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A TABLE of BEER-MEASURE. 282 Cubic Inches

I Gallon 9

I Firkin. 2 Firkins

make

I Kilderkin.
2 Kilderkins

I Barrel.
I Hogshead.
I But.

3 Ditto
3 Barrels

Note, A Firkin of Soap, and of Herrings, are the fame with that of Ale.

year 1689

{

33. This distinction or difference betwixt Ale and Beer Mealure, is now only used in London. But in all other places of England, the following Table of Beer or Ale, whether it be ftrong or small, is to be observed, according to a Statute of Excise made in the

. 282 Cubic Inches

I Gallon, 81 Gallons

I Firkin.

make 2 Firkins

I Kilderkin, 2 Kilderkins

I Barrel. Note, In all Measures liquid or dry. 2 Pints

I Quart. 2 Quarts

make I Pottle. 2 Pottles

I Gallon. 34. Dry measure is different both from Wine and Ale meafure, being as it were a mean betwixt both, tho' not exactly fo; which, upon examination, will be found to be in proportion to the aforesaid old standard Wine-gallon, as Avoirdupoiseweight is to Troy-weight; that is, as one pound Troy is to one pound Avoirdupoise, fo is the cubic inches contained in the old Wine-gallon, to the cubic inches contained in the dry or Corngallon, viz. 12 : 14 7 :: 224 : 272 ·, the common received content of a Corn-gallon nearly. Altho' now it is otherwise settled by an act of parliament, made in 1697, the words of that act are these: Every round Bushel with a plain and even bottom, being made eighteen Inches and a half wide throughout, and eight Inches deep, should be esteemed a legal Winchester Bushel, according to the sandard in his Majesty's Exchequer. Now a vessel thus made, will contain 2150,42 cubic inches, consequently the Corn-gallon doth contain but 2685 cubic Inches,

A TABLE of DŘy or CORN-MEASURE,
2685 Cubic Inches

I Gallon.
2 Gallons

make

I Peck.

I Buhel. 8 Bushels

I Quarter. Note, When Salt and Sea-coal are measured by the Cornbulhel, they are heaped ; 36 Bushels is a Chalder of Coals, and 21 Chalders a Score.

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4 Pecks

35. As the least part of Weight was originally a Wheat-corn, so the least part of Long-measure was a Barley-corn, taken out of the middle of the ear, and being well dried, three of them in length were to make one inch ; and thence the rest, as in the following Table. 3 Barley-corns in length r

I Inch. 12 Inches

I Foot. 3 Feet, or 16 Nails

1 Yard. 3. Feet 9 Inches

I Ell. 6 Feet, or two Yards

I Fathom. 5 Yards and an half

I Pole, or Perch. 40 Poles, or Perches

i Furlong. 8 Furlong's

i English Mile. ALSO,

make

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Note, That a Yard is usually subdivided into four Quarters, and each Quarter into four Nails.

And each Ell into four Quarters; but each Quarter of an El contains five Nails.

36. Superficial, or square Measures of Land, are such as are express’d in the following Table : 40 Square Poles, or

i Rood, or Quarter of an Perches

Acre. make

I Acre. 640 Acres

I Mile. For 40 Poles or Perches in length, and 4 in breadth do make a Statute Acre of Land ; that is 220 yards multiplied by 22. 4

yards,

4 Roods

yards, which is equal to 4840 square Yards are a Statute Acre.

Note, Land is best measured by a Chain of 4 Poles long, divided into 100 parts, called Links.

And if you would express, by Figures, these quantities of Land, viz. thirty-fix Acres three Roods twenty Perches; also seven Acres no Roods thirty-two Perches, the ordinary way to set them down, is thus :

A. R. P.
36 . 3
7

32

20

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24 Hours

make

4 Weeks

37. A TABLE of Time is this that follows: 60 Seconds

I Minute. 60 Minutes

I Hour.

I Day natural. 7 Days

I Week.

I Month of 28 Days. 13 Months 1 Day and 6 Hours

1 Year very near. But in ordinary computations of time, the whole year, confisting of three hundred fixty-five days, is divided either into twelve equal parts or months; every month then containing thirty days and ten hours; or else into twelve unequal Kalendar-months, according to the ancient Verse:

Thirty Days hath September, April, June, and November ;
February hath twenty-eight alone, and each of the reft, thirty-one.

