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8. Sca, Sce, Sci, Sco, Sou. Italian. Pronounced. English, &cabre skáh-bro Rough Joesca paí-skah Fishing, fishery Pesca, pé-skah Peach Scemo shāi-mo Diminution, diminished, I diminish JBisce bée-shai Snakes Scipa shée-pah An ignorant man Fască, fāh-shee Bundles, fasces Scoglio skól-lyo Shell, rock, danger Bosco bó-sko Forest, wood Scucio skóo-tcho * something sown, rip Scuro skóo-ro Obscure
9. Sch, Scia, Scie, Scio, Sciu, Ser, Sg, Sgh, Sq.
Schiatta skeeáht-tah Issue, progeny, generation, race
Schietto skeečt-to Pure, unmixed, polished, nimble, ingenuous
Fisch? feč-skee Whistlings
Schioppo skeeóp-po Gun
Schiuma skeeóo-mah Froth, scum
Sciame shāh-mai Swarm of bees
Scienza shěn-tsah. Science
Sciocco shôk-ko Stupid, a fool
Sciopa shôo-pah He tears, spoils
Scranna skrähn-nah Camp - chair, folding chair
Screzzo skré-tseeo Discord, spite
Serigno skrin-nyo Hunch, coffer
Scrofa skrô-fah A sow
AScruto skróo-to I scrutinise
Sgarro zgāhrr-ro Error *
Sgherro zghérr-ro A bravo, bully
Sghigno zghín-myo Smile
Sgorbio zgórr-beeo Spot of ink
Sgusto zgóo-sto I get tired of
Sguscio zgóo-sho I shell, shell-work
Squadra skwāh-drahi. A square (instrument), squadron
Squero skwé-ro Wharf, dock-yard
Squillo skwil-lo Sound, gimlet
Squoja skwó-yah He flays
JPasquale pah-skwáh-lai Paschal
Pasquino pah-skwée-no Pasquin;
stated, gn has naturally, and without any exception, a squeezed sound. This was quite different is, the combination gl, and makes the essential difference between the combinations gé and gn. The reader will not have forgotten my remarks in the preceding note, that when gl is followed by the vowels a, e, o, and ot, and the letter i is interposed between these vowels and the gl, i is a mere auxiliary letter, and denotes the squeezed sound of gl somewhat similar to that of gl in the English word seraglio. For example, compagnia (pronounced kom-pahn-nyeč-ah), company, certainly differing from the word campagna above stated.
+ I have repeatedly in these lessons marked the combinations gua, gue, gui, guo, and the combinations qua, gue, qui, quo, With “gwah. . . .” and “qwah.....” I must, however, warn the reader not to give to the w in these cases the full and legitimate sound of the English w, which is peculiar to the English language. I might have marked these combinations “gvah. ... ” and “qvah. ...,” and so they are marked by the distinguished grammarian, Abate Flario Casarotti, and other writers on Italian grammar ; but the Italian v is a softer sound than the English—a kind of medium sound between the w and the English v. On this account I have thought it more advisable to mark these combinations with w instead of v, and if the reader will avoid the peculiarity of the pronunciation of the English w (pronounced with a forward motion, and instant withdrawal of the lips), pronouncing it more like a softer v, he will approach the true sound.
† A mutilatéd statue of a gladiator at Rome, where satires and libels, sometimes of historical celebrity, against popery, cardinals, the government, prominent persons and events, have been for centuries, and are still affixed : Pasquin, therefore, may be said to represent the fourth estate of Rome. The statue derived its name from one Pasquino, a Roman tailor, remarkable for his lampoons, and : was wont to satirise his neighbours and the passers-by of his shop. *
! Italian. Pronounced. Pnglish.
