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tion after proper notice. But the inadvert-! It should be noted also that no judgment ence was not that of Hoyt. He had done was rendered in favor of Robson. The true nothing he should not have done. He had position of these two defendants is therefore omitted nothing which he should have done. to be found by eliminating all thought of the It was not his fault that some one unauthor- so-called “cross-complaint.” The true rule is ized to submit his motion had done so. · Pe- well illustrated by the following quotation titioner insists that there was nothing within from Hibernia Bank v. Dickinson, 167 Cal. the knowledge of the court which should have 619, 140 Pac. 265 : given notice to the judge of that tribunal “Where a complaint is directed against two that an improper order was being made. | persons, and the liability of one involves some Undoubtedly the court may dismiss a motion

facts which are not material to the liability of for a new trial when the moving party fails and they answer separately, neither is required

the other upon the cause of action declared upon, to prosecute, and it is also true that such a to answer those allegations which relate solely motion may be brought on for hearing by ei-to the liability of the other. The present case ther party. Section 600, Code Civ. Proc. The

illustrates this proposition. The action was

upon the note and mortgage executed by Dickcourt knew that Hoyt's counsel and Robson's inson alone. His liability was shown by the counsel were not present when the order of allegations of the execution and nonpayment of February 21, 1913, was made. It was the

the note and mortgage. Montgomery did not exduty of the court to permit Hoyt to present

ecute them. He was a proper party because he

was a subsequent purchaser of the land. But his motion unless he waived his right by his personal liability for the debt and to a defifailing to appear. When, therefore, the court ciency judgment was founded on the extraneous learned that the motion had been called for fact that he had assumed payment of the morthearing under circumstances which deprived

gage debt. This fact had no relation whatever

to the original liability of Dickinson. It was Hoyt of his right to a hearing, it became not a fact material to the cause of action stated manifest that the court, and not counsel for against Dickinson, either to obtain a foreclosure

njured party, had acted inadvertently. or to obtain a deficiency judgment." and therefore that of its own volition the The effect of granting a new trial of the iscourt could restore the motion for new trial sues between the bank and Hoyt will not disto the calendar without any application hav-turb the judgment against Robson. Section ing been made under section 473, Code of Civ 578, Code Civ. Proc.; Fowden v. Pacific Coast il Procedure. The Whitney Case has settled Steamship Co., 149 Cal. 155, 86 Pac. 178; that matter.

Nichols v. Dunphy, 58 Cal. 607. Hoyt was [1, 2] The next question presented is wheth- asking for a new trial as to the issues beer or not the court erred in making the order tween him and plaintiff, and as to such isof April 4, 1913, granting the new trial on sues only. Petitioner is not an aggrieved stipulation of plaintiff and defendant Hoyt, party because in the event of Hoyt's escapwithout giving notice to the petitioner, Rob-ing a judgment all of the liability might son. The position of respondents is this: Rob- fall upon him. The conclusion of the court son and Hoyt were not adversary parties to in the suit for foreclosure of the bank's the action of foreclosure; therefore the judg mortgage will not be binding in any acment in favor of the plaintiff is not res ju- tion which Robson may bring against Hoyt. dicata as to any issue between Robson and The decree in favor of the bank fixed none Hoyt, and the bank could, accordingly, stipu | of the rights or obligations of the defendants late with Hoyt as it pleased. This conten among themselves. Robson is not an intertion is correct. The bank sued the defend ested party in the proceedings for a new trial ants and alleged against each of them sepa. of the issues between plaintiff and Hoyt. In

y that each in purchasing the land has Estate of Heydenfeldt, 127 Cal. 459, 59 Pac. assumed the payment of the mortgage. Rob

839, it was held that persons who were on son and Hoyt filed separate answers. Rob- the same side in a former proceeding may not

Sled pleading called a "cross-com- invoke the principle of estoppel as between plaint,” but in it he asked no affirmative each other based upon findings in that said relief against Hoyt. The findings contain former proceeding. We need not analyz the statement, among others, that the case many authorities from other states cited by came to trial upon the cross-complaint of respondents, because the rule is well underRobson against O'Toole and Hillyer. No ref- stood. It is well stated, however, in Wilerence is made to Hoyt. Clearly the superior trout v. Showers, 82 Neb. 779, 118 N. W. 1080. court did not look upon the pleading as a

The action was for breach of contract wherecross-complaint against Hoyt. Counsel for by defendant agreed to pay a note and mort. petitioner virtually concedes that there was gage executed by plaintiff in favor of a third no cross-complaint against Hoyt: for he uses person. The holder of the note sued both the following language in one of the briefs :

