« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
having been increased from the funds of the College, forms Divinity Prize of £21, and is open every two years to Bachelo of Arts.
1854. The present society consists of the master and 16 fou dation fellows, besides three bye-fellows. With the excepti of the fellow appointed by the Bishop of Ely, all the fellowshi and foundation scholarships are open to all Her Majesty's su jects, without any restriction or appropriation whatever. C the occasion of a vacancy in a foundation fellowship, th master and fellows nominate two candidates, and the Bisho of Ely elects one of them to fill the vacant fellowship.
The scholars are generally elected from those students wh most distinguish themselves at the annual College examinatio which takes place at the division of the Easter Term, Th foundation scholars are allowed their commons free durin residence.
All the scholarships and exhibitions, except the Rusta scholarships, are freely open to competition, when properly qualified candidates are not found among those students to whom such scholarships and exhibitions are, in the first place restricted.
In addition to the Scholarships and Exhibitions, prizes of books are given to the most distinguished students of each year in Classics and Mathematics at the College examination.
Two prizes of books, each of the value of 3 guineas, are awarded by the College, for the best Latin and the best English Declamations.
The ecclesiastical patronage of the College consists of the right of presentation to 16 Church livings.
FOUNDED 1505, A.D.
THIS College received its first Charters and endowment from KING HENRY VI; but owes its present foundation to the pious munificence of the LADY MARGARET, COUNTESS OF RICHMOND and DERBY, mother of King Henry VII.
In or about the year 1439, William Byngham, parson of St John Zachary in London, petitioned King Henry VI. in favour of his grammar scholars, for whom he had erected a house, called GOD'S HOUSE, adjacent to Clare Hall; and three years later he obtained a Royal Charter of incorporation for the same. The site being subsequently required for King's College, which the King was about to found, God's House was removed, A.D. 1446, to St Andrew's Street (then called Preacher Street), where Christ's College now stands; and in 1448, the King granted to it a new Charter, with certain property, taking upon himself (on William Byngham's earnest entreaty) the character of founder, and designing to give sufficient endowment for the maintenance of a proctor and scholars,-in all sixty persons. The revenues actually granted, however, only sufficed for a proctor and four scholars.
In the year 1505, the Lady Margaret, being desirous of completing the College according to the intentions of Henry VI, obtained from the King, her son, a new Charter for a master and scholars, not exceeding sixty persons, under the authority of which she granted liberal endowments for the maintenance of the same, and changed the name of God's House into Christ's College. The letters patent, bearing date May 1, 20 Hen. VII. recognise the Lady Margaret as the foundress, and incorporate the Society under the title of "The Master or Keeper and Scholars of Christ's College, in the University of Cambridge, by Henry VI, King of England first begun, and after his decease augmented, finished, and established by Margaret, Countess of Richmond and Derby, mother of King Henry VII."
* On the occasion of the opening of Christ's College. "Anno Domini 1507, erat Commessatio solennis Cantabriggia in Ecclesia Fratrum Minorum præsente illustrissimo Henrico Septimo, cum Principe Walliæ Henrico filio suo cum Regina matre
The Foundress gave Statutes for the government of the Co lege, bearing the date of 1506, A.D., which open with th dedication: "Ad Honorem Christi Jesu, et fidei ejus incr mentum."
The statutes prescribe that there shall be a Master, twelv Fellows, and forty-seven Scholars on the foundation, but tha other students (Pensionarii), studious and of good morals, ma be admitted to the College.
The fellows are elected by the master and fellows.
When a vacancy occurs, an election is to be made from th scholars of the College, if that can conveniently be done; if not from others in the University: provided always that the person chosen be from the more virtuous, more learned, and poore sort. At the time of election, the fellow must be M.A., or B.A at least, of whom there is good hope that he will in time be come a learned and virtuous man; and must, if not already, be in priest's orders within one year after his admission.
Those candidates for fellowships are to be preferred, who are in other respects equal, but who have poor friends, and have more need than others.
The statutes require that there shall be always six fellows of the following nine counties: Northumberland, Durham, Westmoreland, Cumberland, Yorkshire, Lancashire, Derbyshire,
Regis et cæteris Regni magnatibus, in quibus, solennis præter cæteros in aliis facultatibus creabantur duodecim Doctores in Theologia seculares inter quos Willielmus Woderove Custos istius Collegii de Clare unus quidem erat Doctor creatus qui respondebat coram Rege in Vesperiis prædictis opponente scilicet acutissimo Theologo Doctore Fysher, Roffensi Episcopo Universitatis Cancellario per partem actus, et Doinino Galfrido Blyth Lichfieldiensi et Coventriensi Episcopo Sacræ itidem Theologiæ professore et aliis ejusdem facultatis et juris.”
