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MORILLO, Don Pablo, a man of courage and talent, was originally a serjeant of artillery in the Spanish marines, but distinguished himself so much during the war between Spain and France, that in the course of it he was promoted
unshaken and generous adherence to the fallen Transfiguration, from Raphael; a Magdalen, fortunes of his illustrious master, entered the from Murillo; a Head of the Saviour, from da French army at the age of fifteen, serving under Vinci; the Monument of Clement XIII., from Buonaparte, from whom he received a sword, Canova; and Theseus vanquishing the Minofor his services on the memorable 18th Brumaire. taur. He was aid-de-camp to marshal Berthier before he was twenty-one years of age, and in that capacity distinguished himself at the battles of Austerlitz, Wagram, Jena, and Friedland. He commanded in the department of the Loire, when he received the news of the emperor's ab- to be a general. In 1815, he was placed at the dication with his wife and children, he volun-head of an expedition against South America, tarily artook of the ex-emperor's imprisonment consisting of twelve thousand men. He was at St. Helena, and continued with him till his at first successful: Carthagena surrendered to decease. He is now arranging for the press, him after a siege, during which he confiscated memoirs dictated to him by his late sovereign. the property of the Venezuelans, and committed MOORE, Thomas, one of the first of British many cruelties. New Granada was afterwards poets, was born in Ireland, and was educated ||reduced, and again Morillo had recourse to the at Trinity College, Dublin. He went to Lon-system of bloodshed and pillage. These events don, with a view of making the law his pro-roused the spirits of Bolivar, Paez, and Arisfession, and was called to the bar. It was then mendi, and Morillo was several times defeated, that he translated the Odes of Anacreon; these he was driven from Granada, and a great part met with so favourable a reception, that he of Caraccas. In 1820, having heard of the revoabandoned the law, and devoted himself to lution, he returned to Spain, joined the patriots, iterature. Under the name of Little, he pub-and for a time was the political chief of Madrid. Jished a volume of poems, which were justly But he has been removed, and appears to be censured for their licentiousness. He visited viewed with suspicion by the liberal party. the United States in 1805, but his prejudices did not allow him to form a favourable opinion of our country. Since his return, in 1806, he has published"The Two-penny Post-bag;" "The Fudge family in Paris;" "The Loves of the Angels;" and "Lalla Rookh," an oriental romance, which unites the purest and softest tenderness with the loftiest dignity, and in every page, glows with all the fervour of poetry.
MOSTONSKI, count Thaddeus, an illustrious patriot of Poland, was born at Warsaw, in 1790. When Stanislaus was compelled to accede to the confederation of Targowitz, and consequently to the overthrow of Polish liberty, Mostonski fled to Paris, became connected with the Girondist party, and obtained a promise of assistance for the Poles; but the triumph of the jacobin party put an end to his prospects; he returned to Poland, took an active part with his countrymen in their efforts to expel their oppressors, and when no hope was left of saving his country, he refused to fly from Warsaw, was taken prisoner, and was some time confined at St. Peters
MORE, Mrs. Hannah, was born near Bristol, about the year 1750, and is the youngest of five sisters. At Bristol, her taste and knowledge acquired her the friendship of Dr. Stonehouse, who encouraged her to write, and corrected all her early effusions. The "Search after Hap-burgh. He afterwards resided in France, till, piness," her first publication, was favourably in 1815, he was recalled to Poland by Alexander, received; and she soon after published several appointed minister of the home department, and other pieces. In 1782, she published her "Sa- of police. cred Dramas." She retired about 1798, to Somersetshire, with her sisters, where they established charity schools among the colliers, with much advantage to them. She has con- NESSELRODE, count Charles Robert de, setinued since to give her productions to the cretary for foreign affairs, and privy counsellor world, and besides many others, has published to the emperor of Russia, was born in Livonia, "Thoughts