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1503. Thomas Willows, of Cambridge, glover, on the 12th c Aug., gave five marks per annum, a rent charge issuing out o Newnham Mill, and all his lands in Teversham, Ditton, Ful bourn, and Hinton, in Cambridgeshire, for seven marks stipend and one mark for a gown, for a Fellow, to be a priest, out o any place or county; and £2 per annum for a Divinity Lec turer or Bible-clerk; all these lands then worth £4 pe
1507. William Sigo, Professor of Grammar, and sometim fellow of the College, gave, June 12, for the stipend of on Scholar, of the diocese of Norwich, his house at the Castle End, in Cambridge, called the Maid's Head, and his lands in the fields of Cambridge, Chesterton, Histon, Girton, and Colton then £1 per annum.
1534. John Bayly, Doctor of Divinity, gave to the College, £300 and upwards; with £200 thereof were bought the lands in Haddenham, in the Isle of Ely, Feb. 20, of William Buckenham, then Master of the College; all which lands in Haddenham, Wilton, Sutton, Streatham, and Whittilisforth, alias Whichford, in the Isle of Ely, with their appurtenances, and his house in the parish of St Edward, in Cambridge, against the Pease Market Hill, this Dr Bayly gave to the maintenance of a Fellow, Student in Physic or Divinity, not to be a priest, unless he would, and of any place or county.
1540. Thomas Atkin, Vicar of Mutford, and Margery Hore, of the same town, gave to the College £48 each, to buy lands of the yearly value of £4. The same Thomas also gave Pain's Close, in Worlingham, in Suffolk, of the yearly value of 40s., for stipends for three Scholars of the diocese of Norwich, 35s. per annum. They are to be chosen by the Master and two Senior Fellows. The lands which were bought in Cowling and Kirtling, in Suffolk and Cambridgeshire, were worth £4 per annum.
1540. The Rev. William Gale, Clerk, of Eye, in Suffolk, gave the manor of Brandstedes, for a Priest and two Scholars; and other lands there bought with Elizabeth Clere's money, and some part of the price of the lands which the College had and sold in Cawston, in all to the yearly value of £16 together.
The said W. Gale gave lands in Hinxton, in Cambridgeshire, which were sold by Dr Skip, Master of the College, who was compelled by the power of Edward North, Chancellor of the Court of Augmentations and Revenues of the Crown, (soon after Lord North, of Kirtling), to sell them for £300, who with that money bought the manor of Aynell's, in Bedfordshire, then £14 per annum; from whence there is but one Scholar, by the name of Gale's Scholar, paid 40s. per annum.
1546. The annual revenue of Gonville Hall, as reported by the Commissioners in the 37th year of King Henry VIII, was £119. 19s. 5}d.
1558. Thomas Wendy, M.D., President of the College, and physician to Henry VIII. and the four following sovereigns, founded the first Bye-fellowship, and endowed it with a rentcharge on the rectory of Haslingfield. In 1609 it was found that no annuity had been paid according to Dr Wendy's will for 38 years, when the arrears amounted to £380. The College and his heir came to an agreement, that the rectory should be discharged of the rent-charge, and the whole debt remitted, and that he and his heirs should pay for ever, yearly, 20 marks out of his lands at Barrington, whereof £10 should be paid to a Fellow.
At Dr Wendy's Commemoration, every year on May 11, a speech is delivered, called the Thruston speech, on the progress of Medicine since the time of Dr Caius. The speaker is chosen by the Master and Fellows out of the medical graduates, and receives £18; the appointment being made in rotation according to seniority among the Doctors of Medicine. If there be none of that degree who has not had the appointment, it is given to the Licentiate or Bachelor in Medicine, who presents the best English Essay on a medical subject, proposed by the College in the preceding October.
1558. Until this year the College or Hall of Gonville had never been incorporated, and yet was supposed to be a corporation, even by the Master and Fellows at that time; whereas the College was only incorporated by Bishop Bateman's power, and confirmed by the Chancellor of the University and Bishop of Ely, which without letters patent under the great seal of
England, gave them no legal title to be an incorporation o body politic. In 1557, John Caius, Doctor of Physic, born i Norwich, and sometime Fellow of the College, upon petition of the Master and Fellows, preferred to the King and Queen obtained a charter of foundation, as well as a confirmation of al the rights, estates, and privileges they formerly enjoyed; by which charter he himself was made a founder, and added to Gonville and Bateman, and had leave to appoint rules and statutes for the Master, Fellows, and Scholars to observe and keep, provided they were not repugnant to the statutes of Bishop Bateman, or any way encroaching upon the Queen's prerogative, or that of her successors. By the charter, he had licence to found two Fellows or more and twelve Scholars or more, and also that the College should be incorporated by the name of The Master and Fellows of Gonville and Caius College, founded in honour of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary. On the Feast of the Annunciation, 1558, Dr Caius dedicated the College, and greatly added to its endowments*.
