amount given for prizes in the seven years ending 1851 was £23. 48. 8d.
The Ecclesiastical Patronage of the College consists of the right of presentation to eleven church-livings.
The College also appoints a Master to the Grammar-school of Drighlington, in Yorkshire.
The total aggregate of gross income on an average of seven years ending in 1851, was about £7317. 38. ; that of the net income about £5923. 14s. 4d.
FOUNDED 1326, A.D.
THIS College had its origin from RICHARD DE BADEW, Chancellor of the University in 1326. He built a small Hostel, which he called University Hall, and appointed a Principal, under whom some scholars, called Pensioners, lived at their own expense. University Hall continued in this state without endowment for sixteen years, when it was accidentally destroyed by fire. Dr Badew being unable to undertake the restoration, appplied to the Lady ELIZABETH, co-heiress to Gilbert, Earl of Clare, widow of John de Burgh, Lord of Connaught, and mother of William de Burgh, last Earl of Ulster, by whose munificence the College was rebuilt and endowed, and thenceforth called after her own name.
1359. The Foundress, according to the ancient Statutes*, which bear the date of this year, designed that there should be 20 Fellows and Scholars including the Master, and 10 poor Scholars, besides servants, and that the number of fellows and scholars might be increased when the revenues of the College became augmented. It would appear that the number of fellows and scholars appointed at first did not amount to that number.
• The design and object of the noble Foundress appears from the following extract from the ancient statutes:
Cupientes igitur, hac consideratione inductæ ad augmentum cultus Divini, reique publicæ commodum, et profectum hujusmodi scientiam quæ (morsu pestilentiæ sublata multitudine hominum) hominibus lamentabiliter deficere jam incipit, in quantum nobis Deus dedit, propagare, ad Universitatem Cantabrigiæ Eliensi Diœcesi, in qua est Congregatio Studentium, convertentes oculos mentis nostræ, et Aulam inibi existentem; Aulam Universitatis communiter hactenus nominatam, quæ de nostra fundatione jam existit, et quam Domum de Clare et non aliter volumus perpetuis temporibus nuncupari in Facultatibus de bonis nostris a Deo datis, et in numero Studentium fecimus ampliari, ut pretiosa Scientiæ Margarita ab eis studio et doctrina in dicta Universitate inventa et etiam acquisita, non sub modio lateat, sed ulterius divulgetur, lucemque præbeat, divulgata iis qui ambulant in semitis Ignorantiæ tenebrosis; et ut Scholares in dicta Domo nostra antea com morantes, sub firmioris pacis tutela et concordiæ commodo valeant studio liberius indulgere; quædam statuta et ordinationes de consilio peritorum fecimus infra scripta perpetuis temporibus duratura."