Εικόνες σελίδας
PDF
Ηλεκτρ. έκδοση

1825. PETER PINDLE, DR. $cts|l. 1825. PETER PINDLE CR $lits.
Jan. 1. ro 3 cords of wood, at Jan. 1. By 12/b. shingle-nails,
$1 50

4/50
at 10 cts.

1/20 8.1 To 52 bush. of rye, at

6. By 25lb. of sugar, at
60 cts.

275
11 cts.

2/75 Feb. 2. To 3 bush. of wheat,

21. By 14cwt. iron, at $69.00 at $1 25

375 || Feb. 11. By 2Tb. young hyson 14 To 5 cords of wood, at

tea, at $1 10

2 20 $1 50

7 50 13 By 10lb. of loaf sugar 19.) To 7 bush. of oats, at

at 30 cts.

3100 25 cts,

175

24. By 6 yds. black silk, at 24. To cash, to balance 330

90 cts.

5 40 2355

123 55 Either of the foregoing methods may answer for farmers and for country mechanics generally, but to the retail merchant and others whose business is extensive, an acquaintance with book-keeping by the day-book, and ledger called single entry, or by the day-book, journal and ledger, called double entry, is indispensible. The latter is much the most perfect system, and far best for wholesale dealers, but as it is more complicated and seldoin used, we shall confine our attention to the former, which is generally adopted by merchants and others in this country.

BOOK-KEEPING BY SINGLE ENTRY.

Single Entry requires two principal books, the day-book, or waste book, and the ledger, and one auxiliary book, the cash-book.

1. THE DAY-BOOK. This book is ruled with two columns on the right hand for dollars and cents, one column on the left for inserting the folio or page of the ledger, to which the account is transferred, and a top line over which is written the month, date and year. The articles are separated from each other by a line drawn across the page, and the transactions of one day from those of another by a double line in the centre of which is the day of the month.

This book connences with an account of all the property, debts, &c. of the person, and is followed by a distinct record of all the transactions in trade in the order of time in which they occur, with every circumstance necessary to render the transaction plain and intelligible.*

In entering accounts in the day-book, the following order should be observed : 1, the date ; 2, the name of the person, with the abbreviation Dr. or Cr. at the right hand as he is debtor or creditor, by the transaction ;t 3, the article or articles with the price annexed, and the value carried out into the ruled columns, with the amount

*As the day-book is the decisive book of reference, in case of any supposed mistake, or error, in the accounts in the ledger, it is of the greatest importance that every transaction be noted in it with particular perspicuity and accuracy.

* To know when a person is to be entered Dr. and when Cr. see note * preceding page:

placed directly under, when there is more than one article charged ; and 4, the page to which the account is transferred in the ledger. For the better understanding of the day.book, see the specimen annexed.

2. THE LEDGER. Each

page of the ledger is ruled with a top line, on which is writ.' ten the maine of the person), and marked Dr. on the left hand for receiving the debitet articles, and Cr. on the right for receiving the credited articles of the day-book.' On the right hand of both Dr. and Cr. sides, are ruled two coiumns for dollars and cents, and on their left, three columns, one for the page of the day-book, one for the month, and one for the date. The ledger has an index, in which the names of persons are arranged under their initial letters, with the

page in the ledger, where the account may be found. Rule for Postinca.-Under the name of the person, enter the several transactions on the Dr. or Cr. side in the ledger, as they stand debited or credited in the day-book. When several things are included in the same transaction, they are distinguished by the term “sundries.” Some accountants enter in the ledger only the page

of the day book and the amount of the transaction, without specifying the items, but the foriner is thought the most correct.

Balancing Accounts. When all the articles are correctly posted into the ledger, each account is balanced by subtracting the less side from the greater, and entering the balance on the less side, by which both sides are inade equal. The excess of all the balances on the Dr. over those on the Cr. sides, added to the cash on hand and the value of the goods unsold, the sum is the net of the estate, which, compared with the stock at the commencement of business, cxhibits the merchant's gain.*

3. CASH-BOOK. In the cash-book are recorded the daily receipt and payment of money. For this purpose it is ruler with separate columns, one for money received and the other for money paid, in which should be recorded merely the date, to or by whom paid and the sum. The cash-book is convenient, but not absolutely necessary. Other aux. iliary book's are sometimes used and are important in some kinds of business, but the accountant will readily forın these for himself, as circumstances may render necessary.

