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The sub-sizars are not on the foundation, and receive pecuniary advantages from the College: they succeed to t place of foundation sizars, as vacancies occur, in order of me as they stand in the first three classes at the College examin tion. In case all the vacancies caused in January at the B. commencement, cannot be filled up from sub-sizars of the fi three classes at the preceding College examinations, there is special examination of all the sub-sizars, and the best in ord of merit after this examination, are elected to be foundati sizars to fill up the vacancies.
The Master and Fellows have formally determined (185 to give additional advantages to diligent and clever sizars ar sub-sizars, by assigning pecuniary rewards to such of them as pa with credit the annual College examinations, at the close of th academic year; namely, to each of those who are placed in th first class, £25; in the second class, £15; in the third class £1 And when any of them are elected scholars, and are subsequentl placed in the three specified classes, the same rewards will b given to them as if they were still sizars or sub-sizars.
Several of the smaller benefactions and exhibitions in th year 1791 were consolidated, amounting to £136, and are, wit the other exhibitions, divided among the resident sizars.
The payments and fees made by sizars and sub-sizars, botl to the University and to the College, are smaller than thos made by pensioners by a considerable amount, in the course of their period of undergraduateship.
Under the auspices of the mastership of Dr Postlethwaite, the annual examinations of the students of the College were established. At first the examinations were instituted for undergraduates of the first two years. A plan for a similar examination for students of the third year was adopted by the master and seniors in 1818, at the instance of Mr Monk (now Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol), who at that time filled the office of head lecturer.
In reference to the results of these examinations, Bishop Monk in his life of Dr Bentley makes the following remarks:"The wonderful effects of these institutions in exciting industry and emulation among the young men, and exalting the charac ter of the College, are such as must have even surpassed the
hopes of their promoters. It was not till this system came into full operation, that Trinity College could be said to have resumed the station which it originally held among the establishments of this kingdom. Since that period its history is comprised in the record of academical rewards adjudged to its students, and of the distinctions which they have subsequently obtained in the different professions, in the paths of learning and science, and in the great theatre of public life."
The general examination of all the students of the first, second and third year, takes place immediately after the division of the Easter term: there is also an examination of the students of the second year at the end of the Michaelmas term, which was instituted in 1843 by Dr Whewell, the present master, and the seniors. Those who obtain a place in the first class at each of these examinations, receive a prize of books, which is publicly bestowed in the college-hall on the day of the commemoration of the benefactors of the College.
The amount annually distributed in prizes and rewards for the encouragement of learning is £293.
An annual prize has been instituted by the College, for the best English Essay by a senior soph, on a given literary, moral, or antiquarian subject.
Three prizes are yearly given by the College for the best compositions in Latin verse, in Lyrical, Heroic, and Elegiac metres: one subject is proposed at the beginning of each term, and a prize is awarded to the author of the best exercise on each subject. An additional prize is awarded if there be a second exercise of especial merit in any of the subjects.
Two prizes of books, one of the value of £4 and another of £2, are awarded every year at the discretion of the senior dean to two scholars, the best readers of the lessons in chapel.
The Ecclesiastical Patronage of the College consists of the right of presentation to fifty-two Church-livings: the scholastic, of the appointment of the masters to four grammar-schools.
The gross revenue of the College, as reported to the Commissioners in 1851, was £34,521. 19s. 10d.
FOUNDED 1584, A.D.
THE Right Honourable Sir Walter Mildmay, Knight, cl cellor of the exchequer, and privy councillor to Queen El beth, out of his pious care for the advancement of literat and for the maintenance of the true Protestant religion aga Popery, and all other heresies whatsoever, founded this Colle to be a nursery of divines, and endowed it with a considera annual revenue.
The College is founded on the site of an old monastery Dominican, or preaching friarst, which was endowed by the La Alice, Countess of Oxford, in 1250, and certified to stand eight acres, the exact space which the College now covers. the suppression of monasteries by King Henry VIII., the bui ings passed into private hands, and were afterwards purchas by Sir Walter Mildmay, who having obtained a charter incorporation from Queen Elizabeth, founded Emmanuel C lege in this place, to the glory of God, a. D. 1584, and placed it at first one Master, three Fellows, and four Scholars, besid inferior officers.