on the Manners of the Great ;"about the year 1770. This minister stands high "Strictures on the Modern System of Female in the confidence of his sovereign, and has often Education;" and being consulted on the subject received marks of his esteem. He accompanied of the education of the princess Charlotte, pro- the emperor into France in the campaign of duced "Hints toward forming the character of 1814, and was one of the four plenipotentiaries a young Princess," which was highly approved that signed the treaty of quadruple alliance, at of, and received with royal approbation. This Chaumont, in March, of that year. All the notes excellent woman, who has constantly been la- and addresses of the emperor, at this period, bouring to benefit mankind, has been many bear his signature, and were mostly drawn up years confined to her bed by an excruciating by him. After a short stay in Paris, he repaired disease; but in this situation, she has produced to Vienna, to assist in the conference relative to some of her best works, among which are the future constitution of Germany. And after'Cœlebs in Search of a Wife," "Practical wards, in 1815, he was one of the committee Piety," "Christian Morals," "Essay on the that signed the declaration or profession of faith Character and Writings of St. Paul," and of the several powers with respect to Buona"Moral Sketches of Prevailing Opinions and parte. Manners." Amongst her most intimate friends, Mrs. More has numbered Dr. Porteus, Dr. Beattie, Mrs. Montague, Dr. Johnson, Sir Joshua Reynolds, and Mr. Garrick.
OPIE, Mrs., was born in 1771. She is the
MORGHEN, Raphael, an eminent professor daughter of Dr. Alderson, an eminent physician, of the graphic art, and one of the first European of Norwich. This lady early evinced superior engravers, was born at Naples, in 1756, and was talents, by composing poems and descriptive a pupil under the celebrated Volpato. Among pieces, at an age when young ladies have not the most remarkable of his works, are the usually finished their education. In 1798 she
them, and often, after fighting with them during the day, amuses himself by dancing with them at night.
married Mr. Opie, a celebrated painter, and soon after his death, in 1808, she published a memoir of his life, prefixed to the lectures he had read at the Royal Academy. By this and other publications, she has acquired considerable reputation, both as a prose and poetical writer.
PARRY, Edward William, a captain in the English navy, was born in the year 1790. He was placed in the navy when quite young, and ORANGE, the hereditary prince of, is the son gradually rose to the rank of first lieutenant, of the king of the Netherlands. He was born with a high reputation as an officer. Captain in 1792. In 1811, he became a colonel in the Parry has distinguished himself, as commander British army, and served with Wellington in of an English squadron fitted out on a voyage Spain. He was promoted to the rank of general of discovery to the north pole, by successfully in 1814, and was present at all the important penetrating into the Polar Sea as far as the 110th battles in the peninsula. At the battle of Wa-degree of west longitude, and wintering on one terloo, he conimanded the Dutch troops with his of the newly discovered islands. For this, he, accustomed gallantry, and was severely wound-and the men under his command, received the ed. In 1816, he married a sister of the emperor parliamentary reward of 5,0001. Captain Parry Alexander of Russia. is now absent on a third voyage to the polar reORLEANS, the duke of, is a descendant ofgions. It is to be hoped that the long agitated Henry IV., whose virtues he imitates. He was question of a northwest passage, from the Atborn in October, 1773, and in early life was dis-lantic to the Pacific, will be put to rest on his tinguished for his sedate character, and for his return. prudence and moderation. As duc de Chartres, he was a soldier in the armies of the republic for a short time, but was soon proscribed. He then escaped, travelled in disguise through different parts of Europe, and at one time filled the professorship of mathematics at Reichman, in the Grisons country, under a borrowed name. He afterwards visited the United States, with his brothers, and returned to Europe to assist his mother. In 1800, he took up his residence in England. He married a daughter of the king of Naples, and now lives in Paris. He is heir, in no very remote degree, to the throne of France.