Wiltrout and Showers. The former default. "The cross-complaint was filed as a precau- ea, and

ed, and Showers was successful as against tionary measure,' for in advance it was not the holder of the obligations. Wiltrout paid known how plaintiff would act, and whom plain- the judgment, and then sued Showers, who tiff would seek to hold or release, but, in view

pleaded the former judgment as res judicata. of the findings of the court, all necessity of the cross-complaint ceased, its existence is of no im

The court said: portance, it affects no right of the parties, and "As between the two defendants in that ac

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and

ers were not adverse parties. The question, and as we hold, Robson was not an adverse of liability of Showers on the oral contract to as: party to Hoyt, and could not be affected by a sume and pay the notes was not litigated and determined as between Wiltrout and Showers. 14

'new trial granted to Hoyt, there is no ocThe rule of law is well settled that parties to a

| casion to consider whether the court properjudgment are not bound by it in a subsequently set aside, as to Hoyt, the order denying action unless they were adverse parties in the

a new trial. But, as this question is discussoriginal action. 1 Freeman, Judgments (4th Ed.) § 158; 2 Black, Judgments (2d_Ed.) 8 599 ; Pioneer Savings & Loan Co. v. Bartsch, it proper to say that I do not assent to the 51 Minn, 474 [53 N. W. 764, 38 Am. St. Rep. / views expressed by him with respect to the 511). The bar of former adjudication can only be raised between those who were adverse par

-right of a court to vacate, on an ex parte ties in the former suit, and the judgment in the application, an order granting or denying former suit settles nothing as to the relative a new trial. On this point I adhere to what rights or liability of the codefendants as between

I said in the former opinion, from which I

said in the former opinion from wh themselves unless their conflicting claims were put in issue by cross-petition or adverse an- | quote: swers, and were actually litigated and adjudicat- "The petitioner takes the position that, when ed. 23 Cyc. 1279; Whitesell v. Strickler, 167 an application for a new trial has been made in Ind. 602 178 N. E. 845, 119 'Am. St. Rep. 524].” due form and the court has passed upon it, the It follows that Robson's rights are not de

order made is conclusive so far as the court

making it is concerned, and that court cannot pendent upon the determination of the issues

afterwards vacate the order and again decide between the plaintiff and Hoyt in the fore- the motion. As a general proposition, this conclosure suit. Of course, the court below will

the court below will tention is unquestionably sound. Coombs v.

Hibberd, 43 Cal. 452; Odd Fellows' Sav. Bank confine itself in the new trial to the single

v. Deuprey, 66 Cal. 168, 4 Pac. 1173; Dorland issue of the alleged assumption by Hoyt of v. Cunningham, 66 Cal. 484, 6 Pac. 135; Lang the payment of the mortgage.

V. Superior Court, 71 Cal. 491, 12 Pac. 306, [3] But it is alleged in the petition that the

416; Carpenter v. Superior Court, 75 Cal. 596,

19 Pac. 174; Holtum v. Greif, 144 Cal. 521, 78 rest

Vi arbPac. 11. The 'statute,' says the court in Dorabout to “try said action as to all defend-land v. Cunningham, supra, 'authorizes but one ants,” and there is no denial of this allega- motion for a new trial, and makes the ruling

thereon final, so far as the superior court is tion in the answer. The petitioner is entitled

concerned.' If error has been committed in to a writ prohibiting respondent from trying granting or denying the motion, the proper mode any issues except those arising on the plead- of seeking redress is by appeal, as in the case of

banendonel any final order or judgment of the superior ings between the plaintiff bank and defendant

court. The objection that the lower court has Hoyt.

improperly vacated its final order is one that Let such a writ issue.

goes to the jurisdiction of the court. Lang v.

Superior Court, supra; Carpenter v. Superior We concur: HENSHAW, J.; LORIGAN, J. Court, supra; Holtum v. Greif, supra. **

“An order granting or denying a motion for a SLOSS, J. I concur in the judgment. It

doment I new trial is, of course, like other orders, subject

to be set aside under section 473 of the Code of is clearly shown by the opinion of Mr. Jus-Civil Procedure. But the granting of such retice MELVIN that the petitioner, Robson, | lief implies an application to the court by the would not be affected by a new trial of the party against whom the proceeding was taken,

upon notice to the adverse party and upon a issues raised between the plaintiff in the fore

proper showing, and it is not claimed that in closure suit and Hoyt. This being so, the this case there was any attempt to invoke or to petitioner is not a party "beneficially inter- exercise the power conferred on the court by ested,” and is not, therefore, in a position to

section 473.