In the previous pronouncing table, the reader will have remarked that two vowels, when i is the first, may come together in one syllable without constituting a diphthong. The reason of this is, that in such cases the i is not heard, or scarcely perceptibly touched in more measured enunciation, and only serves the purposes of an auxiliary letter, to denote to the eye that the preceding consonants c, g, or gl, in such combinations as cia, cio, ciu, &c., gia, gio, giu, &c., glia, glio, glio, &c., are to have what may be termed the squeezed sound. The letter i is not heard, or scarcely heard, and why should it form a diphthong simply because in juxtaposition with another vowel? The
same observation is applicable to such combinations as scia, seio,
sciu, &c., pronounced shah, sho, shoo, &c. In all these cases a diphthong is seen, but not heard, or scarcely heard. And even three vowels in combination, when i is the first, may meet in one syllable, without constituting triphthongs; because in such cases as well, t is preceded by the letters c, g, and gl, not being pronounced, and only serving to denote the squeezed sound of these consonants. For example: libricciuolo (pronounced lee-brit-tchooë-lo), a small book; muricciuole (moo-rit-tehood-lo), a small wall; womicciuolo (ooo-mit-tehoodlo), a little man ; givoco (jooô-ko), a game; figliuolo (fil-lyooôlo), a child, son; cavigliuolo (kah-vil-lyooà-lo), a little peg or pin. In these examples, she three vowel combinations, or, more correctly speals ag, esseeistions, are diphthongs and not triphthongs; and it is so by confusion of signs written for the eye, with literal representations of sound, that has led grammarians to class them as triphthongs. In taking this view, I venture to differ from many authorities; but I think I have shown reason for so doing.
I have now explained the elements of Italian pronunciation. Exceptions, philosophical reasons, delicacies, and refinements, I shall on future occasions explain in “additional remarks” on pronunciation; and any necessary further remarks that may be considered elementary, I shall likewise from time to time add
The remark that these explanations only contain the eleonentary principles of Italian pronunciation, will serve to show the student really desirous of acquiring a knowledge, and not a smattering, of Italian, the importance and necessity of folaowing me closely and carefully throughout. The pace may be tiresome, but, if taken now, will spare much labour for the future. The ingenious reader cannot fail to have noted that the tables I have given are not expanded examples of words, but systematic exercises, illustrating in natural order all vocal combinations, and thus giving an insight, from the very first, into the structure of the language.
It may be here seasonably remarked, that many persons in England learn Italian for musical purposes only. The system of pronunciation here given will be of peculiar advantage to them; for in singing Italian airs, and in reading the scores of Italian operas, nothing is so puzzling as the necessity of giving to one note what to the eye seems two, and sometimes even three
syllables; and nothing is so hideous as to hear Mozart's or Rossini's music distorted by a failure to vibrate double consonants, by the neglect of the two e's and the two o's, by hard enunciation of the gn and gl, by improper syllabic distribution of vowels and diphthongs, &c.
Two more tables will finish my lessons on pronunciation, and satisfactorily initiate the student into the difficulties of this part of the language. In the concluding table, I shall give a general mirror of the pronunciation, to which the student who may have a doubt as to the proper pronunciation of a word may always refer, and thus obviate the necessity of constantly imitating the pronunciation of words by signs throughout the grammar.
I have already explained the importance of mastering the difficulty to foreigners of giving the proper vibrated sound to double consonants.
LESS O N S IN C H E M IST R Y.—No. VII.