PEPE, general William, is a native of Calabria, and was born in the year 1783, of one of the most respectable families of that country. He received his education in the military college of the province, and entered into the army of his country, then declared a republic by the French. He afterwards joined the French, and was ac tively employed in all the campaigns of that nation in Italy. He subsequently returned to Na ples, and was appointed aid-de-camp to king Joachim, and general of brigade. He continued in the service of that sovereign until his downfal, and remained inactive after that event until 1818. He was then employed by Ferdinand, OWEN, Robert, esq., a native of Great Bri- with a high military rank, in suppressing the tain, was born to a moderate fortune, and edu-dreadful system of brigandism and robbery cated as a manufacturer. With a benevolent which then prevailed in that country. General disposition, and a powerful understanding, he Pepe has gained his principal reputation by headIras devoted his life to the study of plans for ing the late revolutionary movements in Naples, ameliorating the condition of the poor. With and by procuring a constitutional form of governthis view, he has formed an establishment in ment for that country. The interposition of an Scotland, called New Lanark, in which his plans Austrian armed force, has defeated the patriotic have been crowned with success. His principle views of this officer, and compelled him to retire seems to have been taken originally from the to England, where he now resides. Moravian settlements, but with this difference, that among them, property is in common, but, on Mr. Owen's plan, only such things are in common, as tend to general advantage. Mr. Owen is about forming a similar establishment in this country. How far his plan will succeed here, or as a public system, elsewhere, remains to be seen. By his mode of living, he anticipates a saving of several thousand dollars per annum, to every association formed on his plan.
PERCIVAL, James G., a poet and scholar, alike distinguished for genius and the accuracy of his learning. He was born in Berlin, Conn., about the year 1795. He was graduated at Yale College in 1815, and commenced the practice of medicine in 1820. He published his first work at New-Haven, in 1820, and two numbers of Chio soon after. In 1824, he published a handsome edition of his works, which was republished the same year in London. He was appointed a professor at West Point by the government, in 1824, which he was obliged to relinquish on account of his health, and was
PAEZ, general, is a native of Caraccas, and soon after employed as surgeon in connexion was born in 1787, of poor, but respectable pa-with the recruiting service at Boston. This rents. In early life he was employed as a su-situation he soon left, to devote his attention perintendant of the flocks of an establishment more exclusively to literary pursuits. He is a in Barinas. When the first struggle for liberty regular writer for the Boston Literary Gazette, took place in Caraccas, he joined the royalist and his poetry in that is received with general party, and fought on their side until the cruel-admiration. He resides in his native village, ties of his associates filled him with disgust.||(1825,) and is engaged in editing some works He then left them with a body of cavalry, and for the press. His disposition is melancholy and joined the patriots in New Grenada, where he retiring, and his career has been marked with performed such prodigies of valour, in opposing traits of great eccentricity. He is, however, a Morillo, that he was made a brigadier-general, man of singular elevation and purity of char and afterwards general of division. The libe-acter in private life.
ration of the Colombian republic, by the victo- PORTER, Jane, and Ann Maria. These la ry of Carabobo, crowned his glory. Paez is of dies are sisters, and daughters of sir Robert Pora robust constitution, and possesses great muster. They have long held a high rank among cular activity and power. He Hives as frugally the female novel writers of the day. The foras his soldiers, always divides his booty with jmer has written "Thaddeus of Warsaw," "The
Scottish Chiefs," and other works, which have Stewart. The reputation of this gentleman is been well received by the public, and very ex-well known on both sides of the Atlantic; as a tensively read. The younger sister has publish.-poet, he may justly be ranked above most of his ed" The Hungarian Brothers," "The Recluse cotemporaries. His first literary attempt, was of Norway," and more recently the "Fast of a translation of two ballads, from the German, St. Magdalen." Until the appearance of that" The Chase," and another. In 1802, he pubsplendid series of works, the Waverly novels, lished his "Border Minstrelsy," a work which these sisters had gained a great degree of popu-opened to him a most brilliant literary career. larity. They have, however, with others, been Mr. Scott has since published, "The Lay of the obliged to yield to the unrivalled merits of the Last Minstrel," "Marmion, or Flodden Field," "Great Unknown." "The Lady of the Lake," "The Vision of Don Roderick," "Rokeby," and other poems. He has also been employed to edit the works of Swift, Dryden, and other distinguished authors.