"There is one further limitation upon the rule seek a writ of prohibition against the trial prohibiting the court from vacating its order of such issues. Code Civ. Proc. $ 1103. He once made, and upon this the respondents place is, however, directly interested in preventing their reliance. Where an order has been made

'irregularly and through inadvertence,' the court another trial of the action against himself as

| bas power, of its own motion or on application defendant. By the judgment he is made lia- of a party to set the order aside. Morris v. De ble for a deficiency in the proceeds of the Celis, 41 Cal. 331; De Gaze v. Lynch, 42 Cal. sale. The property has been sold on foreclo-|

| 362; Hall v. Polack, 42 Cal. 223; 0. F. Sav.

|Bank v. Deuprey, supra, and cases cited; Holsure, and the amount of the deficiency ascer-tum v. Greif, supra; Whitney v. Superior Court, tained. In the event of a new trial, a new 147 Cal. 536, 82 Pac. 37. This rule has been judgment, and a new sale, the deficiency for applied in cases where the order was prematurewhich Robson is liable may be greatly in

ly made, as, for example, where a statement to

be used on the motion has not been settled, or creased.

there had been no submission of the motion, In It follows that, as is held in the forego such cases the court has acted irregularly and ing opinion, any new trial should be confined

inadvertently in undertaking to pass upon a

motion which had not been brought before it, to the issues between the bank and Hoyt,

and its improvident action may be set aside. leaving the judgment of the bank against This does not mean that an order may be vaRobson standing as a final adjudication. cated because the court concludes, after making This was precisely the effect of the writ of

it, that it erred in matter of law or fact, or be

cause one of the parties was guilty of some inadprohibition directed on the former submission vertence which resulted to his disadvantage. of the present proceeding. The correctness of The inadvertence which will justify the setting the conclusion is conceded by the respondents

aside of an order (except under section 473) is

the inadvertence of the court, not of a party. in their brief filed since their petition for “We think there was here no basis for the rehearing was granted. If, as they claim, court's action in setting aside its order denying

vas

a new trial. The notice of intention had been 12. MECHANICS' LIENS 196—PERSONS ENTIserved and filed, the bill of exceptions had been TLED – CLASSIFICATION - STATUTE – "LAduly settled and was on file, and the motion ap BORER" - "SUBCONTRACTOR" - "ORIGINAL peared regularly on the calendar of the court CONTRACTOR"-"MATERIALMAN." for argument on February 21, 1913. On that Under the Mechanics' Lien Law (Code Civ. day, there being no appearance for the moving Proc., § 1194) prior, to the amendment of 1911, party, Hoyt, the motion was called and answer- declaring that laborers and materialmen should ed 'ready' by counsel for plaintiff, who submit- bave preference over subcontractors in particited the motion, which was thereupon denied. pation in the amount applicable to mechanics All of t

v regular and the court I liens, a firm which lathed and plastered a house. did not act improvidently or inadvertently. It furnishing the material; a firm which constructappears, however, that there had been an oraled most of the floors and walls, furnishing the understanding between counsel for Hoyt and a material; a company which erected part of the member of plaintiff's firm of counsel that the walls of bathrooms, furnishing the necessary hearing of the motion should be continued. This tile; a company which put on a mission tile was not known to the attorney who appeared for roof, furnishing the material; a firm which laid plaintiff on February 21st. The misunderstand the flooring in certain rooms, furnishing the ing in this regard would unquestionably have material; and a person who erected the tin supported a claim of inadvertence or surprise work and galvanized iron and copper work, a on the part of Hoyt, but we cannot see that it substantial part of the structure, furnishing the tended to show any inadvertence or irregularity materials-were all "subcontractors" under the on the part of the court. If the disregard of statute, which divides the liens assertable against oral stipulations or misunderstandings between the property into four classes, laborers', matecounsel could authorize the court of its own mo- rialmen's, subcontractors', and original contraction, or on an ex parte application, to set aside tor's, the "original contractor" being the person judgments or orders as improvident, the finality who agrees with the owner to construct a buildof judicial determinations would be seriously ing on his property, "laborers" being those who impaired. Reasons like these are typical illus- | perform labor in the construction of the buildtrations of the grounds upon which relief should ing, "materialmen" being persons who merely be sought under section 473.”