* When the place assigned to any person's account is filled with items, the person's name must not be entered the second time, but may be transferred to another page in the following manner. viz. Add up the Dr. and Cr, columns and against the sums with Amount transferred to page here inserting the page where the new account is opened. Begin the new account by enteriog on the Dr. side, To amount brought from page inserting the page of the old account, and on the Cr. side, By amount brought from page –, inserting the page of the old account, placing the surus in their proper columns.

As several day books and ledgers may be necessary in the progress of business, they should be distinguished by lettering them, as follows: day-book A. day-book B, &c.-Ledger A. ledger B, &c. and in posting accounts into the leðgér, there must be a reference to day-book-A or B, &c. as the account is found in one or another.

February 2

[ocr errors]

L.P.

[merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

DAY-BOOK.
1 ) Albany, January 3, 1825.

ll

$ ct. L.P. Titus Cole
INVENTORY

2 By 120 gal. Molasses

86 gal. wine
Of ready money goods and debts due

116 gal N. E. Rum
to me, Timothy Standish, Mer-
chant, Albany.

limon Pica
Money on hand,

$823.00
1 Peter Pindar owes me, 212.00

To 5 gal. N. E.
i John Kelley,

122.00
Thomas Scott,

16.00
2

2 Calvin Owen
16 cwt. Sugar, a $9.50 152.00

To l gal. Wine
25 quintals Fish, â 3.50 87.50

7 gal. Molasses
|300 lbs. Coffee, a $18.-

44 90
1450.50

1 Samuel Adams

To Cash on account,
DEBTS

1 Samuel English
Owed by me
the said Timothy

By 6 bush. Wheat
Standish.

2 Thomas Scott
2 To David Terry, as per ac-

By Cash to balance
count,

$12,00
2 » John Strong,
146,00

8-
21 » Felix Storrs,

238,00

1 Levi Munson

To 4 quintals Fish
396.00

40 lbs. Sugar
Net 1060 50

5 gal. Molasses

[blocks in formation]

1 Samuel English
To 2 quintals fish,

" 20 lbs. coffee

Dr.
a $4,25

a ,22

1 By Cash, on account,

8 bush.Corn
10 bush. Rye

a ,48
2.50

12 90

18 84

[blocks in formation]

1 John Kelley
By Cash on account, to hal.

-10-
2 Dan Curt
To 10 gal. N. E. Rum

5 gal. Molasses

Dr.
a ,50

,40

[blocks in formation]

730

[blocks in formation]

Dr.

Dr.

1 Levi Munson
To 3 lbs. Bohea Tea -

1 lh. Hyson Tea
4 lbs. Coffee
10 lbs. Sugar

,62
a $1.25

a ,22
a ,12

-11-
2 John Dana
To 4 gal. Wine

a $1,25

-12-
2 David Ferry

Dr.
To Cash to balance former act.

7/00

519

[merged small][ocr errors]
[blocks in formation]

-13
1 Zera Coleman

To3 quintals Fish
1 John Kelley

By Cash, in account,
2 John Strong
To Cash in former account,

-24
1 Charles Gray
To 8 lbs. Sigar

4 lbs. Coffee -
3 lbs. Hyson Tea

1 Peter Pindar

Cr.
By Cash in full,
Felix Storrs
2

Dr.
To Cash on former account,

-14-
21
David French

Dr.
To 2 quintals Fish - a $4,25
1
Samuel English

Cr.
By 10 bushels Rye

a ,54
Cash to balance

$2,52

46 75

8 50

Dr

a 121

798

[blocks in formation]

*By single entry, goods bought are entered. either in an invoice book kept for the purpose, or
posted immediately into the Leger from the invoices. or bills of parcels. This method is now,
however, adopted here: but the goods are credited the seller, and afterwar to his account in the
Loger.

3]

[merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small]

1061

11 65

9925

25 50

4905

1670

10/48

6

194/98

7

27.63

DAY-BOOK.
February 14.