QUIROGA, general Antonio. This distin-Sir Walter Scott's talents, however, are not guished Spaniard is indebted for his reputation, confined to poetry. He is understood to be the to his recent patriotic efforts in favour of the author of "Paul's Letters," and of the historiliberty of his country. When he commenced cal department of the recent volumes of the the daring task of limiting the powers of his Edinburgh Annual Register; and he is generally Sovereign, and assembling the constituted but believed to be the author of the popular series almost obsolete authorities of the kingdom, he of novels, known by the name of the Waverley was but a colonel in the Spanish army. He was novels. These alone would have placed the placed at the head of those troops, who, at Ca-name of Scott among the great men of the age. diz, declared in favour of a free constitution, With his other productions, they will perpetuate and he issued several spirited proclamations, and his reputation, so long as talents are esteemed, took every measure in his power to ensure suc- or fine writing admired. Sir Walter is clerk of cess to the cause in which he had embarked. the court of sessions of Scotland, for which he Quiroga, with his associates, had the happi-receives about 1,500l. sterling per annum. He Bess to accomplish their glorious purposes; to resides at Edinburgh during the session of the see a cortes assembled, a constitution adopted, court, and the rest of his time at his splendid and the government organized under that con- seat at Abbotsford, 40 miles from Edinburgh stitution. Subsequent events have destroyed He has been from infancy quite lame; in his the prospects of the liberal party in Spain, and manners he is perfectly simple and unostentacompelled Quiroga to take up his residence-in tious. He has four children; one of whom is England. married to the celebrated professor Lockhart.
SEDGWICK, Catharine, author of two very popular novels, the "New-England Tale" and "Redwood," is the daughter of judge Sedgwick,
ROSCOE, William, esq., a distinguished Eng-and was born at Stockbridge, Mass., in the year lish writer, was born of humble parents, from 1798. She is deservedly ranked among the most whom he received but a common education, and elegant prose writers of the day; and is underarticled to an attorney in Liverpool. His ardent stood to be now (1825) engaged in the preparamind led him to devote all his leisure time to the tion of a series of Tales, founded on scenes in study of the classics, and he soon made himself New-England. acquainted with the ancient and modern lan- SENEFELDER, Alois, was born at Munich, guages. Mr. Roscoe was early celebrated both and placed for education in the university of as a prose and as a poetical writer; but the Ingoldstadt, as a student of jurisprudence. To work which gained him the greatest reputation, him the arts are indebted for the invention of was his "Life of Lorenzo de Medici;" a work, lithography; a process, by means of which which for purity and elegance of style, and ex-books may now be embellished with prints, tensive research, has seldom been surpassed. without incurring such an expense as to place He has also been the great mover and supporter them beyond the reach of persons of small forof several public works in Liverpool; so much tunes. An accurate account of the inventor go, that his name is identified with the prosperi- and the invention, may be found in the 5th ty and even existence of that city. volume of the supplement to the Encyclopædia Britannica. We can only say, that he received the first suggestions of this useful art, from an accidental discovery, and that he brought it to a degree of perfection, by successive experiments, which will make it of great service to mankind. Lithography has since rapidly extended, and
SIDDONS, Mrs., is the daughter of Mr. R.