It appears that Dr Caius was very decidedly opposed to the innovations introduced by Sir Thomas Smith, the Regius Professor of Greek, and Sir John Cheke, his successor, in their attempts to reform the corrupt pronunciation of the Greek language which prevailed at that time in the University. Dr Caius was not only an eminent physician, but also one of the most learned men of his time, as his numerous writings on various subjects evince. It may also be remarked, that in the buildings which he added to the College, he designed that the gates should read a lecture on morality to such as go through them, and that the student might be reminded that the road to the gate of Honour opens at the gate of Humility and passes through the gate of Virtue and Wisdom. Opposite to St Michael's church, on the eastern side of the College, the entrance is by a small low gateway, which is inscribed with the word HUMILITATIS. In a direct line from the gate of Humility stands the gate of Virtue, a lofty and spacious portico, on the eastern side of which is inscribed the word VIRTUTIS, and on the western side Jo. CAIUS POSUIT SAPIENTIÆ, 1567. Passing through the gateway of Virtue and Wisdom into the Caius Court, on the south side of it, near the Public Schools, stands the third gate, an exquisite and elaborate piece of architecture, inscribed with the word HONORIS,-a distinction which in those early times, it was supposed, had been attained by all who passed through this gate to take their degree.
It is a singular phenomenon to find so distinguished a man putting forth all his power to impede the progress of the new learning. He had travelled much and had read lectures on the Greek language in Italy, and he seems to have believed that the then current pronunciation in those countries was the correct one. In the twenty-first section of the Statutes of Gonville and Caius College, which were confirmed by Queen Mary, Dr Caius exercises his authority, and decrees that the Master, and all the
Dr Caius founded and endowed with 8 marks apiece, and £1. 68. 8d. for livery or dress, one Fellowship for a Student in
fellows and scholars, shall keep the old method of pronunciation, which he declares "neque obsoleta est, neque privati alicujus hominis opinione nuper nata et suscepta est:" in these words alluding to the efforts made to restore the correct pronunciation of Greek in the University. In addition to this exercise of authority, Dr Caius also attempted to oppose the new learning by argument in a tract of 23 pages, entitled, “De Pronunciatione Græcæ et Latinæ Linguæ, cum Scriptione nova." The following selected passages may, as a literary curiosity, interest the classical scholar, as shewing the weight of the arguments he could produce, and how far they are apt and pertinent to the question.
"Sic tamen hæc refero, ut eos propter literas aliasque virtutes vehementer amem et suspiciam: propter hæc vero laudem minime. Cujus rei alioqui certe me cepisset admiratio, cum et Plautus scribat in Casina, vetera novis meliora, ideoque sapientiores esse qui utuntur vino veteri, quam qui novo: qui veteres spectant fabulas, quam qui novas: qui vetera atque verba, quam qui nova : qui usitata, quam qui insueta: qui veteres comœdias, quam qui novas: qui veteri denique nummo, quam nuper nato. Thus quoque vetus novo odoratius esse, proverbio celebratur, usque adeo ut idem, rem malam, sed notam et usitatam, optimam esse dicat in Trinummo. Nam quæ nova sunt, etsi optima, tamen propter insolentiam videntur pessima, et fieri potest ut usu experiaris talia cum periculo, cum declinare non sit futurum integrum......." "Quid solus ergo contendis? Si irrident quid pergis delirare? Quid solus sapis? Sed author es ejus rei. O gloriosam rem, inventorem esse inanium rerum? tranquillitatis literariæ perturbatorem esse? quem nec Galli, nec Itali, nec ipsi Græci commendant: nec alius quisquam præter imperitum rerum juvenem aut temerarium adolescentem, cui istam persuasionem in principio per fraudem instillaveris alioqui non probaturo, imponens imperitæ turbæ adolescentum, cui vix literæ sunt, et multo minus judicium. De qua re tamen multum forsan gloriaberis tanquam in re prudenter gesta. Jam vero si magna res non sit utro modo pronuncies, cur interturbas omnia? Cur non intermittis quod leve est, potius quam castigari graviter? Si sonus (res inanis) hujus aut illius literæ mulctam indictam habet grandem, cui non inanitatem potius contemnis, quam in mulctam incidas? Levissimis rebus gravissimas indicere pœnas æquum est, non propter magnitudinem rei quæ levis est, sed propter violatum in republica ordinem receptum jam et confirmatum, propter contemptum, propter novitatis exemplum, et propter temerarium in ea ausum.......”