Fuller, in his history, describes Mr Hugh Latimer as being a member of Christ's College, and Cross Keeper of the University about the year 1525. The following extract, however, from a record preserved at Clare Hall, is conclusive evidence that Latimer was, while an undergraduate, a member of Clare Hall :-"1509. Anno Regni Regis Henrici tunc Octavi primo decimo octavo Kalendas Januarias electi erant in Socios istius Collegii, Dominus Hugo Sneder et Dominus Willielmus Cunney in Artibus Baccalarei. Et eodem anno 14° Kalendas ejusdem mensis electus erat in Bibliotista Willielmus Cove et sexdecim ferme annorum sextum decimum, videlicet completurus annum circa Pascham futuram. Et circa Festum Purificationis proximo sequens eligebantur in Socios istius Collegii, Dominus Joannes Pomel, et Dominus Willielmus Pynder in Artibus Bachalarii et Dominus Hugo Latemer Questionista."
Richmondshire*, and Nottinghamshire: but of these counties, or of any other county in England, there must not be more than one fellow at the same time. The statutes also reserve a preference for persons born in districts where the College property is situated, the preceding conditions being observed.
A fellowship is tenable for life, but if a fellow be convicted before the master of certain grave offences, then the master is authorized and required to expel him. An expelled fellow is allowed to appeal to the Chancellor, or Vice-Chancellor, against the sentence of the master. A fellowship is not tenable with property, or a benefice of a defined yearly amount, or with a wife.
The average annual stipend of a foundation fellow for the seven years ending 1850, was £330. 9s. 8d., besides 15s. 6d. a week during residence.
The election of scholars is vested in the master and fellows, and takes place after the general College examination at the division of the Easter Term. The order of merit determines the election to the foundation scholarships and the awarding of the several exhibitions and scholarships, of which the master and fellows have the disposal.
In the statutes it is prescribed that: "Quod Discipulorum electio fiat ex illis juvenibus, qui probiores fuerint et aptiores atque egregii magis, quique sint probate indolis ac bonæ spei, nec Baccalaurei in Artibus nec in Sacris ordinibus constituti, et qui sermonem Latinum loqui et auditum intelligere noverint, quique bonas Artes et Sacram Theologiam ac Sacerdotium sanctum proposuerint sibi, idoneique sint ad minus ad legendam sophistriam."
The poorer candidates are in the first instance to be preferred, and twenty-three scholars are required to be natives of the counties of Northumberland, Durham, Westmoreland, Cumberland, Yorkshire, Richmondshire, Lancashire, Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire; but not more than three scholars of the same county in England at the same time.
There is in Yorkshire, round the borough of Richmond, a defined district, called the Honour of Richmond, which for this purpose is regarded as Richmondshire.
At the present time each of the scholars receives 15s.a we during residence.
A scholar is required to proceed regularly to the degree B.A., and cannot retain his scholarship when he is of sufficie standing to take the degree of M.A. The resident scholars turn read the daily lessons from the Holy Scriptures at Divi Service in the College chapel, and the grace before and aft dinner in hall.
1552. King Edward VI. added to the Lady Margare foundation one Fellowship and three Scholarships.
The fellow on this foundation is assumed to be subject the statutes of the foundress, and to be entitled to the san stipend, emoluments, and advantages as one of the fellows o the original foundation.
It has been the practice to allow King Edward's fellow to l of the same county as any other fellow, and to continue layman.
In like manner King Edward's three scholarships are unde stood to be free from all restrictions as to counties; but in othe respects the scholars are subject to the Statutes, and enjoy th same advantages as the scholars of the foundress.
The mode of election to King Edward's fellowship and scholarships is the same as to those of the original foundation.
1683. Sir John Finch, Knt., and Sir Thomas Baines, Knt. out of their great affection to Christ's College, gave jointly £4000 to be laid out in fee farm-rents for founding two Fellow ships and two Scholarships, and for other uses.
These two fellowships are unrestricted as to counties, and may be held by laymen. According to the original grant, the stipends were fixed each at £60 a year, but by the imposition of the land-tax, and the loss of a small portion of the rents, the stipends are reduced to £50. 5s. 6d. each per annum.
The fellows are to be allowed rooms rent-free, and the other privileges which are enjoyed by the fellows on the old foundation.
The two scholarships are also open and unrestricted. The stipends of the scholars were originally fixed at £12 a year, but have been reduced to £10. 1s. from the same causes as the stipends of the fellows have been reduced.