SAN MARTIN, general Don Juan, was born In the midst of the Andes, and sent to Madrid for education. He entered the army in 1808, and displayed great valour in defending the indepen-been applied to a variety of purposes, connected dence of his country under the banners of the with the arts, in different parts of the continent, cortes. After the dissolution of that body he and in Great Britain. quitted Spain for Buenos Ayres, and immediately joined the patriot forces of that country. As Kemble. She was born about the year 1749. an officer of the patriot army he has gained se-This lady commenced her career as a singer, veral important victories, and contributed much but she soon relinquished that employment, and o the independence of the South American attempted tragedy. On her appearance at states. He is now at the head of the independ-Drury-lane theatre in 1782, her success was ent government of Peru. complete; the public were astonished at her SCOTT, Sir Walter, one of the most distin-powers, and she was acknowledged to be the guished and prolific writers of the present day, first tragic actress of the age. For more than was born at Edinburgh, in the year 1771, and twenty years she retained her high rank as an educated, first at the high school of that city, actress, and continued during that period, to Tnd then at the university, under professor enchant the lovers of the drama. She also
a marriage which he had contracted. In 1804, he was named high chamberlain, and in 180 created prince of Beneventum, in Naples. On the approaching downfal of Napoleon, Talleyrand began to intrigue against hiin, and provide for himself. He was in consequence reinstated as minister for foreign affairs, by Louis XVIII., and sent as his plenipotentiary to Vienna. He is now in private life, an active and attentive observer of the political affairs of Europe. Probably no man living has taken a more active part in the political changes which have occurred in Europe during the last thirty years, or gained a higher reputation for talents, intrigue, and political cunning.
SOUTHEY, Robert, esq., was born at Bristol, in the year 1774. He was educated at West minster school, and at Oxford, and was designed for the ministry, but his partiality for the French revolution inspired him with other thoughts For some office, which he held under his go vernment for a short time, he receives a pension of 2001. a year; this has converted him from an admirer of French republican principles, to a zealous writer in the Quarterly Review. From 1795, when he first appeared before the public as an author, this gentleman has been devoted TALMA, M. This distinguished and admito literary pursuits. His poetical and prose writ-mirable actor, was born at Paris, in 1766. He ings are very numerous. He is the author of attended for some time the classes of declama"Thalaba the Destroyer,' ," "Madoc," a poem. tion in the royal school of Paris, and soon ob "Espriellas Letters," "The Curse of Kehama,' tained an order for his appearance on the stage "Life of Nelson," "Life of Wesley," "Remains and in a short time took the lead in his profes of Henry Kirk White," "Roderic, the last of sion. Madam de Stael says of him, “Talma the Goths," and many other works, and he is may be cited as a model of power, and of disstill employed as a writer. cretion in the use of it, of simplicity and true SPURZHEIM, Dr., a celebrated physiologist, grandeur. His attitudes recall to mind the fine was born near Treves, in 1776, and educated at statues of antiquity; and the expression of his Vienna, where he studied under the celebrated face and every look, ought to be the study of Dr. Gall, the founder of the science of craniology. our best painters. There is in the voice of this In Great Britain, in conjunction with Dr. Gall, man a magic, which I cannot describe; which, he published the result of his inquiries, in "The from the moment when its first accent is heard, Anatomy and Physiology of the Nervous Sys-awakens all the sympathies of the heart; all tem," and several other works. the charms of music, of painting, of sculpture, and of poetry; but, above all, the language of the soul." Talma has succeeded in acquiring such dignity of mien, and grandeur of deportment, that the emperor Napoleon seriously took lessons of him, the better to support his own dignity on all great occasions, it may be added, that these great cotemporaries loved each other almost to idolatry. The wife of Talma is also possessed of considerable theatrical reputation, both in tragic and comic parts. Her health, however, has compelled her to relinquish the
possesses considerable merit as a sculptor. Mrs. Siddons has accumulated an ample property, with which she has retired from the stage to the quiet of domestic life.
STEWART, Dugald, esq., a distinguished metaphysician, and professor of moral philosophy in the university of Edinburgh, was born in that city, in 1753. His writings have gained him a high reputation at home and abroad; among them are his "Elements of the Philosophy of the Human Mind," "Outlines of Moral Philosophy for the use of Students," &c.
