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Old men

8. Sca, Sce, Sci, Sco, Scu.

| Italian,
Pronounced.

English.
Italian, Pronounced.

English.

Risquoto
ree-skwÔ-to

I exact, I redeem, i
Scabro
skah-bro
Rough

shudder Inclito

in-klee-to Pesca

Renowned
Fishing, fishery
paí-skah

pê-skah Pesca

Peach

Ciclope

tchee-kló-pai Cyclops
shái-mo
Diminution, diminished,

Recluta
Scemo

rai-kloó-tah

Recruiting
I diminish

Inglese
in-glái-Zai

Englishman
bée-shai
Bisce

Snakes

Anglico

ab'ı-glee-ko Anglian
Scipa
shée-pah
An ignorant man

Egloga
ê-glo-gah

Eclogue
fáh-shee
Bundles, fasces

Ingluvie
Fasci

in-gloó-veeai

Voracity
Tecla
Shell, rock, danger

tê-klah
skôl-lyo
Scoglio

Thecla (a woman's name) bô-sko

Cicli

Forest, wood Bosco

tcheé-klee

Cycles
Siclo
I undo something sown,

sée-klo
Scucio
skóo-tcho

Sheckle (a Hebrew coin

and weight)
Scuro
skoo-ro
Obscure

Egla
ê-glah

Egla, a name
Egle
e-glai

Egla, a name
9. Sch, Scia, Scie, Scio, Sciu, Scr, Sg, Sgh, Sq.

Angli
áhn-glee

Englishmen
Schiatta
skeeáht-tah
Issue, progeny, genera. Anglo

áhn-glo

Englishman
tion, race

Glutine
gloó-tee-nai

Glue, birdlime
Schietto
skeeét-to

Pure, unmixed, polished,
nimble, ingenuous

10. Glia, Glie, Glio, Gii.
Fischi
feé-skee
Whistlings

Tovaglia.
to-vahi-lyah

Table-cloth, towel
Schioppo
skeeôp-po
Gun

Oneglia
0-nel-lyah

Oneglia, a towu in Sar-
Schiuma
skeeóo-mah
Froth, scum

dinia
Sciarne
sháh-mai
Swarm of bees

Famiglia fah-míl-lyah Family
Scienza
shên-tsah
Science
Invoglia in-rôl-lyah

Wrapper
Sciocco
shộk-ke
Stupid, a fool

Aguglia

ah-goól·lyah Eagle, needle, pyramid Sciupa shóo-pah He tears, spoils

Paglie
páhi-lyai

Straws
Scranna
skráhn-nah Camp-chair, folding - Veglie

váil-lyai

Vigils, evening parties chair

Figlie
fil-lyai

Daughters
Screzio
skrê-tseeo
Discord, spite

Moglie
mól-lyai

Wife
Scrigno
skrin-nyo
Hunch, coffer

Guglie
goól-lyai

Obelisks
Scrofa
skrô-fah
A sow

Vaglio
váhl-lyo

Sieve, I sift
Scruto
skróo-to
I scrutinise

Veglio
vêl-lyo

An old man
Sgarro
zgáhrr-ro
Error

Giglio
jíl-lyo

Lily
Sgherro
zghérr-ro
A bravo, bully

Loglio
lôl-lyo

Cockle-weed
Sghigno
zghín-nyo
Smile

Luglio
loól-lyo

July
Sgorbio
zgórr-beeo

Ragli
ráhl gee

Rays
Sgusto
zgóo-sto
I get tired of

Vegli

rêl-lgee
Sguscio
zgóo-sho
I shell, shell-work

Tigli
tíl-lyee

Linden-trees
Squadra
skwáh-draht A square (instrument), Sogli

sôl-lyee

Thrones
squadron

Fugli
foól-lyee

Was to him
Squero
skwê-ro

Wharf, dock-yard
Squillo
skwil-lo
Sound, gimlet

In the previous pronouncing table, the reader will have
Squoja
skwô-yah
He flays

remarked that two vowels, when i is the first, may come Pasquale pah-skwah-lai Paschal

together in one syllable without constituting a diphthong. Pasquino pah-skwée-no Pasquini

