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ment of their establishment, they should select as many youths as possi from Westminster, and referring them to the statutes she had drawn for Westminster, for directions as to the mode of election. Also in eighteenth year of her reign, at the instigation of Dean Goodman, Queen issued other letters patent, in which she describes the qualifi tions necessary for admittance on the foundation, and orders that boy be admitted into St Peter's before his eighth year, nor allowed remain after his eighteenth. She fixes the days for the examination candidates, and the election of students to Christ Church, Oxford, a to Trinity College, Cambridge. She names as electors the deans Westminster and Christ Church, and the master of Trinity, or dep ties duly appointed by them, who are each of them to select a Mast of Arts from his own college as his coadjutor, to whom also the hea master is to be added. They are directed to make oath in these word "Se neminem in discipulum gratia, odio, ullave animi perturbatione v præmio advectos, sed eum solum quem, testimonio conscientiæ permot maxime idoneum judicaverint electuros."

Three or four scholars are elected off to Christ Church, Oxford every year, and as many to Trinity College, Cambridge, where the enjoy all the advantages which other scholars enjoy on the foundation and the Westminster students of Christ Church receive the proceeds o considerable sums left specially for their use.

1569. Archbishop Parker founded three Scholarships at Corpus Christi College, with a second preference for scholars from Westmin ster School. (See p. 255.)

1581. Lord Burghley by indenture agreed to pay a rent-charge for augmenting the payments to the scholars on Lady Margaret's foundation at St John's College, and directed that after his death the heir of Robert Cecil should nominate a scholar out of Westminster or Hoddesden school. (See p. 311.)

1594. Lord Burghley gave 66 a perpetual annuity of twenty marks, to be distributed among the scholars elected to the two Universities." This benefaction is at the disposal of the dean and chapter. In 1852, the rents received amounted to £13. 6s. 8d.

1624. John Williams, bishop of Lincoln, bequeathed an estate, the profits of which were to be annually divided among four boys, two of whom are to be natives of the diocese of Lincoln, and two of the principality of Wales; and in default of candidates from these districts, scholars are to be chosen from natives of the liberties of Westminster. The scholars are called Bishop's boys, and are elected

by the dean, senior prebendary, and head-master. The income from the estate in 1852 was £76. Os. 8d. (See p. 316.)

1659. Sir Robert Wood, knight, founded three Scholarships at St John's College, Cambridge, with a preference for scholars from Westminster School. (See p. 318.)

1768. Thomas Triplett, D.D. by indenture enrolled in Chancery conveyed to certain trustees some freehold property in Suffolk, the rents to be at the disposal of the dean and chapter for four of the most worthy scholars of the school of Westminster, to maintain them at Oxford or Cambridge. Its value in 1852 was £32, which will be considerably augmented when the claims of the dean and chapter are finally confirmed by the Lord Chancellor, in accordance with the decrees of the court already made.

1702. Sebastian Smith, Esq. M.A. left a benefaction, for all scholars elect, at the disposal of the dean and chapter. The annual value in 1852 was £2.

1748. Noel Broxholme, M.D. left £500, the interest thereof to be given to clergymen's sons on being elected off to Oxford or Cambridge, and to be at the disposal of the dean and chapter. The income in 1852 was £15.

1768. Walter Titley, envoy to the court of Denmark, left £1000 to Westminster School. The income arising from the benefaction in 1852 was £16. 10s. It is at the disposal of the dean and chapter to scholars elect to Oxford or Cambridge.

1793. John Thomas, D.D. bishop of Rochester, left a benefaction for scholars elected from Westminster to be at the disposal of the head-master. In 1852 the income was £61. 5s. per annum.

1799. Edward Smallwell, D.D. bishop of Oxford, bequeathed £1000 to St Peter's College, Westminster, for the benefit of scholars elected off to Oxford and Cambridge, to be at the disposal of the headmaster. In 1852 the income from the benefaction was £60. 11s. 6d.


FOUNDED 1509, A.D.

THIS School was founded and endowed by John Colet, D.D. dean of St Paul's, under a warrant, which on petition he obtained from King Henry VIII.

The intention and design of the founder appear from the su joined extracts from his own statutes for the foundation.