Note, That every Leap-year (which happens once in four years) contains three hundred fixty-fix days; and, in such year, February contains twenty-nine days.

38. Of Things accounted by the dozen, a Grofs is the Integer, consisting of twelve dozens, each dozen containing twelve particulars. So that if you would express, in Figures, seven gross four dozens and five particulars; also four dozens and eight particulars, they may be written thus :

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CHAP. III.

ADDITION of Whole Numbers,

39.

YOncerning Notation of Numbers, and how thereby the

quantities of things are usually expressed, a full declaration has been made in the preceding Chapters: Numeration follows, which comprehends all manner of operations by Numbers.

40. In Numeration, the four primary or fundamental operations are these, Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, and Divifion.

41. Addition is that, by which divers numbers are collected together, to the end that their fum, aggregate or total, may be discovered.

42. In Addition, place the numbers given one above another, in such fort, that like places or degrees in every number, may stand in the same rank; that is, Units above Units, Tens above Tens, Hundreds above Hundreds, &c. So these numbers

1213 1213 and 462, being given to be added together, you are to order them as appears in the margin.

462 43. Having thus placed the numbers, and drawn a line under them, add them together, beginning with the units first, and saying thus, 2 and 3 make 5, which write under the rank of units; then proceed to the second rank, and say, 6 and I make 7, which write under the second rank (being the place of tens); again 4 and 2 make 6, which write under the 1213 third rank, Lastly, write down I, being all that stands 462 in the fourth rank; so the sum of the said given numbers is found to be 1675, and the operation will appear 1675 as in the margin. In like manner, the numbers 2315, 7423, and

2315 being given to be added together, their fum will be 7423 found to be 9879, and the operation will stand as in

141 the example.

9879 44. When the sum of the figures of any of the ranks amounts to ten, or any number of tens without

any excess, write down a cypher under that rank; but when the sum of any rank exceeds ten, or any number of tens, fet down the excess under such rank; and for every ten contained in the fum of any rank, referve an unit or r in your mind, and add

such

and 141,

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such unit or units to the figures of the next rank to-
wards the left-hand; so the numbers 4937, 9878, 4937
and 394, being given to be added together, the ope-

9878 ration will be thus, viz. Beginning with the rank of

394 units, 4, 8 and 7 make 19, wherefore write down 9, the excess above ten, and carry 1 in mind instead

15209 of the ten contained in the said 19: Then i and 9 (9 being the lowermost figure of the second rank) make 10 which added to 7 and 3, the other figures of the same rank, the whole fum of them is 20; therefore set down a cypher under the line in that rank, because the excess above the two tens is nothing; next, carry 2 to the third rank : 2 and 3 (3 being the lowermost figure of the third rank) make 5, which being added to 8 and 9 (the other figures of the same rank) the sum of them is 22 ; therefore writing down 2 (being the excess above the two tens) under the line in the third rank, carry 2 in mind (because there were two tens in 22) to the fourth rank : Lastly, 2 and 9 make 11, which added to 4 make 15; this 15, because it is the sum of the last rank, write totally down under the line, on the left-hand of the figures before subscribed; so the sum of the three numbers given, is found to be 15209, as in the example.

45. The reason of the above operations will be very evident from this undeniable maxim, viz. that the whole is equal to all its parts; and the method of setting down the total, may eafily be accounted for, from the nature of numeration, which explains the different value of places as they proceed from the right, to the left-hand: For, as 9 is the greatest simple character or figure, fo every number exceeding 9, being compound, must require more places than one to express it. Thus, the number Io can no otherwise be expressed in figures, but by removing. the figure into the place of tens, which is done by supplying the unit's place with a cypher: And as it is the same with every other column (ten being still the proportion of increase) consequently, when the sum of any column amounts to 10 or more, the units exceeding, if there be any, or a cypher, if none, must be set under such column, and the ten or tens of the amount carried on, as so many units, to the next column on the left.

What is here observed, as to carrying the tens (the proportion of increase) from one column to another in integers, may be as justly applied to the proper numbers in adding sums of different denominations,

This demonstration may be applied to the example work'd in Art. 44, as follows:

The

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