The reason of this is, that in such cases the i is not heard, or

scarcely perceptibly touched in more measured enunciation, stated, gn has naturallye, and without any exception, a squeezed and only serves the purposes of an auxiliary letter, to denote to sound. This was quite different in the combination gl, and makes the eye that the preceding consonants c, 9, or gh, in such combinathe essential difference between the combinations gl and on. The tions as cia, cio, ciu, &c., gia, gio, giu, &c., glia, glio, glix, &c., are reader will not have forgotten my remarks in the preceding note, to have what may be termed the squeezed sound. The letter i is that when gl is followed by the vowels a, e, 0, and 2, and the letter not heard, or scarcely heard, and why should it form a diphi is interposed

between these vowels and the gl, é is a mere auxiliary thong simply because in juxtaposition with another vowel. The letter, and denotes the squeezed sound of gl somewhat similar to that of gl in the English word seraglio. For example, compagnia same observation is applicable to such combinations as scia, scio, (pronounced kom-pahn-nyeé-ah), company, certainly differing from sciu, &c., pronounced shah, sho, shoo, &c. In all these cases the word campagna above stated.

a diphthong is seen, but not heard, or scarcely heard. And + I have repeatedly in these lessons marked the combinations gua, even three vowels in combination, when i is the first, may gue,gui, guo, and the combinations qua, que, qui, quo, with "gwah....

meet in one syllable, without constituting triphthongs; beand "qwah....." I must, however, warn the reader not to give to cause in such cases as well, i is preceded by the letters 6, 9, the w in these cases the full and legitimate sound of the English to, and gl, not being pronounced, and only serving to denote the which is peculiar to the English language. I might have marked squeezed sound of these consonants. For example : libricciuolo these combinations “gvah... and

"
qvah....," and

and so (pronounced lee-brit-tchooô-lo), a small book; muricciuole they are marked by the distinguished grammarian, Abate Flazio (moo-rit-tchooô-lo), a small wall; uomicciuolo (000-mit-tchoooCasarotti, and other writers on Italian grammar; but the Italian lo), a little man; giuoco (Jooô-ko), a game; figliuolo (fil-lyooô. v is a softer sound than the English-à kind of medium sound lo), a child, son ; cavigliuolo (kah-vil-lyooô-lo), a

little between the w and the English v. it more advisable to mark these combinations with w instead of pin. In these examples, the three vowel combinations, or. and if the reader will avoid

the peculiarity of the pronunciation of more correctly speaking socistions, are diphthongs and not the English 20 (pronounced with a forward motion and instant triphthongs; and it sy by confusion of signs written for withdrawal of the lips), pronouncing it more like a softer v, he will the eye, with literal representations of sound, that has led approach the true sound.

grammarians to class them as triphthongs. In taking this IA mutilated statue of a gladiator at Rome, where satires and view, I venture to differ from many authorities ; but I think I libels, sometimes of historical celebrity, against popery, cardinals, have shown reason for so doing. the government, prominent persons and events, have been for centuries, and are still affixed : Pasquin, therefore, may be said to

I have now explained the elements of Italian pronunciation, represent the fourth estate of Rome. The statue derived

its name Exceptions, philosophical reasons, delicacies, and refinements, from one Pasquino, a Roman tailor, remarkable for his lampoons, I shall on future occasions explain in "additional remarks” on and who was wont to satirise his neighbours and the passers-by of pronunciation; and any necessary further remarks that may his shop.