The admission of the scholars is vested in the Mercers' Compa and boys are admitted up to the age of 15 years, but no boy is eligi

1 "John Collett, the sonne of Henrye Collett, Dean of Paules, desiring nothy more thanne education and bringing uppe children in good maners and literatu in the yere of our Lorde one thousand fyve hundredth and twelve, bylded a sch in the estende of Paulis Churche of one hundred and fifty-three to be taught in the same. And ordeyned there a maister, and a surmaister, and a chappel with sufficiente and perpetuale stipendes ever to endure, and sett patrones a defenders, governors and rulers of that same schole, the most honest and faith fellowshipe of the Mercers of London. And, for because nothing can continue lo and endure in good ordre without lawes and statutes, I, the said John, ha expressed and shewed my minde what I wolde shoulde be truly and diligent observed and kepte of the sayde maister, and surmaister, and chapelyn, and of t mercers, governours of the schole, that in this boke may appere to what intent founde this schole...

"This Hyghe Maister, in doctrine, learnynge, and teachinge shall directe all t schole; this maister shall be chosen by the wardens and assistance of the Mercer a man hoole in body, honest and vertuous, and lerned in good and cleane Lat literature, and also in Greke,-yf such may be gotten; a wedded man, a sing man, or a preste that hath no benefice with cure, nor service that may lett ti due besinesse in the scole...

"If the maister be syke of sykeness incurable, or fall into such age that he ma not conveniently teache, and hath bene a man that longe and laudably hath taugh in the schole, thanne let another be chosyn; and by the discrete charitie of th Mercery let there be assigned to the olde maister a reasonable levinge of ten pounds or otherwise as it shall seme convenyent, so that the olde maister after his lon labour in no wise be lefte destitute. Yf the maister be syke of sikeness curable yet neverthelesse I will he shall have his wages, and in suche sekenes yf he ma not teache, let hym reward the under-maister for his more labour somewha according. Yf the under-maister be in literature and in honest lyfe accordynge then the hygh maisters rome vacante, let him be chosen before another."

[On the retirement of the Rev. Richard Roberts, D.D. the high-master, in 1814 after forty-five years' service in the school, the Mercers' Company granted him for the rest of his life an annuity of £1000 a year. They also allowed an annuity of £60 to the widow of a surmaster, about the same time.]

"There shall be taught in the scole, children of all nations and contres indifferently, to the number of one hundred and fifty-three, according to the number of seates in the scole. The maister shall admit these children as they be offirid from tyme to tyme; but first se, that they can saye the catechyzon, and also that he can rede and write competently, else let him not be admitted in no wise...

"As touching in this scole what shall be taught of the maisters, and learned of the scolers, it passeth my witte to devyse and determine in particular, but in general to speake and sume what to saye my mynde, I would they were taught always in good literature, bothe Laten and Greeke, and good autors such as have the verrye Romayne eloquence joyned with wisdom, specially Cristen autors, that wrote their wisdome with clean and chaste Laten, other in verse or in prose, for my intent is by this scole, specially to encrease knowledge and worshippinge of God and our Lord Christ

to an exhibition if he be admitted after the age of 12 years.

There is

no prescribed time of superannuation by the statutes, but boys are not expected, to remain in the school after the age of 19 years.

Jesu, and good Cristen life and maners in the children. And for that entent I will the children learne first above all the catechyzon in Englishe.... All Barbary, all corruption, all Laten adulterate which ignorant blinde foles brought into this world, and with the same hath dystained and poysonyd the olde Laten speche, and the veraye Romayne tonge, whiche in the tyme of Tully and Salust and Virgell and Terence, was used, whiche also sainte Jerome and sainte Ambrose and sainte Austen and many holy doctors lerned in theyre tymes. I saye that fylthiness and all suche abusion whiche the later blynde worlde brought in, whiche more rather may be called Blotterature than Litterature, I utterly abannyshe and exclude out of this scole, and charge the maisters that they teche alwaye that is beste, and instruct the children in Greke and redynge Laten, in redynge unto them such autors that hathe with wisdome joyned the pure chaste eloquence."

