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Greenleaf's Mathematical Series.
ORAL AND WRITTEN.
ON THE BASIS OF WORKS
BY BENJAMIN GREENLEAF, A.M.
ROBERT S. DAVIS AND COMPANY,
87 FRANKLIN STREET.
The BRIEF COURSE and the COMPLETE ARITHMETIC are
KEY TO THE COMPLETE ARITHMETIC, for Teachers only.
COPYRIGHT, 1881, BY HENRY B. MAGLATHLIN.
COPYRIGHT, 1882, BY HENRY B. MAGLATHLIN.
UNIVERSITY PRESS :
This BRIEF COURSE IN ARITHMETIC has been prepared to meet the needs of two classes of learners.
Young pupils who are expected to finish a course of grammar-school study, and who are to be trained in the lower grades to facility and accuracy in the fundamental use of numbers, require training in both oral and written work. While they are not mature enough to comprehend the theory and science of numbers, they may be especially benefited by much simple practice. For them the book furnishes what is desirable, much practical work and little theory.
There are many learners whose circumstances compel them to leave school at an early age. They have little time to spend on definitions and theory, but need practice in the essentials of arithmetic. This work will help such to acquire the ability to use numbers and apply them to the ordinary transactions of life.
The close and constant union of oral and written work, the treatment of decimals, United States money, and denominate numbers in connection with the fundamental rules, and the large number of exercises provided, are among the features that will commend this book to practical teachers.
NOTATION AND NUMERATION
78 86 91
A BRIEF COURSE
ARIT H M E TIC.
NOTATION AND NUMERATION.
1. A Unit is a single thing, or one; as one book, one slate.
2. A Number is a unit, or a collection of units; as one book, five slates.
3. Arithmetic treats of numbers and their use.
4. Figures are characters used to express numbers.
5. Ten different figures are used in writing numbers :
Name. Zero, One, Two, Three, Four, Five, Six, Seven, Eight, Nine. Figure. 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,
5, 6, 7, 8, 9.
These figures used alone express the number of units shown by their names.
The zero, or cipher, used alone expresses no units.
6. To express numbers larger than nine two or more figures are written side by side.