be considered elementary, I shall likewise from time to time what

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The remark that these explanations only contain the ele- | syllables; and nothing is so hideous as to hear Mozart's or mentary principles of Italian pronunciation, will serve to show Rossini's music distorted by a failure to vibrate double conthe student really desirous of acquiring a knowledge, and not sonants, by the neglect of the two e's and the two o's, by hard a smattering, of Italian, the importance and necessity of fol- enunciation of the gn and gl, by improper syllabic distribution sowing me closely and carefully throughout. The pace may be of vowels and diphthongs, &c. tiresome, but, if taken now, will spare much labour for the Two more tables will finish my lessons on pronunciation future. The ingenious reader cannot fail to have noted that and satisfactorily initiate the student into the difficulties of the tables I have given are not expanded examples of words, this part of the language. In the concluding table, I shall but systematic exercises, illustrating in natural order all vocal give a general mirror of the pronunciation, to which the stucombinations, and thus giving an insight, from the very first, dent who may have a doubt as to the proper pronunciation of a into the structure of the language.

word may always refer, and thus obviate the necessity of conIt may be here seasonably remarked, that many persons in stantly imitating the pronunciation of words by signs throughEngland learn Italian for musical purposes only. The system out the grammar. of pronunciation here given will be of peculiar advantage to I have already explained the importance of mastering the them; for in singing Italian airs, and in reading the scores of difficulty to foreigners of giving the proper vibrated sound Italian operas, nothing is so puzzling as the necessity of giving to to double consonants, one note what to the eye seems two, and sometimes even three

LESSONS IN GERMAN.--No. LXXIII.

Irregular Verbs, continued from p. 95.
(5) Müssen, to be obliged ; must. (See Remark 12.)

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I am

he may

PLUR. SIN

obliged.

be obliged.

we are

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PLUR. SING.

obliged.

te obligf:d.

we were

7

PLUR. SIXH

Present Tense.

Present Tense
Present Tense.

Present. id muß,

ich müssc,
I may

müssen, to be müssend, being 2! du mußt, thou art du müsselt, thou mayst

obliged. obliged. 3 er muß, he is er müsse,

1 11 wir müssen,

wir müssen, we may ihr müsset,

ihr müffct, you may 3 sie müssen, they are

sie müssen, they may Imperfect Tense.

Imperfect Tense.
ich mußte, I was

idi mübte, I might
2 tu mußtest, thou wast tu müßtest, thou mightst
3 er mußte,
he was

er mußte, he might
1 wir nuften,

wir müßten, we might
2 ihr mußtet,
you were

ihr müßtet you might
3) fie mußten, they were fie müßten, they might
Perfect Tense.
Perfect Tense.

Perfect Tense. Perfect. 1 ich Yabe gemüßt, I have been ich habe gem:ißt I may have

genußt laber, gemust, 2 bu haft gemußt, obliged, &c. tu habest gemußt, been obliged,

to have been obliged. 3 er Hat gemußt, er Habe gemußt, &c.

obliged. 1 wir llaven gemußt,

wir haben gemußt, 2) ihr habet geniußt,

ihr habet gemußt, 31 sie haben gemußt,

sie haben gemußt,
Pluperfect Tense.

Pluperfect Tense.
Ilich hatte gemußt, I had been ich hätte gemußt,' I might have
2 tu hattest gemußt, obliged, &c. bu kätteft gemujt,

been
3 er hatte gemußt,

er Hütte genußt, obliged, &c. 1 wir hatten gemust,

svit Hätten gemußt, 2 ihr hattet gemußt,

ihr Vättet gemußt, 3 sie hatten geniußt,

sie hätten gernust, First Future Tense.

First Future Tense.

First Future.
1 ich werde müssen, I shall be ich werde müsseni, (if) I shall belich, würde
2 du wirst müssen, obliged, &c. du werdest müssen, obliged, &c. du würdest
3er wird müssen,

er nerde müssen,

er würde 1 wir werden müssen,

wir werden müssen,

wir würden
ihr wertet müssen,
ihr werdet missen,

ihr würdet
fie werden müssen,
sie werden müssel,

sie würden
Second Future Tense.