"Non est tamen tam stupidus quisquam, aut impudens et insulsus rei alicujus novæ author, qui non sit habiturus suæ stultitiæ fautores et sectatores, vel homines adolescentes, vel stultam plebeculam: at gravem virum cui sit judicium, ne unum quidem. Nisi si forte ingenii sui ostentandi causa hoc fuerint, ut Isocrates laudando Busyrim, Libanius Thersitem, Lucianus Muscam, Quartanam Favorinus, Calviciem Synesius Cyrenensis, Comam Dion, Chrysostomus, et nostri sæculi Cornelius Agrippa scribendo de vanitate scientiarum libellum: Copernicus de motu terræ et statione cœli volumen: et Erasmus Rhoterodamus de febre et Phalarismo libellos......."
In taking this course, Dr Caius was only acting in obedience to the express commands of the highest authority in the University. The dangerous innovations of Sir John Cheke, in 1542, while Regius Professor of Greek, had so alarmed the de fenders of the old learning as to induce them to request the interference of the Chancellor, who put forth all his power and authority to stop the progress of these alarming innovations in learning. The Chancellor in consequence issued a decree, (its tone and
Theology, and two for Students in Medicine, natives of Norwi or Norfolk. He founded also twenty Scholarships, of whi
language not unlike that of the Papal Bull which Cardinal Wiseman brought to t country in 1851), in which he proclaims-" Of all who acknowledge my authority, none dare to give sounds according to his own private judgment, different from custom of the present age, to letters either Greek or Latin ;" and further on he co mands-"Express the Greek letters n, i, v, by one and the same sound." And agai "in short, let no one philosophise at all in sounds," &c. But instead of quoting m passages, we subjoin a copy of this extraordinary decree of Stephen Gardiner, LL. Lord Bishop of Winchester and Chancellor of the University of Cambridge.
Edicta Stephani Vintoniensis Episcopi, Cancellarii Cantab. de Pronuntiatione linguæ Græcæ et Latinæ.
Stephanus Vintoniensis Episcopus, Academiæ Cantabrigiensis Cancellarius, cu mea, tum senatus universi auctoritate legitima, rogatione ad me delata, quid literarum sonis ac linguæ tum Græcæ tum Latinæ pronuntiatione spectandur sequendum, tenendum sit, ita edico.
'Quisquis nostram potestatem agnoscis, sonos literis sive Græcis sive Latinis a usu publico præsentis seculi alienos, privato judicio affingere ne audeto.
'Quod vero ea in re major auctoritas edixerit, jusserit, præceperit, id omnes an plectuntor, et observanto.
"Diphthongos Græcas, nedum Latinas, nisi id diæresis exigat, sonis ne diducit neve divellito: quæsitam usu alteri vocalium prærogativam ne adimito, sed marem fœminæ dominari sinito, quæ vero earum in communionem sonj us convenerunt, iis tu negotium ne facessito.
"Ai ab e, oi et ec ab sono ne distinguito, tantum in orthographia discrime servato, ni v uno eodemque sono exprimito: cujusque tamen propriam in ortho graphia sedem diligenter notato.
"In x et y quoties cum diphthongis aut vocalibus sonos aut e referentibus con sonantur, quoniam a doctis etiamnum in usu variantur, aliis densiorem, aliis tenuiorem sonum affingentibus, utriusque pronuntiationis modum discito, ne aut horum aut illorum aures offendas, neve de sonis litem inutiliter excites: cæterum qui in his sonus a pluribus receptus est, illum frequentato.
"B literam ad exemplum nostri b ne inspissato, sed ad imitationem v consonantis mollius proferto.
"Literas et T, item y et κ, pro loco et situ alios atque alios sonos admittere memento. Itaque r et π tum demum ß quum proxime locantur, hæc post μ, illa post v, his locis videlicet litera & referat nostrum d, π vero b nostrum exprimat.
"Litera porro y cum proxima sedem occupet ante xx, aut aliud y, huic tu non suum, sed sonum v literæ accommodato, « autem post y positæ sonum y affingito. "Ne multa. In sonis omnino ne philosophator, sed utitor præsentibus. In his si quid emendandum sit, id omne autoritati permittito. Publice vero profiteri quod ab autoritate sancita diversum, et consuetudine loquendi recepta alienum sit, nefas esto.
"Quod hic exprimitur, id consuetudini consentaneum ducito, hactenusque pareto.
"Si quis autem, quod abominor, secus fecerit, et de sonis, re sane (si ipsam spectes) levicula, si contentionis inde natæ indignitatem, non ferenda: controversiam publice moverit, aut obstinato animi proposito receptum a plerisque omnibus sono