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comprehensive, so munificent as this, had not before been conceived by the most illustrious of the founders of English schools and colleges. But no provision that this excellent prelate made for his foundations is more worthy of notice than the statutes which he gave for their government, which breathe throughout the liberal spirit and wisdom of their author: and it may be remarked, that in the statutes of New College, he acknowledged, and practically admitted the equity of that first maxim of just government,—that whatever concerns the general body should be done by the general consent.
William of Wykeham lived long enough to witness the prosperity of both his colleges. He died at South Waltham in 1404, at the age feighty years, and was interred in Winchester cathedral. He was formed to be a great and good man; and his biographer, Bishop Lowth, most justly records of him that "he was raised to the highest order of human beings,—namely, those who lead a life of active beificence directed by wisdom."
The society of Winchester College was arranged to consist, as it does at present, of a warden, seventy scholars, to be instructed in grammatical learning, ten secular priests perpetual fellows, three priests chaplains, three clerks, and sixteen choristers; and for the instruction of the scholars a schoolmaster and an under-master or usher.
The seventy scholars on the foundation receive lodging, board, and tuition, free of all expense. The qualifications required by the statutes are that they be "pauperes et indigentes scholares," and that no boy is to be admitted until he is eight years of age, and not above the age of seventeen years. The other boys, who receive no emoluments from the
foundation, are styled "commoners."
William of Wykeham appointed a solemn visitation of Winchester College to be holden in it every year by the warden of New College, in conjunction with two other examiners, called posers, chosen annually from the fellows of New College. The time of the visitation is in the choice of the warden of New College, and the statute gives him a latitude of nearly three months; but it is now held in July. After the visitation follows an examination of the scholars, who are then chosen, according to their merit, to succeed to the vacancies which may happen at New College for a year to come, and whose names are put in a roll or indenture for that purpose. The names on the roll are placed in the order of merit, with the exception of the founder's kin, of whom two annually, if found to have "a competent share of learning,” are placed at the head of it. At the same time a similar roll is made of those boys
who are candidates for admission into Winchester College. The ge age of superannuation is eighteen, except where the boy's name been placed on the roll of the preceding year, in which case h allowed to remain until he is nineteen; but founder's kin are superannuated until they are twenty-five.
There are certain funds out of which exhibitions of £50 and each are given to superannuates of the fonudation, proceeding f the College to Oxford, Cambridge, or Dublin. The actual numbe recipients of these exhibitions varies, partly owing to the variable duce of the funds, and partly owing to the varying number of stud on the foundation eligible to them. Of late years the total numbe persons enjoying these exhibitions at one time has been about twelv thirteen, of whom there are generally eight exhibitioners at £50, they may hold their exhibitions for four years.
FOUNDED 1587, A.D.
THIS school was founded by Richard Lyne, Esq. who bequeath property for the endowment of it.
1621. Thomas Lyne, Esq. of Bradford Bryant, in the parish Wimborne Minster, by his will gave £6 per annum for ever, arisi out of the tythes of his farm at Bradford, and his lands at Burl in Ringwood, towards the bringing up of a poor scholar at Oxford Cambridge, to be taken out of the free-school of Ringwood eve third or fourth year; and for want of a scholar there, then from th school of Wimborne Minster, or Sherborne.
By a decree of the commissioners for charitable uses in the yea 1624, it was ordered that the said tythes and land should for eve stand charged with the payment of £6 yearly to the constables an churchwardens of the places above mentioned, as the gift of the sai Thomas Lyne, Esq. It was also ordered that the vicar, constables and churchwardens of Ringwood, should meet and elect one poo scholar of the school there, and send him to Oxford or Cambridg to study for four years, with the exhibition of £6 per annum: bu in case there should be no poor scholar in Ringwood School fit and capable to study at Oxford or Cambridge, then they should elect poor scholar from the school of Wimborne Minster: and if no one be capable in that school, then they should elect a poor scholar out of the grammar-school of Sherborne for the same purpose.
THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL.
In the early part of the reign of Henry VIII. Sir William Sandes, Kat. (afterwards Lord Sandes) and Bishop Fox obtained his majesty's licence to found a free chapel at Basingstoke, and to establish a guild or brotherhood. A priest was appointed to perform divine offices, and to instruct the young men and boys of the town in literature.
The original endowment consisted of an estate situate on Basingstoke Down, and some tenements and gardens in the parish of Basingstoke, the whole being about 105 acres.
1607. John Brown, B.D. vicar of Basingstoke, gave the annual sum of £2. 12s. as a rent-charge out of certain lands in Hampshire for an exhibitioner from Basingstoke.
In 1852 a new scheme was confirmed by the Court of Chancery for the management of the school.
An exhibition of £30 a year is now offered for competition to the students of this school, tenable at any college at Oxford or Cambridge.
THE CATHEDRAL SCHOOL.