Second Future Tense. Second Future,
1 ich werte I shall have ich werde (if) I shall ich würde
2l du wirft been obliged, du werbest have been tu würdest
3ler wird

&c.
er werbe

obliged, &c. cr würde
1/wir werden

wir werden

wir würden 2 ihr wertet

ihr werdet

ihr würdet 31 sie werden

fie werten

fie würden (12) Remarks on müssen.

| will often be convenient to employ in translating it such words The German müssen, and the English must, are very nearly equi. | as, be obliged, am to, hiave need to, and the like. Often an jelents. The predominant power of the word is everywhere infinitive is understood with it: as, ich muß zurück, I must (90) Vaat of obligation or necessity, and this being kept in mind, it back,

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PLUR. SING.

1

PLUR. SING.

müssent,
I should be
obliged, &c.

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Fig. 57.

LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.NO. VII. Repeat the same experiments with hydrogen, and observo

that no absorption takes place. Next, mix hydrogen and Let us now contrast the properties of the two gases which sulphuretted hydrogen together in any proportions you may have already come under our notice. You will remember please, and effect their separation by that although hydrogen gas is the one alone to which our

(1.) Agitation with water. direct attention has been given, sulphuretted hydrogen, other

(2.) Agitation with lime water or cream of lime. wise called hydrosulphuric acid, has also come before our

(3.) Or, with a metallic solution, say acetate of lead. notice as an agent for distinguishing one metal from another, and effecting their separation. Let the operator now study

Now I will suppose you to be applying this knowledge, or the characteristics of the two gases by contrast.

For this something like it, to a case of ordinary life. A bottle full of purpose, fill some bottles with these two gases respectively; a gas an empty bottle as you might have called it before you pneumatic trough may be used, and water employed as the began the study of chemistry-is brought to you, with a request liquid; for although hydrosulphuric acid gas be absorbable by that you will determine whether sulphuretted hydrogen gas water, nevertheless, if we avoid agitation, and if we apply the be present or the contrary, After our preceding investigations, water a little warm, the gas will not be absorbed to an extent you now know that if sulphuretted hydrogen be present, the sufficient to interfere with our collecting a competent portion. gas will blacken a slip of paper dipped in sugar of (acetate of) therein described certain tests or trials to be made on hydro- good for mixtures of carburetted hydrogen (coal gas) with Referring to the preceding lesson, you will remember I lead, and you would find that the result which holds good for

mixtures of hydrogen with sulphuretted hydrogen, also holds gen. I need not repeat the instructions, but I want the reader sulphuretted hydrogen ; viz., all the latter admits of separation Let hin pay especial attention to the heaviness or lightness of | by being agitated. sulphuretted hydrogen, (he will soon see which). Let hinn 1.) With cold water; or better observe its action on blue turmeric paper. Let him observe 2.) With cream of lime, whether it be a supporter of combustion, or a combustible; (3.) Or, with a metallic solution (acetate of lead). and whether it be absorbable by water.

One experiment more with sulphuretted hydrogen. GeneHaving gone through these experiments, the young chemist rate some in a bottle with cork and tobacco-pipe stem ; ignite will scarcely fail in the recognition of this gas, wherever it may the jet which escapes, and hold over it a glass tube thus, Sg. 37. exist. But the most remarkable test still remains. Reader, what do you think it is ? Perhaps you think the test in question is the result,—the white precipitate which ensues when sulphuretted hydrogen is brought into contact with a solution of zinc. This supposition would be in the right direction, but you will not fail to observe that the result would have been much more easily seen had the precipitate been black instead of white.

Now by far the greater number of metals do yield a black precipitate with this gas-amongst them lead. If, then, we immerse a slip of paper in any solution of lead, say the acetate of lead for example, such paper becomes a test for sulphuretted hydrogen gas, which it immediately affects with blackness, and no other gas will accomplish this. The blackening of white paint is due to the same agent. The atmosphere contains sulphuretted hydrogen derived from various sources, especially animal emanations, and the products of the combustion of coal; hence the blackening of the paint. Harrogate water, and many other medicinal springs, contain this gas dissolved; hence the danger of a lady bathing in such waters if her skin be covered with certain mineral cosmetics. Her skin from pure white becomes black. This gas is evolved from Now apply the nose to the other end of the tube, as near as the hair, and on a knowledge of this fact depends the opera- you may find agreeable, and remark how totally the original tions of hair dye, the best of which is made by adding liquor odour of hydrosulphuric acid gas has been altered by combuspotassæ to sugаr of lead solution, until the precipitate at first tion. The smell now is exactly like that of a burning sulphur formed becomes dissolved. A lead solution thus results, with match. Now apply a slip of blue litmus paper moistened which if the hair be bathed, a black tinge is the result.