SUSSEX, the duke of, is the fourth son of George III., and was born in 1773. He received the latter part of his education at Gottingen, and afterwards travelled in Italy. In that coun-stage since 1810. try he contracted a marriage with lady Augusta TEIGNMOUTH, lord, was born in DevonMurray, according to the Romish church, and shire, in 1754, and sent early to India, as a wrion their return to England, they were married ter in the service of the East India Company in Hanover Square. This marriage has since While in that country, he was intimate with been annulled, as violating the royal marriage Mr. Hastings, and under his government filled act. The duke has entered much into public several important offices. In 1793, he succeeded life, particularly by accepting the office of presi- to be governor of Bengal. From his different dent of various societies. He is grand-master employments in India, he realized a handsome of the society of freemasons in England. His fortune, with which he returned to England, annual income is fixed at 12,000. where, in 1797, he was created a peer by the title of baron Teignmouth. He was the intimate friend of sir William Jones, whose life and works he has published. Lord Teignmouth is distinguished for his picty and benevolence; he was one of the founders, and is now president of the British and Foreign Bible Society.
THENARD, M. This celebrated French chymist was born in 1777. He early applied himself to the study of chymistry, and with such success, that at the age of 20, he was a chyinical teacher in the principal public laboratories of Paris, and at the polytechnic school. When he was 26, he was made professor of chymistry in the college of France, and he soon after succeeded the celebrated Fourcroy, as a member
TALLEYRAND, Perigord, prince de. This celebrated nobleman, who is perhaps the most considerable politician in Europe, was born in the year 1754, of one of the most ancient families in France. He was educated for the church, and in 1788 was made bishop of Autun. His inclination and talents, however, led him to engage in political life; at the beginning of the revolution he became a member of the legislative assembly, took an active part in its deliberations, and was sent as the agent of that body, on a secret mission to England. On his return, his influence rapidly increased, and he was of the Institute. In conjunction with Gaymade minister for foreign affairs. He took an Lussac, he published in 1810, a highly interestactive part in the elevation of Buonaparte to ing work, entitled "Physico Chymical Enquithe consulship, and under the consular govern-ries." He has also distinguished himself by ment was employed as a minister and diploma- several other scientific publications. tist. In 1802, the pope granted a brief, which THORVALDSEN, Albert, was born at Coretsored him to a secular life, and legitimated penhagen in 1772. He is the son of an Icelander
who lived in that city. From his infancy he||the passage of the Bidassoa and entered France. was fond of the comparatively rude carvings The restoration of the Bourbons following, and of his father, who was a stonecuttter, and who peace taking place soon after, he returned to had the sagacity to perceive the talents of his England, and was rewarded for his services. He accordingly placed him in the free with a dukedom, and a gift from parliament o: drawing-school at Copenhagen. After display-400,000l. In July, he was nominated ambassa ing great talents there, particularly in modelling dor-extraordinary to France, and was then sen in clay, and receiving several prizes, he was sent to the congress at Vienna. He was there on tl. to Rome, where he resided for some time, giv-return of Napoleon from Elba, and was instant ing the most assiduous attention to his favourite ly nominated by the allied sovereigns, generalis pursuits. His first production there, was a mo- simo of the European troops. In this capacity del of Jason, which was considered a master-he gained the memorable victory at Waterloo piece. He was afterwards commissioned to which crowned his fame and put an end to the execute the Jason in marble, and from that time wars that had so long desolated Europe. He is has been constantly employed. He has produ- now a field marshal of the forces, master general ced several other valuable works. Since the of the ordinance, &c. A part of the money death of Canova, Thorvaldsen and Chantrey voted him by parliament, amounting in all to may be considered as being at the head of modern more than 800,000l., has been appropriated to sculptors. the purchase of an estate, on which is to be erected for him, a splendid mansion at the public expense.
