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arrangement, six of these exhibitions are appropriated to the sons persons living in Bedford, but the other two are not so restricted.



FOUNDED 1440, A.D.

ETON College was founded and amply endowed by King Her VI. for the perpetual increase of virtue and learning, by the na of "The College of the Blessed Marie of Etone besyde Wyndesore and designed to be a seminary for King's College, Cambridge.

The founder gave two charters in 1441, by the second of whi he constituted the College to consist of a Provost, two Fellows, o Master, twenty-five Scholars, four clerks, six choristers, and twent four almsmen. He also gave a third charter de donatione in 144 by which perpetual endowments were made over to the College.

It may however be observed, that the first formal act of the Kin respecting his projected foundations, was his Procuratorium, bearin the date of the 12th September, 1440. By this public instrument, th King delegated his proctors to treat with the bishop and chapter o Lincoln, for the appropriation of the then parish-church of Eton t his intended College, so as to make the chapel of the said College which he should erect on the demolition of the old church, to be a well parochial as collegiate. On the 29th September, in the same year, the bishop of Lincoln notified his consent in due form, for making the parish-church of Eton collegiate; and thereupon the founder gave his orders for erecting the College, the first stone whereof was laid in the foundation of the chapel, in July 1441. With what care the royal founder provided for the soundness of the buildings appears from the language of his letters patent respecting the materials to be used:

“Laying aparte superfluity of too curious works of entayle and busie mouldings, I will that both mi sayde Colleges be edified of the most substantial and best abyding stuffe, of stone, ledd, glass, and iron, that may goodlie be had and provided thereto; and that the walls of the sayde College of Eton, of the outer courte, and of the walls of the gardens about the precincte, be made of hard stone of Kent."

The founder also granted a charter for assigning arms to Eton College, which have ever since formed its unaltered heraldic distinction.

In 1443, the King's Commissioners gave possession of the College to

the provost, fellows, clerks, scholars, and officers, under certain statutes which the King had caused to be composed for its government, and called "Statuta Primitiva," which were to be enlarged into a com plete body, as future circumstances and experience might render necessary or desirable. The body of statutes was completed, and the Archbishop of Canterbury acknowledged his acceptance of them in 1446.

William Waynflete was the schoolmaster of Winchester College, when the King made his first visit. He had held that position for about eleven years, and had discharged his duties with such diligence, ability, judgment, and success, that Henry removed him with some of the fellows and scholars, in 1440, to his new College at Eton. He was appointed provost in 1442, and afterwards was raised to the see of Winchester, and became the founder of Magdalene College, Oxford.

King Henry, in the final settlement of his College at Eton, placed it upon a more enlarged scale than appears to have been contemplated in his second charter, by increasing the number of scholars to seventy.

Edward IV. deprived Eton College of some of its estates, and attempted in 1463 to unite it with the College of St George at Windsor. This object was not permitted to succeed, by the resolute stand of William Westbury, who (appointed provost in 1447) by his noble protest and appeal against such union and incorporation, protected the institution of the founder. The merit of his conduct was acknowledged by his opponents, and it is recorded in the register of Windsor College. King Edward, by his letters patent, in the seventh year of his reign, made certain remunerations, if they were not altogether restorations, for the violent injury which he had done to Eton College, employing, at the same time, conciliatory expressions of regard, and declaring his wishes for the future prosperity of the College.

• "Etonense etiam Collegium auctoritate Regali, necnon papali, Pii scilicet secundi, huic Regiæ Capellæ annectitur, et appropriatur pensionibus quibusdam Præposito et sociis, etc., ad terminum vitæ eorum assignatis. Sed Gulielmus Westbury, tunc Præpositus, summa prudentia et animi fortitudine præditus, huic unioni acquiescere noluit, sed se totis viribus opposuit. Unde post aliquantulum, regnante Edvardo quarto, initiationem, (sic), tamque præclari ædificii ruinam minitantem, Fundatio prædicta Henrico Septimo rerum potito, auctoritate Parliamenti redintegratur et stabilitur, Bulla prædicti Pii secundi per Papam Paulum secundum prius revocata et annihilata.”—Extract from Windsor MSS.

"In Curia Romana procurator Regius Edvardi quarti quarto, Bullam Papalem pro annexatione Collegii de Eton huic liberæ Capellæ obtinuit; cui Decanus et Canonici pro labore suo in hoc negotio impenso £66. 13s. 4d. in parte majoris summæ dederunt."-Extract from the Catalogue of Deans, Windsor MSS. (Car lile's Endowed Schools, note, pp. 57, 58.)

By a patent of Edward IV. in 1479, a licence was granted the Provost and College of Eton to purchase lands in perpetuity to yearly value of £20, being an exemption to that amount from operation of the Statute of Mortmain.

On the union of the houses of York and Lancaster under He VII. (who had been educated at Eton), Eton College appears to ha been regarded in a more favourable manner. In the year 1489, fourth year of his reign, an Act of Parliament was passed, by whi the King confirmed the foundation of Eton in its charters and privileg He also restored some of the estates of which it had been despoiled, a granted licences to divers persons to enable them to give or bequea their lands to the College, notwithstanding the Act of Mortmain.

1854. The Society of Eton College consists of a provost, sev fellows, a master of the upper school, and a master of the low school, two conducts, seventy scholars, an organist, ten lay-clerks, t choristers, with inferior officers and servants, and almspeople.