with water, to the cool end of the tube, and remark that Perform now these experiments. Take a bottle filled with although the smell has changed, the result is still acid. hydrosulphuric acid, agitate it thus, fig. 36, in some cold water, Remark that the acid will no longer blacken lead paper, and and observe how the water gradually rises on account of the that it will bleach a red rose. Hence the acid gas resulting

from the combustion of sulphr.retted hydrogen is sulphurous Fig. 36.

acid, because no other gas bleaches red roses and smells like
burning sulphur. See how readily substances are known by
the application of chemical deductions. Again, observe that
the interior of the glass tube employed in the preceding
experiment is probably at the commencement of the operation
bedewed with moisture; at any rate, if the jet be caused to
burn under an inverted tumbler, moisture is seen; hence the
presence of hydrogen in sulphuretted hydrogen would be
demonstrated, even had we not been aware of its existence
there. A diagram represents the change still more clearly:
17 Hydrosul-

1 Hydrogen- -9 Water
phuric acid or
Sulphuretted

16 Sulphur -32 Sulphurous acid hydrogen

16 Oxygen 120 The atmosphere

96 Nitrogen absorption of the gas. Repeat the experiment with lime water, or rather cream of lime or solution of sugar of lead, In this diagram, I have avoided all fractional numbers for and remark that the solution is still more rapid.

the sake of greater clearness; and the student having soon

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thus, much of diagrams, is requested to make a diagram | ric acid ; replace the cork, and ignite the escaping jet. Hold (I do not insist upon atomic figures) of the decomposition over the latter firstly, a white plate in such a manner that the which takes place on the addition of dilute sulphuric acid jet of hydrogen flame may play against the plate, fig. 38. I to the sulphuret of iron. All the elements of this decom- all the materials be freed of arsenic, the hydrogen will leave position have been discussed directly or collaterally, so that I no stain. have no doubt my students will be able to frame the diagram. Secondly, repeat the experiment, substituting for the plate

Resumption of the Metals. Having commenced these lessons a piece of glass tube open at either extremity, and about a foot with a sketch of the chemical relations of zinc and manganese, long; the diameter of the tube may be about the fourth or the more especially as relates to the reagency of hydrosulphuric third of an inch. Again, if arsenic be absent from the materials acid and hydrosulphate of ammonia, we then branched off employed, the burning flame will impress no stain. collaterally into a discussion concerning the properties of these

Remove now the cork, pour into the bottle a small portion two gases ; which discussion being brought to a conclusion, of liquor arsenicalis, and repeat the experiments with plate for the time at least, back we return to the metals once more and tube as before. Notwithstanding the digression, we have not wandered so far

The flame will now be recognised to evolve a dense smoke, from the study of metals as the reader may have supposed. which may be white or black according to circumstances. If This light and invisible gas--hydrogen-has many of the pro- collected from within the flame thus, fig. 39, the stain is black, perties of a metal; indeed by certain chemists it is considered

Fig. 39. to be a metal; at any rate, it has the singular property of combining with two metals in a marked degree, and with a third

These metals are arsenic, tellurium, and antimony, This circumstance furnishes us with a sufficient link of connexion to lead us at once to arsenic as being the most important metal of the three; but there is another connecting link. Arsenic, as I have mentioned already, is one of the few calcigenous metals (don't pass the term calci. genous without understanding it, I have explained its meaning once)- one of the calcigenous metals which does not yield a black precipitate with hydrosulphuric acid; so let arsenic be our present theme.