furnish material to the contractors to be used

in the construction of the building, and "subconI do not stop to discuss the question wheth

tractors" being all persons who agree with the er Whitney v. Superior Court, 147 Cal. 536, original contractor to furnish the material and 82 Pac. 37, can be successfully distinguished construct for him on the premises some part of from the case at bar. If there be no valid

the structure which the original contractor has

agreed to erect for the owner, although literally ground of distinction, I think the decision a "subcontractor" is one who agrees with anin the Whitney Case is in conflict with the other to perform a part or all of the obligation rules established by a long line of prior de

which the second owes by contract to a third

person. cisions, and with fundamental principles gop

[Ed. Note.-For other cases, see Mechanics' erning the finality of judicial determinations. I

| Liens. Cent. Dig. 88 337–341; Dec. Dig. Ono

196. I concur: SHAW, J.

For other definitions, see Words and Phrases,

First and Second Series, Laborer; MaterialANGELLOTTI, C. J. I concur in the Judg

man; Original Contractor; Subcontractor.] ment on the ground that the petitioner would 3. APPEAL AND ERROR 934-PRESUMPTIONS not be affected by a new trial of the issues

FAVORING COURT BELOW.

All intendments favor the judgment of the raised between the plaintiff in the foreclosure

court below. suit and Hoyt, and that, this being so, he is

[Ed. Note. For other cases, see Appeal and not in a position to seek a writ of prohibition Error, Cent. Dig. 88 3777–3782; Dec. Dig. Om against the trial of such issues. He is bene- 934.] ficially interested in prohibiting the trial of 4. MECHANICS' LIENS 290_FORECLOSURE other issues, and therefore it is properly FINDING-SUPPORT BY LIEN CLAIM. ordered that a writ issue to prohibit any In a consolidated action to foreclose me such trial.

chanics' liens, where the lien claims of certain firms stated that they had respectively performed labor on the building, the claim of one stating

that its members had performed certain labor in (171 Cal. 570)

the construction of the house, and also had furHIHN-HAMMOND LUMBER CO. V. ELSOM nished certain materials used therein, a finding et al. (S. F. 6707.)

ranking such parties as materialmen or laborers

was sufficiently sustained by the respective (Supreme Court of California. Dec. 17, 1915.)

claims of lien. : 1. MECHANICS' LIENS Om 196STATUTE-CON- (Ed. Note.-For other cases, see Mechanics STITUTIONALITY.

Liens, Cent. Dig. 88 591-597; Dec. Dig. Om Code Civ. Proc. 8 1194, declaring that la 290.) borers and materialmen shall have preference over subcontractors in participation in the Department 1. Appeal from Superior amount applicable to mechanics' liens, is not Court, Santa Cruz County; Lucas F. Smith, violative of Const. art. 20, § 15, providing that mechanics, materialmen, artisans, and laborers

at Judge. of every class shall have a lien for labor or

Action to foreclose liens by the Hihn-Hammaterial furnished, since such provision serves mond Lumber Company against R. W. Elmerely to place on an equal footing mechanics, som and others. From a judgment assignmaterialmen, artisans, and laborers who person

ing their respective ranks as lienors, and ally perform work.

from an order denying their motion for new [Ed. Note.-For other cases, see Mechanics' Liens, Cent. Dig. 88 337–341; Dec. Dig. Om

trial, Thomas J. Guilfoy and certain others 196.)

appeal. Judgment and order affirmed.