There are also 15 assistant masters, and 7 mathematical master and about 520 scholars besides the seventy scholars on the foundation The scholars on the foundation must be born in England of paren legally married. They are admitted between the ages of eight an sixteen years, and are superannuated at the age of eighteen, unles placed on the indenture as nominated for King's College at seventeen when they may continue in College till nineteen years complete, and beyond that age they are not to continue on the foundation. (See p. 266.

1695. Rev. Moses Holwey founded two Scholarships at St Catha rine Hall, Cambridge, each of the value of £6 a year, with a second preference to scholars from Eton College.

1749. William Berriman, D.D. formerly fellow of Eton, left £200 three per cent. Annuities, the interest of which he directed to be applied as an exhibition to a superannuated colleger, in any College at either University. This exhibition is tenable for five years, if the exhibitioner be resident.

1757. John Reynolds, Fellow of Eton College, left £1450 South Sea Annuities to found three exhibitions to educate superannuated King's scholars at Exeter College, Oxford, if they can be accommo. dated there; if not, elsewhere. They must be designed for holy orders, and may hold the scholarship till twenty-four years of age. Value now about £45 per annum.

1770. William Hetherington, formerly fellow of Eton, gave £200 three per cent. Annuities for augmenting Dr Berriman's exhibition.

1778. Edward Betham, fellow of Eton College, gave, in trust, to the provost and fellows £200, three per cent. New South Sea Annuities, the dividends of which are to be shared among three scholars or fellows of King's College. They are to be nominated by the provost, viceprovost, and head master, and are to be scholars of one, two, or three years' standing, who have conducted themselves satisfactorily at school, and whose parents are not opulent. These benefactions may be held for two years: a preference is reserved for the sons of clergymen.

1798. Thomas Chamberlayne, formerly fellow of Eton College, bequeathed an estate at Hingham, in Norfolk, after the decease of his wife and two sisters, to the provost of Eton College, in trust, that the clear income should be applied towards the maintenance of two superannuated scholars in either University. They are to be appointed by the provost of Eton, and to hold their exhibitions for four years. The value of these exhibitions is about £40 per annum.

1804. Jacob Bryant, Esq. sometime fellow of King's College, left by his will £1000 three per cent. Consols, and directed that the interest should be applied to exhibitions, at the discretion of the provost, for superannuated collegers, to be tenable for five years if the exhibitioners be resident. The value of this benefaction is £36. 15s. 6d. per annum, and it is in the gift of the provost of Eton College.

1809. Jonathan Davies, D.D. provost of Eton College, left one exhibition, now of the value of £51. 10s. per annum, for a superannuated colleger at either University. It is in the gift of the provost of Eton, and tenable till the exhibitioner is twenty-four years of age. A preference is reserved for the son of a clergyman or of a widow with a large family, and a scholar higher in the school, cæteris paribus, is to be preferred to one lower.

Dr Davies left in the gift of the head master another exhibition, of £42 a year, tenable for four years, for a superannuated colleger, at either University, on the same conditions.

He left another exhibition in the gift of the head master, of £42 per annum, to a scholar of King's College, tenable for four years. He also gave £15 a year to augment Dr Berriman's exhibition. 1835. A scholarship of £40 a year was founded by the master and fellows of Magdalene College, Cambridge, and appropriated to a student from King's College, London, or from Eton College.

1840. Joseph Goodall, D.D. provost of Eton, gave during his lifetime, £2000 in the three per cent. Reduced Annuities, and appointed that the interest should be given as an exhibition to a superannuated

Eton scholar, to be held for four years. The appointment of = exhibitioner is vested in the provost of Eton College.

1848. The committee appointed to collect subscriptions for a sta in memory of Provost Goodall invested the surplus, amounting £818. 11s. 4d. in the 3 per cent. Consols; the interest to be given to King's scholar superannuated within the last three years, who, in opinion of the provost and head-master shall be the most deserving they disagree, the vice-provost to decide. Tenable three years.

In addition to the scholarships and exhibitions appropriated students at Cambridge, there are others appropriated to students Oxford from Eton College.




FOUNDED 1615, A.D.

THE Free Grammar-school in Cambridge was founded by Steph Perse, M.D. a senior fellow of Gonville and Caius College.

By a clause of his will dated Sept. 27, 1615, he bequeathed t sum of £5000 for the purchase of an estate, and directed that t income should be applied to various uses, one of which was, that school-house should be built in Cambridge within three years possible) after his decease, with apartments for a master and usher. The scholars are required to be natives of Cambridge, Barnwel Chesterton, or Trumpington, and are educated gratis. The number restricted to 100.

Scholars who have been educated for three years at least at th school, have a preference, cæteris paribus, to the six Perse scholarship and the Perse fellowships at Gonville and Caius College. (See p. 237.


FOUNDED 1379, A.D.

THE Grammar-school at Wisbech had its origin in the reign o Richard II. By a charter granted in the second year of the reign a Edward VI. it was provided that the school should be supported by the capital burgesses of Wisbech.

In 1638, Mr William Holmes, of the city of Exeter, gave £400. which was laid out in the purchase of lands at Holbeach, partly for the maintenance of two scholars at St Mary Magdalene College, Cambridge.

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