The student has heard of arsenic frequently enough; he has perhaps, however, never seen it, for the true arsenic, t.e. the metal arsenic, is rare. What people usually call arsenic is really a white powder, a combination of arsenic with oxygen ; in like manner, the substance usually called manganese is being composed of particles of metallic arsenic; if collected really an oxide of the true manganese, which is a brittle metal without or above the flame, thus, fig. 40, the deposition issomething like steel in aspect. Arsenic is also a resplendent brittle metal, as will be evident hereafter,

Blg. 40. The substance I wish you to take for the purpose of study. ing the general properties of arsenic, is the white arsenic of the shops. There will be some difficulty in procuring this, however, druggists not being allowed to sell it, except disguised by the mixture of other substances; perhaps, therefore, the easier, and certainly the safer plan, will consist in the purchase of about a drachm of a very weak solution of white arsenic, used in medical practice under the denomination of liquor arsenicalis,

The strength of this solution is one grain of white arsenic in fiuid ounces ; a very weak solution consequently, but strong enough for our purposes.

The experiments about to be performed are not theoretically interesting merely; they will comprehend one of the processes, and perhaps the best of ásl

, followed in the process of extracting white, being in this case white arsenic, otherwise called

it in view are-firstly, the extraction of arsenic from the liquor metallic arsenic into its oxide is most readily observed

arsenious acid or oxide of arsenic. The conversion of arsenicalis ; secondly, the examination by tests of the arsenic in the tube experiment, wherein the black crust of me thus extracted.

tallic arsenic which extends a certain way up, biey to Experiment 1. Take a bottle with tobacco-pipe shank and perforated cork. Pour into the bottle, the usual ingre

Fig. 41.

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a, changes to white arsenic, say at 6, and eventually escapes. Whilst operating with the tube, do not forget to smell the garlic-like odour produced by the metal arsenic when volatilizing. This smell is an important indication of the

presence of the metal. I need not direct the learner's attention dient for generating hydrogen gas, ie, zinc and dilute sulphur l to the curious fact, that the peculiarity of hydrogen gas, which

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we have just been investigating, namely, its property of com- 7, διγλωσσος (from δις, twice, and γλωττα, ης, ή, α tongue), bining with arsenic and carrying this metal away in the form double tongued, arrokaluitw (aro, from, and KalvatW, I hide of gas, presents us with an elegant and a powerful agent of I conceal; ovvedplov, ov, to, an assembly, hence our word sanhe analysis. Supposing arsenic to exist in the contents of a drim, the name of the Jewish Parliament; TV67), 1s, y, a stomach, it may be extracted in this way; or supposing a breathing, breath; alotos here would in classical Greek be compound to exist of the three metals already examined, i.e. ó MOTOS. zinc, manganese and arsenic, and supposing it desired to remove

8. στεφανος, ου, ο, α crown, hence our proper name Stephen. the arsenic, this might easily be done by adding to the mixture dilute sulphuric acid, and thus driving the arsenic away in

9, αισχυνομαι, I am ashamed, from αισχος, ούς, hatefulness,

shame. the form of arseniretted hydrogen gas. Finally, the zinc and manganese might be separated, as already described at p. 78. 10. σιδηρος, ου, ο, γοη; οξυνω, I sharpen; 1η παροξυνει, the Having thus indicated the general method of obtaining- preposition tapa strengthens the force of the verb; &raipos, extracting-arsenic from liquor arsenicalis, we will in our next ov, ó, a companion, friend. lesson resume the subject, with the special view of obtaining 11. αμητος (from αμαω, I bind in oundles), Marvest time, from the fluid in question a sufficient amount of arsenic in veros (from velv, Lat. pluere, to rain), rain; @epos, oĪS, TO, the form of arsenious acid to prosecute our experiments upon,

12. ακανθα, ης, ή, a thorn ; φυω, I produce (Lat. fui, I σας),

φυομαι, I am produced, I am born, I spring up.; μεθυσμος (from LESSONS IN GREEK.-No. XIII. μεθυ, οιne, strong drink), drunken; αφρων, ονος (from α and

φρηνή, 80mmseless, fools. By JoHN R. BEARD, D.D.