W. P. Netherton, of Santa Cruz, for appel- , ered by this court in Miltimore v. Nofziger, lants. Wyckoff & Gardner, of Watsonville, etc., Co., 150 Cal. 790, 90 Pac. 114. It was for respondent Hihn-Hammond Lumber Co. there declared that the section did not vioH. A. Van C. Torchiana, of San Francisco, late the Constitution by reason of this preferand W. P. Netherton, of Santa Cruz, for de- ence, but only so far as it gave laborers a tendant Williamson & Garrett. Charles B. preference over materialmen. Some memYounger, of Santa Cruz, for defendants W. R. bers of the court dissented on the ground that Van Wagner and F. P. Van Wagner, and for the priorities given to laborers over materialrespondents A, 'D. Houghton, and George H. men was valid. But there was no difference Cardiff. I. F. Chapman, of San Francisco, for of opinion regarding the power of the Legisdefendant White Bros. W. P. Netherton, of lature to prefer these two classes to subconSanta Cruz, for defendants E. B. & A. L. Stone tractors. We are not disposed to go over Co., California Artistic Metal & Wire Compa- the ground again to demonstrate the soundny, Simpson & Fisher, F. A. Angell, H. V. An-ness of this decision. Upon the authority gell, and H. W. Truman. Charles M. Cassin, of thereof we hold that the point is not well San Jose, for defendants Henry Willey Co., taken. George G. Byrne, Walter C. Byrne, and Dan- [2, 3] Another proposition advanced in suplels Santa Cruz Transfer Co. C. R. Taylor, port of the appeal is that the findings of the of Los Angeles, for defendant Granite Rock court, with respect to each of the appellants, Co. Rittenhouse & Johnston, of Santa Cruz, that it was a subcontractor and not a matefor defendants L. W. Rickey, George H. Leroy, rialman, are contrary to the evidence. Louis H. Wessendorf, George C. Staffler, H. The facts relating to each of them are as F. Faneuf, C. H. Heath, Fred A. Bright, and follows: The building erected was a large W. F. Bright. Greg S. McEvers, of Santwo-story dwelling house. The contract price Francisco, for defendants William Ross and was $27,635.20. R. W. Elsom & Co. were D. MacLeod. A. E. Bolton, of San Francisco, the contractors for the erection of the buildfor defendants William T. Sesnon, B. F. ing. Guilfoy agreed to furnish and set in Porter Estate, J. Harry Blohme, and Clar place in the building "all tin, galvanized iron, ence B. Ward. W. M. Gardner, of Santal and copper work, including copper sash bars. Cruz, for defendant R. W. Elsom.

galvanized iron caps, copper flashings at back

of wall, two rows of cross bars and a half bar SHAW, J. A number of persons, each

at wall line, the full length,” all according claiming a mechanic's lien on the same prop

to the plans and specifications of the builderty, began separate actions to foreclose the ing prepared by the architect. The cost of liens. These actions were consolidated for the material for this work amounted to $943.trial and resulted in a joint judgment of 50. The cost of the labor was $247.50. The foreclosure. The building, on account of Waterhouse-Price Company agreed to furnish which the liens accrued, was erected prior the tile for the walls of four bathrooms and to the enactment of the amendment of 1911 a toilet and set the same in the building, the to the mechanic's lien law, in pursuance of setting to be done by experienced workmen a contract which was valid under the prior from San Francisco, all as required by the law. The liens amounted to more than the plans and specifications. The material therebalance found due from the owner to the con- for amounted to $227.50 and the labor, $37.50. tractor. This made it necessary to appor- Floodberg & McCaffery agreed to furnish the tion the balance to the respective claimants, material and labor necessary to complete the and to declare the rank of each lien and the lathing and plastering upon the building acorder of its payment out of the fund. Six of cording to specifications attached to the conthe lien claimants, namely, Thomas J. Guil. tract. The material amounted to $1,600 and foy, Waterhouse-Price Company, Floodberg & the labor to $1,363.20. Montague & Co. McCaffery, W. W. Montague & Co., N. Clark agreed to furnish and place in the building & Sons, and Ford & Malott, being dissatisfied 360 square feet of tile for the front porch, with the rank assigned to them by the judg- 250 square feet of tile, and the cove around ment, have appealed from the judgment and the walls with plinth blocks at doors, for from an order denying their motion for a four bathrooms and floors of toilets on the new trial. The court found that each of second floor; also, to furnish the materials these appellants was a subcontractor and, and place in the building four fireplaces for that reason, assigned them a rank sub- made of brick or tile in different rooms in ordinate to that of laborers and materialmen. the building, and to place 75 square feet of The provisions of section 1194 of the Code of tile and wire spaces in the pantry. For all Civil Procedure, as it then existed, declared this the material amounted to $500 and the that laborers and materialmen should have labor to $423. Clark & Sons agreed to depreference over subcontractors in participa- liver and lay in place the tile roof with scal. tion in the amount applicable to liens under loped iron at the eaves, in accordance with that law.