TRUMBULL, John, author of M'Fingal, was born in 1750, in Watertown, Conn. His father was the congregational clergyman of that WILBERFORCE, William, esq., a member place. He was graduated at Yale College, in of the English parliament, was born in York1767, and was admitted to the bar in Connecticut, shire, in the year 1759, and educated at Camin 1773, but soon after entered into the office of bridge, where he became the intimate friend of John Adams, at Boston, as a student. Here he the late English prime minister, Mr. Pitt. Mr. took a lively interest in the passing scenes in Wilberforce is particularly distinguished for the politics, and often was a contributor to the active part he has taken in the abolition of the papers with great effect. He has resided at African slave trade. His unshaken perseverHartford, Conn., since 1781, has passed through ance, his untiring zeal, and his unbounded a career of high success at the bar, and from philanthropy on this important subject, as well 1801 to 1819, was a judge of the superior court as on other occasions, entitle him to the highest in his native state. In 1820, he revised his seve-expressions of applause and gratitude from all ral works, and an edition of them was pub-good men.
lished, for which he received a liberal compen- WILKIE, David, esq. This distinguished sation. At the age of seventy-five, his conver-painter is a native of Scotland, and was born in sation is still marked with all that wit and 1785. Having early displayed a talent for drawvivacity which have distinguished him. ing, he was sent at the age of fifteen to the academy at Edinburgh, where he continued several years. He went to London in 1805, and was elected a member of the Royal Academy, in 1812. He is said to be highly successful in painting scenes of domestic life, in the manner of Hogarth, and like that great painter seems never to omit the most trifling circumstance, which can tend to exhibit the spirit of the scene which he means to represent.
WILLIAM FREDERICK, king of the Netherlands, is the son of the stadtholder of the United Provinces, who was expelled from his country by the French, in 1795. He was born at the
WELLINGTON, the duke of, fourth son of the late earl of Mornington, was born in Ireland, May, 1769. He was first placed at Eton school, and then sent to the military school of Angers, in France. He entered the army as an ensign, and rose by interest and purchase, to the rank of lieutenant-colonel, in 1793. The next year he commanded a brigade on the continent under the duke of York. In 1797, he accompanied his brother, lord Wellesley, to India, where he rose to the rank of major-general, and to be Hague, in 1772, and married, in 1791, a princess governor of Seringapatam. On his return to of Prussia. For several years he commanded England, in 1805, he married a lady of the fa-the Dutch troops opposed to France, but was mily of lord Longford, was sent to Ireland, as compelled to abandon his country, and retired secretary of state under the duke of Richmond, to England. In 1813, he was invited by a depuand subsequently elected a member of parlia-tation from Holland, to assume the stadtholderment. In 1809, lord Wellington, then sir Arthur ship, but was saluted by the populace as soveWellesley, was ordered to the Peninsula, as reign prince. The congress of Vienna added commander in chief of the British forces; and the Netherlands and Luxemburg to his domiit is to his great talents, and brilliant successes, nions, and raised him to the rank of king in Spain and Portugal, that he is principally Since the restoration of peace, he has given his indebted for his distinguished military reputa-sanction to a new constitution, which had been tion. During the time he commanded in those approved by the states-general, and has since countries, he was constantly opposed to Masse-been employed in reducing to order the discorna, Marmont, and Soult, three of the most dis- dant materials of his kingdom. tinguished French generals; and on all occasions, he proved himself their equal as a general and as a commander. For his services there, he was created duke of Rodrigo, with the rank of a grandee of Spain, by the Spanish regency, and compliance with the wishes of Napoleon. His was successively made an earl and a marquis, marriage has since been dissolved by the pope. by his own government, with a pension of While prince royal of Wirtemburg, he con4,000l. per annum, and a present from parlia-manded the troops of his own country in the Inent of 200,000l. In 1813, after the disasters allied army, and gave proofs of talents and braof Buonaparte in Russia, lord Wellington forced very on several occasions. He succeeded his
WILLIAM FREDERICK, the present sovereign of Wirtemburg, was born in 1781. He married, in 1810, the princess Charlotte of Bavaría, against his inclination, and solely in