13. Evvola, as, ń, sense (from ev, in, and vous, the mind),

πυλη, ης, ή, a gate ; εκκλινω (εκ, from, and κλινω, Ibend), I turn (Continued from page 100.)

.

14. αποθνησκω (απο, from, and θνησκω, I die), Idie ; αμαρEXERCISES FROM THE BOOK OF PROVERBS.

τια, ας, ή, είη ; consult αμαρτανω, already explained. 1. Ύioς σοφος ευφραινει πατερα, υίος δε αφρων λυπη τη μητρι. 15. χαιρω, I rejoice; κακοποιος, ου, ο (κακος, evil, and 2. Πενια ανδρα ταπεινοί, χειρες δε ανδρειων πλουτιζουσιν, 3. ποιεω, I do), an evil-doer ; ζηλοω, I desire, eng; αμαρτωλος Ευλογια Κυριου επι κεφαλην δικαιου. 4. Μνημη δικαιων αμαρτανω), α οmer.

16. φοβεομαι, I fear, reverence. μετ' εγκωμιων (sc. εστι), ονομα δε ασεβούς σβεννυται.

17. παραβαλλω (παρα, near, βαλλω, I throw), I apply to και Μισος εγερει νεικος.

6. Ος εκ χειλεων προσφερει σοφιαν, ραβδω σος, thy, here the personal pronoun is used for the article, τυπτει ανδρα ακαρδιον. 7. Ανης διγλωσσος αποκαλυπτει (ordinary Greek giving το ους και εμος, my. βουλας εν συνεδριω, πιστος δε πνοη κρυπτει πραγματα. 8. 18. ελεημοσυνη (from ελεος, pity), mercy; hence our word Γυνη ανδρεια στεφανος το ανδρι. 9. Λογον αδικον μισει | eleemos/nary, which, through the old English almesse, is conδικαιος, ασεβης δε αισχυνεται. 10. Σιδηρος σιδηρον οξυνει, | tracted into alms, ανηρ δε παροξυνει προσωπον έταιρου. 11. Ωσπερ δροσος εν 19, πρεσβυτηρ (our presbyter, whence our priest), an old αμητω, και ωσπερ υετος εν θερει, ούτως ουκ εστιν αφρoνι τιμη.

man και πολιος, α, ον, όσιά, grey και πολιαι, grey hairs (sc. τριχες,

λα). 12. Ακανθαι φυονται εν χειρι μεθυσμου, δουλεια δε εν χειρι των αφρονων. 13. Σοφια και εννοια αγαθη εν πυλαις σοφων (sc.

20. φαινομαι, I appear: ; εαυτώ, to himself; κατευθυνω, I

direct, guide. εισιν): σοφοι ουκ εκκλινουσιν εκ στοματος Κυριου. 14. Απο

21. ακολαστος, ον (α not, and κολαζω, I punish, restrict), uns θνησκει αφρων εν αμαρτιαις. 15. Μη χαιρε επι κακοποιούς, restrainable, riotous; υβριστικος, ον, insulting : μεθη, ης, ή, μηδε ζηλου αμαρτωλους. 16. Φοβου τον θεον, υιε, και βασιλεα. Η ανuυλenness: τοιουτος, such και τοιουτοις, such things και συμπλεκω 17. Λογοις σοφων παραβαλλε σον ούς, και ακουε εμον λογον. 18. (συν, είth, nd πλεκάω, I weave), Ioing together και συμπλεκεται, is Ελεημοσυνη και αλεθεια φυλακη βασιλει. 19. Κοσμος νεανιαις | entangled on, is chained to. σοφη, δοξα δε πρεσβυτερων πολιαι. 20. Πας ανηρ φαινεται

EXERCISES FROM THE NEW TESTAMENT. εαυτω δικαιος, κατευθυνει δε καρδιας Κυριος. 21. Aκολαστον οινος, και υβριστικον μεθη, πας δε αόρων τοιουτοις συμπλεκεται. 1. Μακαριος (se. εστιν) ανηρ ος υπομενει πειρασμον. 2.