Walter Mildmay was formerly a serious student of Christ College, where he founded a Hebrew lectureship. He w under Laurence Chaderton, then tutor and fellow; and a stron
*It was customary with the Puritans about 1584, when the College w founded, to begin their familiar letters with the word "Emmanuel”—“ God wit us:" and this was the case with many known to be intimate with the founder Some of them begin-“ Our Father which art," &c. Many are directed to "O Father in God"—but by far the greater number have “Emmanuel." It was thei watch-word. The founder therefore intending his College for a nursery of the prin ciples of the Reformation, was led to give it this name.
†There are extant Letters Patent dated the third year of Edward IV. which con tain a grant from His Majesty's exchequer of 25 marks yearly to the Prior and Cont vent of the Frere Prechours in the University of Cambridge. This coming to the knowledge of Sir Walter Mildmay, emboldened him to sue for the renewal of it from Queen Elizabeth in favour of his new College, in which he succeeded. The payment of £16. 13s. 4d. is continued to the present time from the Exchequer, and an acquittal is signed on its receipt by the bursar of the College, as the representative of the late brotherhood of preaching friars.
friendship seems to have been formed between them. The plan of a new College had been formed by them, and Dr Dillingham states in his life of Chaderton, that on the latter once demurring to accept the appointment of master, Mildmay said, “If you will not agree to be master, I will never be founder." Dr Chaderton became the first master of Emmanuel College, and was one of the translators of King James's Bible. He resigned the mastership in 1622, and died in the College in 1640, at the age of 103 years.
Sir Walter Mildmay was one of that circle of distinguished men who used to assemble with Mr Roger Ascham, at the house of the Lord Treasurer Burleigh. He was a friend to literature and science, and a man of integrity and independence of spirit, who toward the end of his days fell into the disfavour of Queen Elizabeth, not by his own demerit, but by the envy of his adversaries. It has been remarked of him, "that being employed by virtue of his high office to advance the Queen's treasure, he did it industriously, faithfully and conscionably, without wronging the subject, being very tender of their privileges; insomuch that he complained in Parliament, that many subsidies were granted in Parliament, yet no grievances redressed; which words being represented to the Queen, made her to disaffect him, setting in a court-cloud, but (as he goeth on) in the sunshine of his country, and a clear conscience." Coming to court after he had founded his College, the Queen told him, "Sir Walter, I hear you have erected a Puritan foundation.” "No, Madam," saith he; "far be it from me to countenance anything contrary to your established laws; but I have set an acorn, which when it becomes an oak, God alone knows what will be the fruit thereof." "Sure I am," adds Fuller, "at this day it hath overshadowed all the University, more than a moiety of the present masters being bred therein.”
Lady Grace Mildmay, wife of Sir Anthony Mildmay, brother of the founder, gave a rent-charge for four Exhibitions, of £2 each per annum.
1587. The Rev. Robert Johnson, archdeacon of Leicester, founded four Exhibitions, with a preference to the sons of godly ministers" in the first place; and secondly, to students
from the grammar-schools of Oakham and Uppingham, be any others; and to be tenable for four years, and no lon They are to be chosen by the master and four senior fell The annual value of each of these scholarships is £24. annual income of this foundation, issuing out of the estat £104. 7s. 6d.
1592. Sir Wolston Dixie, Knt. alderman of the city London, founded two Bye-fellowships and two Scholarships. bequeathed £600 to the College, to purchase lands of the c annual value of £30 for this purpose, and placed the nomi tions to them in the Worshipful Company of Skinners in Lond
After an estate had been purchased, the Skinners' Comp refused the trust; but by a decree of the Court of Chancery the reign of James I., the nomination was given to the fo der's heirs, and an indenture made in the same reign confirm this decree.
After much litigation, a new decree was issued in 1700, which the fellowships were to be increased each to £30, a the scholarships each to £10 a year; and when the funds adm two new scholarships are to be founded each of £10 a ye and then the entire surplus is to be applied to the purchase advowsons, to which a Dixie fellow, if qualified, is to be nom nated, then one of the foundation fellows, and so on alternatel
Candidates for these scholarships and fellowships must 1 related to the founder, or have been educated at Market Bo worth School, and the College has no power to refuse th nomination, provided the nominee possess the requisite qualifi cations. The scholars at their admission must promise to study divinity, and the fellows must enter holy orders.
The annual value of the estate on an average of the last seven years ending 1851 was £417. 2s. 6d.
At present there are four Scholarships and two Fellowships on the Dixie foundation.
1618. William Branthwaite, D.D. one of the first fellows of the College, and afterwards master of Gonville and Caius College, left by will property to found two exhibitions of the value of £5 each annually, for students from the grammarschool at Norwich.