"The honourable Company of Mercers of London, that is to saye, the maister and all the wardens, and all the assistance of the felowshyppe, shall have all the eare and charge, rule, and governaunce of the scole, and they shall every yere chose of their companye eleven honeste and substantiall men, called the surveyors of the seole, whiche in the name of the hoole felowship shall take all the charge and besinesse about the schole, for that one yere."

"And notwithstanding these statutes and ordinances before written, in which I have declared my mynde and will, yet because in tyme to come many things may and shall survyve and growe by many occasions and causes, whiche at the making of this booke was not possible to come to mynde, in consideration of the assured truthe and circumspect wisdome and faithfull goodnes of the most honest and substantiall felowshype of the Mercery of London, to whome I have commytted all the care of the schole, and trusting in their fidelite and love that they have to God and man, and to the schole, and also belevyng verely, that they shall allwaye drede the great wrath of God. Both all this that is sayde, and all that is not sayde, whiche hereafter shall come unto my mynde while I live to be sayde, I leve it hoolely to theyre discretion and charite; I mean of the wardens and assistances of the fellowshype, with suche other counsell as they shall call unto them, good lettered and learned men, they to adde and to diminishe of this boke, and to supply in it every defaulte. And also to declare in it every obscurite and darknes, as tyme and place and just occasion shall require; calling the dredeful God to loke uppon them in all suche besynes, and exorting them to feare the terrible judgment of God, whiche seeth in darknes, and shall render to everye man accordynge to his workes. And finally prayinge the great Lord of mercye for their faythful dealing in this matters, now and alwaye to send unto them in this worlde muche wealthe and prosperytie, and after this lyfe much joye and glorye."

The statutes contain an account of the estates left by him for the maintenance of the school, their annual income at the time, the ordinary charges of the school, and the surplus remaining "to the reparations, suytes, casualties, and all other charges extraordinarye."

In a letter from Erasmus to Justus Jonas, there is the following account of the foundation of St Paul's School:

"Upon the death of his father, when, by right of inheritance, he was possessed of a good sum of money; lest the keeping of it should corrupt his mind, and turn it too much toward the world, he laid out a great part of it in building a new

With respect to the several exhibitions, the Mercers' Company h at different times issued orders with respect to the scholars intending offer themselves as candidates for them.

In 1732, March 16, they ordered that no scholar be permitted petition for an exhibition who does not lodge his petition in the cler office one month at least before The Apposition Court: and that clerk communicate the same to the wardens for the time being.

In 1754, March 22. That when any petitions are presented to court of assistants for exhibitions to be granted to scholars educa in this school, the high-master shall be called in, and asked as to qualifications of such scholars as shall have so petitioned.

In 1763, March 24. That no scholar who shall go to the U versity without the consent of the court of assistants, or the survey accomptant of the school for the time being, be permitted to petiti for any one of the school exhibitions.

In 1773, March 4. That no scholar be permitted to petition f an exhibition until he shall have been full four years in the schoo upon the foundation, by the appointment of the surveyor or accompta for the time being.

The apposition, or general examination of the scholars, and th commemoration of the founder, take place after Easter, and occup three days, after which the exhibitioners to the Universities are electe by the governors of the school.

There is one Exhibition awarded by the Court of Assistants of th Corporation of Mercers of the value of £120 a year, and one or mor

school in the churchyard of St Paul's, dedicated to the child Jesus, a magnificen fabric, to which he added two dwelling-houses for the two several masters, and to them he allotted ample salaries, that they might teach a certain number of boys free, and for the sake of charity...

"The wise and sagacious founder saw that the greatest hopes and happiness of the commonwealth were in the training up of children to good letters and true religion; for which noble purpose he laid out an immense sum of money; and yet he would admit no one to bear a share in this expense. Some person having left a legacy of £100 sterling toward the fabric of the school, Dean Colet perceived a design in it; and by leave of the bishop got that money to be laid out upon the vestments of the church of St Paul. After he had finished all, he left the perpetual care and oversight of the estate, and government of it, not to the clergy, not to the bishop, not to the chapter, nor to any great minister at court, but amongst the married laymen; to the Company of Mercers, men of probity and reputation. And when he was asked the reason of so committing the trust, he answered to this effect:-That there was no absolute certainty in human affairs; but for his part he found less corruption in such a body of citizens, than in any other order or degree of mankind.”

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