Εκαστος πειραζεται υπο της ιδιας επιθυμιας. 3. Η επιθυμια VOCABULARY TO THE PASSAGES TROJI THE PROVERBS. τικτει αμαρτιαν, η δε αμαρτια αποκυει θανατον. 4. ΙΙασα δοσις

αγαθη και παν δωρημα τελειον ανωθεν εστι καταβαινον απο 1. ευφραινω, I rejoice (transitively) ; λυπη, ης, ή, grief.

του Πατρος των φωτων. 5. Οργη ανδρος δικαιοσυνην θεου ου 2. πενια, ας, ή, poverty ; ταπεινοω, I lower, degrade; κατεργαζεται. 6. Γινεσθε ποιηται λογου, και μη μονον ακροαται. ανδρειος, α, ον, manly, excellent ; πλουτιζω, I make rich (from 7. θρησκεια καθαρα και αμιαντος παρα τω θεώ και Πατρι αυτη what noun is the verb derived :)

3. ευλογια, ας, ή, α δlessing (what are the components of the εστιν, επισκεπτεσθαι ορφανους και χηρας εν τη θλιψει αυτων, noun ?); Κυριος, ου, ο, Ιονά, master, the Lord, that is, the AI- ασπιλoν εαυτον τηρεις απο του κοσμου. 8. Η ανωθεν σοφια mighty, in the old Testament ; δικαιου for του δικαιου, the πρωτον μεν αγνη εστιν, επειτα ειρηνικη, επιεικης, ευπειθης, article is often omitted in the Greek version of the Hebrew | μεστη ελεου και καρπων αγαθων, αδιακριτος, ανυποκριτος, Scriptures : this version is called the Septuagint, sometimes καρπος δε δικαιοσυνης εν ειρηνη σπειρεται τοις ποιουσιν ειρηνην. « the Seventy,” because said to have been made by that 9. Ποθεν πολεμοι και ποθεν μαχαι εν υμιν ; ουκ εκτευθεν, εκ number of learned Jews at Alexandria in Egypt; the transla. tion was completed in the second century before Christ.

των ηδονων υμων, των στρατευομενων εν τοις μελεσιν υμων. 4. μνημη, ης, ή, memory, the memory και εγκωμιον, ου, το,

10. Μοιχοι και μοιχαλιδες, ουκ οιδατε οτε η φιλια του κοσμου praise, eulogy, our word encomium ; ασεβής, ούς, tmpious, com- εχθρα του θεου εστιν. 11. ο θεος υπερηφανοις αντιτασσεται, pare σεβομαι, I worship ; σβεννυμι, I eatinguish και σβεννυται, και ταπεινοις δε διδωσι χαριν. 12. Εις εστιν ο νομοθέτης και κριτης, extinguished, that is, destroyed.

ο δυναμενος σωσαι και απολεσαι.-The Epistie General of James. 5. μισος, ούς, το, λατηed, connected with μισεω, I hate ; VELKOS, Oūs, to, strife'; here is exemplified the remark that the VOCABULARY TO THE EXTRACTS FROM THE NEW TESTAMENT. Seventy are given to the omission of the article, for in Attic Greek this proposition would be το μισος εγερει το νεικος. 1. Μακάριος, α, ον, λαρρι, Αlessed; υπομενω (υπο, under, and

6, ός, the relative pronoun he who; χειλος, ούς, το, α λέω ; μενω, I remain), I endure; πειρασμος, ου, ο (πειραζω, I try, ραβδον, ου, το, α stick, staf; ακαρδιος, ον (from α, not, and | tempt) trial. kapota, the heart), heartless, senseless.

2. έκαστος, η, ον, each, every και ιδιος, α, ον, one's oιο.

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