the plans and specifications. The material [1] The first point urged by the appellants amounted to $1,350 and the labor $335. Much is that section 1194, in so far as it gives such of the tile had to be cut and fitted on the preference to laborers and materialmen, is premises. Ford & Malott agreed to lay the unconstitutional. This question was consid-fiber stone flooring and furnish the material

amounte

therefor in the breakfast room and on the asserted against property under the mechansouth and west lower porches. The material ics' lien law into four classes, to wit, labor

ers, materialmen, subcontractors, and origThe question whether one who claims a inal contractors. The meaning of the term lien upon a building is a contractor or mate- "subcontractors," as there used, must be derialman has been several times considered termined by reference to this classification by the court. A brief statement of the cases, and to the subject to which it relates. The in which the decisions have been rendered "original contractor" is the person who will assist in elucidating the principles to be agrees with the owner to construct a buildapplied. In Hinckley V. Field, etc., Co., 91 ing on his property. Those who perform Cal. 139, 27 Pac. 594, it was held that one labor in the construction of the building come who constructs, before delivery, “a steam within the first class, as "laborers.” Persons plant consisting of boilers, engine, heater, who merely furnish material to the contracfeed pipe," etc., for a cracker factory, de-tors to be used and which are used in the livers them and puts them in place in the construction of the building come within the Tactory building is a materialman, and not second class, as "materialmen.” The term a contractor. It was said that the work of

York of "subcontractor" embraces all persons who

subcontractors em putting these materials in place “was only

agree with the original contractor to furnish the completion of their contract to deliver

the material and construct for him on the such finished machinery." In Roebling Co.

premises some part of the structure which v. Humboldt Co., 112 Cal. 290, 44 Pac. 568,!!

the original contractor has agreed to erect the same rule was made concerning a con

for the owner. We think something more tract to make and set up ready for use in a

than a mere comparison of the cost of the building an electrical plant "consisting of

labor of attaching material to the building dynamos, converters, switchboard, lamps, etc., with the necessary wiring and connec

with the total price of the work and materitions," although in order to set them up it

als is necessary in many cases to a determiwas necessary to put in the building a foun

nation of the question whether a claimant is dation for the dynamos and to install the

a subcontractor or a materialman. Generally wires and lamps. In Bennett v. Davis, 113 speaking, it would be held that one who, unCal. 337, 45 Pac. 684, 54 Am. St. Rep. 354, the

434 Am St Ren 354 the der an agreement with the contractor, enters same rule was followed with respect to a upon the premises and there, with material contract to furnish mantels, tiles, and grates furnished by himself, erects a definite part and set them in a building under construc- of the structure composing the building, is a tion. Each tile pertaining to the mantels had subcontractor within the meaning of this secto be set in separately and some bricklaying tion, regardless of the comparative cost of around the mantels was necessary as a part | labor and material. The cases above cited of the setting thereof. In Bryson v. McCone, which hold the claimant to be a materialman 121 Cal. 153, 53 Pac. 637, the court held that go upon the theory that the claimant agreed a person contracting to build ice tanks, in- with the owner or the contractor to construct, cluding steel molds, pipes, pumps, and con- outside of the building, or away from the nections, and to set them up in an ice fac- premises, some completed article, machinery. tory, was a materialman, and not an original or apparatus to be thereafter placed in or contractor. In Smith v. Bradbury, 148 Cal. attached to the building by the person who 41, 82 Pac. 367, 113 Am. St. Rep. 189, it was furnished it. The contention was that the held that one who contracted to do the plas-work of attaching it to the building constitering in a building at a stated price yer yard tuted a part of the construction of the buildwas a subcontractor and not a materialman. ing itself, and therefore made the claimant So in La Grill v. Mallard, 90 Cal. 373, 27 either an original contractor with the owner Pac. 294, one who contracted to paper and or a subcontractor with the contractor. The decorate a number of rooms in a dwelling substance of the decisions is that the work house, where the actual work was done by of attaching and placing the thing in the employés, was held to be an original con- building was merely a part of the delivery, tractor. The only rule of general application and that the essence of the agreement was to announced in any of the above-mentioned de- furnish a finished article

furnish a finished article as material to be cisions was stated in Bennett v. Davis, supra, placed in the building. But in the other 113 Cal. 339, 45 Pac. 685, 54 Am. St. Rep. cases it was clear that the work of the claim354, as follows:

ant was that of constructing a part of the "The main consideration after all is whether

building itself with his own materials, under the labor bestowed upon the article (in setting)

an agreement with the original contractor, was simple and trifling in comparison to the price.”

and he was held to be a subcontractor. Literally, a “subcontractor” is one who Under the decision in Smith v. Bradbury agrees with another to perform a part or all supra, there can be no doubt that the status of the obligation which the second party owes of Floodberg & McCaffery, who did the lath. by contract to a third party. With respect to | ing and plastering and furnished the materi. the mechanic's lien law in question, however, al therefor, was that of a subcontractor. The the word has a much narrower meaning. | work of Montague & Co. consisted of fur.

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