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CHAP. II. Concerning English Money, Weights, Measures, &c.
HE things exprefed by numbers, are Money, Weight,
Meafure, Time, &c. Of the three first of these, there are infinite kinds and varieties, according to the diversity of the several Commonwealths wherein they are used; all which here to produce were both endless and needless : Wherefore only such Money, Weights, Meafures, &c. as are used in this nation, will be here treated of.
21. The least piece of money used in England is a Farthing, from whence this following Table is produced. 4 Farthings
I Pound. English (or Sterling) Money, is ordinarily written down with Figures, after this manner :
0007 • The first Rank of the faid Numbers fignifies thirty-four pounds thirteen shillings five-pence two farthings; the second Rank expreffes nine pounds five shillings ten-pence one farthing; the third Rank, fixty-nine pounds no fhillings fix-pence three farthings, &c.
22. The smallest weight used in England is a Grain, that is, the weight of a grain of wheat, well dried, and gathered out of the middle of the
ear, of which thirty-two make another weight, called a Penny-weight, and twenty penny-weights make an Ounce Troy *.
Here observe, that by the Statutes quoted in the margin t, the weight of two and thirty grains of wheat, make a pennyweight, which weight being once discovered by thirty-two such grains,
the said penny-weight (being the twentieth part of an ounce Troy) is usually fübdivided into twenty-four parts only, called alsó Grains, as appears by the ensuing Table.
Troy-weight is ordinarily set down with Figures, after this
The first Rank of the said Numbers expreffes feventeen pounds five ounces thirteen penny-weights, thirteen grains of Troy-weight: The second Rank, no pounds eleven ounces seven penny-weights fix grains; and the third, no pounds ng ounces five penny-weights and twenty grains.
Now this Troy-weight ferves only to weigh Gold, Silver, and Electuaries. And here obserye also, that Troy-weight regulates and prescribes a form how to keep the money of England at a certain Standard : For about two hundred years before the conquest, Olbright a Saxon, being then King of England, caused an ounce Troy of silver to be divided into twenty pieces, at the same time called pence; and so an ounce of silver at that time was worth no more than twenty-pence, or one shilling eight-pence; which continued at the fame value until the time of Henry the Sixth, who (in regard of the enhancing of money in foreign parts) valued the fame at thirtypence; fo that then there were accordingly thirty pieces made out of the ounce, and the old pieces went then for three halfpence, 'till the time of Edward the Fourth, who valued the ounce at forty-pence, and then the old pieces went at twopence apiece. After this Henry the Eighth valued the ounce of Sterling-silver at forty-five pence, which value continued 'till Queen Elizabeth's time, who valued the fame old pence at three-pence the piece; so that all three-pences coined by the fame Queen weigh’d but a penny-weight, and every six-pence two penny-weights; and the shilling and other pieces accordingly; which made the ounce Troy of silver to be valued at fixty pence, or five shillings, as it remains at this day without alteration,
Note, Jewels, Pearls, Diamonds, &c. are also weigh'd by Troy-weight, the Ounce being subdivided into 150 parts, called Carats, and each Carat into 4 Grains, .
23. The weights used by Apothecaries are derived from a pound Troy, which is fubdivided, as in the following Table,
A TABLE of APOTHECARIES WEIGHTS,
A Pound Troy
is equal to
So that if you were to express, in Figures, twelve pounds ten ounces five drams two scruples and fixteen grains; also three pounds five ounces seven drams one scruple and two grains, the ordinary way to write them down is thus :
By thefe weights Apothecaries compound their medicines; but they buy and sell their drugs by Avoirdupoise weight.
24. Besides Troy-weight before-mentioned, there is another kind of weight used in England, called Avoirdupoise-weight, a pound whereof is equal to fourteen ounces eleven penny-weights fixteen grains Troy. Avoirdupoise-weight serves to weigh all kinds of Grocery-ware, as' allo Butter, Cheese, Flesh, Tallow, Wax, Tobacco, Iron, Brass, Lead, Tin, Soap, Pitch, Tar, Rosin, Salt, Flax, Hemp, Drugs, and every other thing that bears the name of Garbel, and from which issues a refuse or waste.
25. Avoirdupoise-weight is either greater or less.
26. The greater is, when one hundred and twelve pounds A voirdupoise are considered as one entire weight, commonly called an Hundred-weight, and then such Hundred-weight is subdivided first into four quarters, and each quarter into twentyeight pounds : Again, each pound into four quarters, or (if you will be more exačt) into fixteen ounces, and if you pleale each ounce into four quarters. But ordinarily a pound is the least quantity that is taken notice of, in Avoirdupoise gross weights.
A TABLE of AVOIRDUPOISE Greater Weight.
A Quarter of 112 lb.
So that if you were to express, by Figures, eight hundreds three quarters and five pounds ; likewise, seven hundreds one quarter and seventeen pounds; the ordinary way to set them down is
27. The lesser Avoirdupoise-weight is, when a Pound is the highest name or integer, each pound being subdivided into fixe teen ounces, and each ounce again into sixteen drams, and if you please each dram into four quarters, as by the subsequent Table is manifeft.
ATABLE of AVQIRDU POISE Leffer WEIGHT.
mak I Ounce. 16 Ounces
So that if you were to express, by Figures, eighteen pounds twelve ounces five drams and three quarters of a dram; likewise five pounds no ounces twelve drams and one quarter of a dram; the ordinary way to write them down is thus :
dr. 18. 12
A Stone of Wool, is 141b. and two Stones make a Todd.
28. The Measures used in England are either of Capacity,
29. The Measures of Capacity are those which are produced from weight, and they are either liquid or dry.
30. All Measures of Capacity, both liquid and dry, were at first made from Troy-weight : Vide Statutes, 9 Henry, III. 51 Henry III. 12 Henry VII. &c. wherein it is enacted, that eight Pounds Troy-weight of wheat, gathered out of the middle of the ear, and well dried, should make one Gallon of Wine-meaSure : And that there should be but one Meafure for Wine, Ale and Corn, throughout this Realm. (Vid. Stat. 14 Edw. III. 15 Richard II.) But time and custom hath altered Measures, as they have done Weights (and perhaps for one and the fame reason); for now we have three different Measures, viz. one for Wine, one for Ale or Beer, and one for Corn.
31. The common Wine-gallon, seal'd at Guild-hall in Lona don, by which all Wines, Brandies, Spirits, Strong-waters, Mead, Perry, Cyder, Vinegar, Oil and Honey, &c. are measured and fold, is suppofed to contain 231 cubic Inches; and from thence the rest are computed, as in this Table.
A TABLE of WINE-MEASURE. 231 Cubic Inches
i Gallon. 42 Gallons
I Tierce. 63 Ditto
i Hogshead. 84 Ditto
I Puncheon. 2 Hogfheads
i Pipe, or But. 2 Pipes
Note, 311 Gallons is a Wine or Vinegar Barrel, and 236 Gallons is a Tun of sweet Oil.
32. The Beer or Ale Gallon (which are both one) is much larger than the Wine Gallon; it being probably made at firft to correspond with Avoirdupoife-weight, as the Wine-gallon did with Troy-weight: For one pound Avoirdupoise being nearly equal to 14 ounces 12 penny-weights Troy : And as one pound Troy is in-proportion, to the cubic inches in a Wine-gallon, lo is one pound Avoirdupoise to the cubic inches in an Ale-gallon. That is, 12 : 14 iz : 231 : 282 nearly.
A TABLE of ALB-MEASURE. 282 Cubic Incbes
i Gallon. 8 Gallons
I Firkin. 2 Firkins
make I Kilderkin. 2. Kilderkins