March 11.
L.P. Sylvester Warren
Dr. $ ct.L.P. Levi Munson

Dr.
1; T. 1 gal. Wine

a $1,75

1 T05 1-2 gal. of W. I Rum å $1,25
3 gal. N. E. Rum

a ,53
16 gal. Molasses

a ,40
3 34
Cr.

-14-
1 By 10 bushels Wheat a ,92

2 Felix Storrs

Dr.
3 bu. corn

a 48
To Cash in full

-15-
2 Philip Carter

Cr.
2 John Strong

Dr.

By an order on John Tinker for
To Cash to balance former ac.
-16-
2 Aaron Potter

Cr.
2 Aaron Potter

Dr.

Br Cash on account
To 24 lbs Hyson Tea a $1,20

-18.
2 1-2 quintals Fish - a 4,10
50 lbs Coffee

1 Simon Pond

Cr.
- a,20
By 21 1-2 bush. Rye

- a ,52
11 1-2 bush. Corn

a ,48
1
Zera Coleman

Cr.
By 233 lbs pork
a .04 1-2

19-
-20-
1 Levi Munson

Dr.
Titus Cole

Dr.

To 12 gal. N. E. Rum a ,50
To Cash in full,
-26-
2 John Dana

Cr.
1
Simon Pond

Dr.

By Cash in full
To I chest Bohea Tea, 80 lbs à ,44 3520

2 Charles Lyman

Cr.
Samuel Adams

Dr.

By Cash, in full, on account
To Cash in full,

161
52

-24-
March 1

2
David French

Dr.
Jared Hill

Dr.
To 1 1-2 gal. wine

a $1,75
To 21 3-4 lbs Coffee

3 gal. W. I. Rum

a ,94
- @ 22
36 1-4 lbs Sugar
91-2 gal. Wine
a $1,62

-26-
Jared Hill

Cr.

By Cash in full on acct.
2 Charles Lyman
T06 1-2 quintals Fish a $4,25 2763

Noah Drew

Dr.
2
To 233 lbs pork

a ,05
2 Dan Burt

Cr.
10 bush. Wheat

,98
By Cash in full. By J. Starr.

7

-28-
2 Simon Pond

Dr.

1
Levi Munson

To 16 lbs Coffee
To 4 quintals of Fish a 4,25 171

a ,22

4 " Hyson Tea a $1,20
- Charles Gray
Cr.

30-
By 5 1-2 bushels wheat
Cash to balance

53

2
David French

Cr.
By Cash in full

-31.
2 Augustus Young

Dr.
2 Augustus Young

Dr.
To 112 1-2 lbs Sugar -

To 13 lbs Coffee

a ,22

Cr.
2 Calvin Owen

Dr.
To 53-4 lbs Hyson Tea

a $1,19 684 2 By 10 3-4 bush. Wheat

Cash to balance
-8-

$5,29
2
Noah Drew

Cr.
By 1 hhd. W. I. Rum, 63 gal. a 75

- April 2-
47 25

Levi Munson
-10-

By Cash on account
2 Calvin Owen

Cr.
By Cash in full

1153
1 Charles Gray

Cr.

By Cash on acct. in full
1 Levi Mungon

Cr.
By cash on account

5
Simon Pond

Dr.
11

So 8 gals. N. E. Rum a ,51
Charles Gray

Dr.

26 1-2 gals. W'. I Rum a ,94
To 10 gal. W. I. Rum a $1,25 1250

99

5.45

a,14

2425

24 25

-

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

1]

LEGER.
Dr.

SAMUEL ENGLISH
1825 ID.B.]

$ et 1825 D.B.
Jan. 4 F. To Sundries as per D. Book, 12 90!! Feb. 5
11

2 By 6 bush. Wheat
13

Sundries

Cr

F.

4198
792
12 96

Cr.

[merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small]

112
100

2121

Cr

Dr.

1825
Jan. 7
Feb. 14

SYLVESTER WARREN

1825
Feb: 14

1.To Sundries
3 Sundries

al30

4 By Sundries

10164

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

Dr.

1825
March 11!
97 19

28

LEVI MUNSON

Cr.

1825
3 To amount brought from page 1

28.03 April 2 By amt. br. from page 1 23.84
Sundries

1328 | 4Cash on account
12 gals N. E. Rum

6

Balance, transferred, 21
Sundries
8132

55.69
55,60

4

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]
« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »