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define a tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.
Nor have we been wanting in attentions to our British brethren. We have warned them, from time to time, of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of Justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity which denounces our separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, enemies in war, in peace friends.
We, therefore, the Representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the name, and by authority of the good people of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Col onies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States; that they are absolved from all allegiance to the BritIsh crown, and that all political connex. lon between them and the State of Great Britain, is, and ought to be, totally disSolved; and that as free and independent States, they have full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce, and to do all other acts and things which independent States may of right do. And for the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, or fortunes, and our sacred Lonour. JOHN HANCOCK.
Georgia.- Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, Geo. Walton.
South Carolina.- Edward Rutledge, Thos. Heyward, junr., Thomas Lynch, junr., Arthur Middleton.
Virginia.- George Wythe, Richard Henry Lee, Thos. Jefferson, Benjan. Harrison, Thos. Nelson, Jr., Francis Lightfoot Lee, Carter Braxton.
Delaware.- Cæsar Rodney, Geo. Read. New Jersey.-Richd. Stockton, Jno. Witherspoon, Fras. Hopkinson, John Hart, Abra. Clark.
North Carolina.- Wm. Hooper, Joseph Hewes, John Penn.
Maryland.- Samuel Chase, Wm. Paca, Thos. Stone, Charles Carroll of Carrollton.
Pennsylvania.- Robt. Morris, Benjamin Rush, Benja. Franklin, John Morton, Geo. Clymer, Jas. Smith, Geo. Taylor, James Wilson, Geo. Ross.
New York.-Wm. Floyd, Phil. Liv. ingston, Fran's Lewis, Lewis Morris.
New Hampshire.-Josiah Bartlett, Wm. Whipple, Matthew Thornton.
Massachusetts Bay. - Saml. Adams, John Adams, Robt. Treat Paine, Elbridge Gerry.
Rhode Island and Providence, &c.Step. Hopkins, William Ellery.
Connecticut.- Roger Sherman, Saml. Huntington, Wm. Williams, Oliver Wolcott.
IN CONGRESS, JANUARY 18, 1777.
That an authenticated copy of the Declaration of Independence, with the names of the Members of Congress subscribing the same, be sent to each of the United States, and that they be desired to have the same put on record. By order of Congress.
Attest, CHAS. THOMSON,
A true copy.
The Constitution of the United States of America.
PROVISIONS BY ARTICLES AND SECTIONS.
SECTION 1. Legislative powers; in whom vested. $ 2. House of Representatives, how and by whom chosen-Qualifications of a Representative - Representatives and direct taxes, how apportioned Census-Vacancies to be filled-Power of choosing officers, and of impeachment.
3. Senators, how and by whom chosen - How classified-State Executive to make temporary appointments, in case, etc.- Qualifications of a Benator-President of the Senate, his right to votePresident pro tem., and other officers of Senate how chosen-Power to try impeachments-When President is tried, Chief Justice to preside-Sentence.
4. Times, etc., of holding elections, how prescribed-One Session in each year.
§ 5. Membership - Quorum - Adjournments Rules-Power to punish or expel-Journal-Time of adjournments limited, unless, etc.
$6. Compensation - Privileges - Disqualification In certain cases.
7. House to originate all revenue bills-VetoBill may be passed by two-thirds of each house, notwithstanding, etc.- Bill not returned in ten daysProvision as to all orders, etc., except, etc.
§8. Powers of Congress..
9. Provision as to migration or importation of certain persons-Habeas Corpus - Bills of attainder, etc.-Taxes, how apportioned - No export dutyNo commercial preferences-No money drawn from treasury, unless, etc.- No titular nobility-Officers not to receive presents, unless, etc.
10. States prohibited from the exercise of certain powers.
SECTION 1. President; his term of office-Electors of President; number and how appointed-Electors to vote on same day - Qualification of Presidenton whom his duties devolve in case of his removal, death, etc.-President's compensation-His oath.
2. President to be commander-in-chief - He may require opinion of, etc., and may pardonTreaty-making power-Nomination of certain officers-When President may fill vacancies.
$ 3. President shall communicate to CongressHe may convene and adjourn Congress, in case,etc.; shall receive ambassadors, execute laws, and commission officers.
4. All civil offices forfeited for certain crimes. ARTICLE III.
SECTION 1. Judicial power-Tenure- - Compensation.
$2. Judicial power; to what cases it extendsOriginal jurisdiction of Supreme Court-AppellateTrial by jury, except, etc.-Trial, where.
$3 Treason defired-Proof of - Punishment of.