THE earliest notice known to be on record of a school at Hereford, is contained in a document entitled "Concessio pro Schola Grammatica in Hereford," and bearing the date of 1385. It is evident
• Johannes permissione Divina Heref. Ep. dilecto nobis in Christo filio Magistro Ricardo de Cornwaille Salutem, Gratiam, &c. Benedictum Cancellarium Ecclesiæ nostræ Cath. Heref. et ejusdem Cancellarii procuratorem ad quos de consuetudine concessio et dispositio Magistri Scholarum Grammaticarum Civitatis Heref. pertinet ad providendum de idoneo magistro pro hujus Scholæ regendo et gubernando sæpius requisivimus omnia offerendo: qui requisitionibus nostris hujus parere expresse recusarunt in præjudicium Sanctæ Ecclesiæ et Scholarium addiscere volentum dampnum non modicum et gravamen: unde nos idoneam ætatem personæ tuæ considerantes et per diligentem examinationem te habilem et idoneum moribus et scientia invenientes ad regendum et gubernandum Scholas Grammaticas prædictas cum virga et ferula, ut est moris in defectu Cancellarii prædicti et ejus procuratoris, te amicitia nostra episcopali præfecimus et ordinamus præsentibus per annum, tantummodo duraturum. In cujus rei testimonium sigillum nostrum præsentibus est appensum. Datum in Manerio nostro de Whytbourne xxvI. die mensis
Decembris, A.D. 1385, et nostræ translationis A. XI."
that a school must have existed there, previous to the year 1384 A a sufficient time to have been the ground of a custom. It may h been coeval, and probably was, with the foundation of the cathed itself.
The amount of the original endowment, if any, is unknown, an does not appear how long the means appropriated from the cathed funds were found adequate to the purpose intended. The school bably languished until the reign of King Edward VI. who issued injunction:- "That in every Cathedral Church where no free gramm school is founded already within the close, nor hath any such near u it adjoining, founded already by any person, the King's majesty wille that of the common lands and revenues of that church shall be ordain kept, and maintained perpetually, a Free Grammar-school. The m ter to have twenty marks, and his house rent free, and the usher yea £6. 14s. 6d. and his chamber free."
Notwithstanding this injunction, Queen Elizabeth deemed it nec sary, about thirty years afterwards, to recall the attention of the de and chapter to this and other topics, as appears from the statutes, whi are dated the 6th March, 1583. In consequence of one or both these royal ordinances, a building was erected upon the site of t decayed cloisters, at the west end of the cathedral, and was appli to the purposes of a school. The next statutes for the government the Cathedral Church of Hereford and its appendages, were issued 1 Charles I. in 1637. They confirmed many of the previous regulation abrogated others, and introduced such corrections and additions as t lapse of time and the change of circumstances render occasional necessary, to insure the permanence and the purity of every hum system. The sixth chapter of these statutes refers to the school. T appointment of the master and under master, and the management the school, is vested in the dean and chapter.
The charter of Charles I. also increased the master's salary to per annum, with a house; and the under master's to £10 and a share certain fines.
The building erected in the time of Queen Elizabeth havin become dilapidated, about the year 1760 it was taken down, and more commodious school-house was erected by means of a gener subscription. The house for the residence of the master was rebui a few years afterwards.
There are fourteen free scholars admitted, the rest pay for the tuition.
1682. The Right Honourable Sarah, Duchess Dowager of Somerset, by an indenture, gave lands for the establishment of scholarships in Brazennose College, Oxford, and in St John's College, Cambridge.
At the present time there are at St John's College,
1. Six scholarships, each of the value of £40 a year, the scholars to be chosen every third turn from the school of Hereford.
2. Five scholarships of more than £20 each per annum, exclusively for students educated at Hereford school, with a preference to such as are natives of Somersetshire, Wiltshire, or Herefordshire.
3. Fourteen scholarships of more than £20 each per annum, for scholars who are to be chosen every third turn from the school of Hereford. (See p. 321.)
Besides these scholarships, there are twenty-two scholarships at Brazennose College, Oxford, appropriated under the same conditions, to students from Hereford school, and two fellowships appropriated to natives of the county of Hereford.
THE FREE GRAMMAR-SCHOOL.
FOUNDED 1708, A.D.
THIS school was founded by Mr John Pierrepont, Vintner, and citizen of London. In the latter end of May, 1709, the founder gave a code of rules, statutes, and ordinances for the government of the school, which he afterwards altered and enlarged by his will.
The founder directed that an exhibition of £20 a year should be granted to a student from the school once in two years, without restriction as to college, so that it were in Oxford or Cambridge.
The school is designed "for the instruction of children in religion, grammar-learning, writing, arithmetic, and mensuration, of such poor parents as are not able to bear the charge of training up] their children so as to be fit for the university, or to be put out apprentices, services, or other employments, whereby they may get an honest and competent livelihood."
There is at present given annually one exhibition of 50 guineas a year, for four years, if there be a qualified candidate. Candidates for this exhibition may be of any county, and must enter the school before the age of sixteen years, and must remain there for two full years at least before they are eligible.