SECTION 1. Each State to give credit to the public acts, etc., of every other State.
§ 2. Privileges of citizens of each State-Fugitives from justice to be delivered up - Persona held to service having escaped, to be delivered up. 3. Admission of new States- Power of Congress over territory and other property.
4. Republican form of government guaranteedEach State to be protected.
Constitution; how amended - Proviso.
Certain debts, etc., adopted - Supremacy of Constitution, treaties, and laws of the United StatesOath to support Constitution, by whom takenNo religious test.
What ratification shall establish Constitution.
I. Religious establishment prohibited-freedom of speech, of the press, and right to petation. II. Right to keep and bear arms. III. No soldier to be quartered in any house, unless, etc.
IV. Right of search and seizure regulated. V. Provisions concerning prosecution, trial and punishment-private property not to be taken for public use, without, etc. VI. Further provision respecting criminal prosecutions.
VII. Right of trial by jury secured. VIII. Excessive bail or fines and cruel punishments prohibited.
IX. Rule of construction.
X. Same subject.
XI. Same subject.
XII. Manner of choosing President and VicePresident.
XIII. Slavery abolished. XIV. Citizenship.
PREAMBLE TO CONSTITUTION. We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to
ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this constitution for the United States of America.
1. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a congress of the United States, which shall consist of a senate and house of representatives.
1. The house of representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several states; and the electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the state legislature.
2. No person shall be a representative who shall not have attained to the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in which he shall be chosen.
3. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several states which may be included within this union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each state shall have at least one representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the state of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three; Massachusetts, eight; Rhode Island and Providence plantations, one; Connecticut, five; New York, six; New Jersey, four;
Pennsylvania, eight; Delaware, one; Maryland, six; Virginia, ten; North Carolina, five; South Carolina, five; and Georgia, three.
4. When vacancies happen in the representation from any state, the executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.
5. The house of representatives shall choose their speaker and other officers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment.
1. The senate of the United States shall be composed of two senators from each state, chosen by the legislature thereof, for six years; and each senator shall have one vote.
2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one-third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen, by resignation or otherwise, during the recess of the legislature of any state, the executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.
3. No person shall be a senator who shall not have attained the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state for which he shall be chosen.
4. The vice-president of the United States shall be president of the senate, but shall have no vote unless they be equally divided.
5. The senate shall choose their other officers, and also a president pro tempore in the absence of the vice-president or when he shall exercise the office of presi dent of the United States.
6. The senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the president of the United States is tried, the chief justice shall preside; and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present.
7. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit under the United States; but the party convicted shall, nevertheless, be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment, according to law.
1. The times, places and manner of holding elections for senators and representatives shall be prescribed in each state by the legislature thereof, but the congress may at any time by law make or alter such regulations, except as to the place of choosing senators.
2. The congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.
1. Each house shall be the judge of the elections, returns and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner and under such penalties as each house may provide.
2. Each house may determine the rule of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member.
3. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts
as may, in their judgment, require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house on any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.
4. Neither house, during the session of congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting.
1. The senators and representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treasury of the United States. They shall, in all cases except treason, felony and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either house they shall not be questioned in any other place.
2. No senator or representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased, during such time; and no person holding any office under the United States shall be a member of either house during his continuance in office.
1. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the house of representatives; but the senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other bills.
2. Every bill which shall have passed the house of representatives and the senate shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the president of the United States; if he approve, he shall sign it; but if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to that house in which it shall have originated; who shall enter
the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration, two-thirds of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered; and, if approved by two-thirds of that house, it shall become a law. But in all cases, the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each house respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the president within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the congress, by their adjournment, prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law.
3. Every order, resolution or vote, to which the concurrence of the senate and house of representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment), shall be presented to the president of the United States; and, before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him; or, being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two-thirds of the senate and house of representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.
The congress shall have power:
1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises; to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States.
2. To borrow money on the credit of the United States.
3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes.
4. To establish an uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the
subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States.
5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures.
6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the United States.
7. To establish post-offices and post. roads.
8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writ ings and discoveries.
9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the supreme court; to define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offenses against the law of nations.
10. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and makes rules concerning captures on land and water.
11. To raise and support armies; but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years. 12. To provide and maintain a navy. 13. To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces.
14. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Union, suppress insurrections, and repel inva sions.
15. To provide for organizing, arming and disciplining the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States; reserving to the states respectively the appointment of the officers and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by congress.
16. To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular states, and the acceptance of congress, become the seat of government of the United States;. and to exercise like authority over all