LET us now contrast the properties of the two gases which have already come under our motice. You will remember that although hydrogen gas is the one alone to which our direct attention has been given, sulphuretted hydrogen, otherwise called hydrosulphuric acid, has also come before our notice as an agent for distinguishing one metal from another, and effecting their separation. Let the operator now study the characteristics of the two gases by contrast. For this purpose, fill some bottles with these two gases respectively; a pneumatic trough may be used, and water employed as the liquid; for although hydrosulphuric acid gas be absorbable by water, nevertheless, if we avoid agitation, and if we apply the water a little warm, the gas will not be absorbed to an extent sufficient to interfere with our collecting a competent portion. Referring to the preceding lesson, you will remember I therein described certain tests or trials to be made on hydrogen. I need not repeat the instructions, but I want the reader to repeat the experiments, and arrive at his own deductions. Let him pay especial attention to the heaviness or lightness of sulphuretted hydrogen, (he will soon see which). Let him observe its action on blue turmeric paper. Let him observe whether it be a supporter of combustion, or a combustible; and whether it be absorbable by water. Having gone through these experiments, the young chemist will scarcely fail in the recognition of this gas, wherever it may exist. But the most remarkable test still remains. Reader, what do you think it is Perhaps you think the test in question is the result, the white precipitate which ensues when sulphuretted hydrogen is brought into contact with a solution of zinc. This supposition would be in the right direction, but you will not fail to observe that the result would have been much more easily seen had the precipitate been black instead of white. Now by far the greater number of metals do yield a black precipitate with this gas—amongst them lead. If, then, we immerse a slip of paper in any solution of lead, say the acetate of lead for example, such paper becomes a test for sulphuretted hydrogen gas, which it immediately affects with blackness, and no other gas will accomplish this. The blackening of white paint is due to the same agent. The atmosphere contains sulphuretted hydrogen derived from various sources, especially animal emanations, and the products of the combustion of coal; hence the blackening of the paint. Harrogate water, and many other medicinal springs, contain this gas dissolved; hence the danger of a lady bathing in such waters if her skin be covered with Čertain mineral cosmetics. Her skin from pure white becomes black. This gas is evolved from the hair, and on a knowledge of this fact depends the operations of hair dye, the best of which is made by adding liquor potassae to sugar of lead solution, until the precipitate at first formed becomes dissolved. A lead solution thus results, with which if the hair be bathed, a black tinge is the result.
Perform now these experiments. Take a bottle filled with hydrosulphuric acid, agitate it thus, fig. 36, in some cold water,
and observe how the water gradually rises on account of the
Repeat the same experiments with hydrogen, and observe that no absorption takes place. Next, mix hydrogen and sulphuretted hydrogen together in any proportions you may please, and effect their separation by
(1.) Agitation with water. y o (2) Agitation with lime water or cream of lime. (3.) Or, with a metallic solution, say acetate of lead.
Now I will suppose you to be applying this knowledge, or, something like it, to a case of ordinary life. A bottle full of gas—an empty bottle as you might have called it before you began the study of chemistry—is brought to you, with a request that you will determine whether sulphuretted hydrogen gas be present or the contrary. After our preceding investigations, you now know that if sulphuretted hydrogen be present, the gas will blacken a slip of paper dipped in sugar of (acetate of) lead, and you would find that the result which holds good for mixtures of hydrogen with sulphuretted hydrogen, also holds good for mixtures of carburetted hydrogen (coal gas) with sulphuretted hydrogen; viz., all the latter admits of separation by being agitated. 1.) With cold water; or better 2.) With cream of lime, (3.j Or, with a metallic solution (acetate of lead). One experiment more with sulphuretted hydrogen. Gene
rate some in a bottle with cork and tobacco-pipe stem ; ignite the jet which escapes, and hold over it a glass tube thus, fig. 37.
Now apply the nose to the other end of the tube, as near as you may find agreeable, and remark how totally the original odour of hydrosulphuric acid gas has been altered by combustion. The smell now is exactly like that of a burning sulphur match. Now apply a slip of blue litmus paper moistened with water, to the cool end of the tube, and remark that although the smell has changed, the result is still acid: Remark that the acid will no longer blacken lead paper, and that it will bleach a red rose. Hence the acid gas resulting from the combustion of sulphzretted hydrogen is sulphurgos acid, because no other gas bleaches red roses and smells like burning sulphur. See how readily substances are known by the application of chemical deductions. Again, observe that the interior of the glass tube employed in the preceding experiment is probably at the commencement of the operation bedeved with moisture; at any rate, if the jet be caused to burn under an inverted tumbler, moisture is seen; hence the presence of hydrogen in sulphuretted hydrogen would be demonstrated, even had we not been aware of its existence there. A diagram represents the change still more clearly:
thus, much of diagrams, is requested to make a diagram (I do not insist upon atomic figures) of the decomposition which takes place on the addition of dilute sulphuric acid to the sulphuret of iron. All the elements of this decomgosition have been discussed directly or collaterally, so that I have no doubt my students will be able to frame the diagram.
Resumption of the Metals. Having commenced these lessons with a sketch of the chemical relations of zinc and manganese, more especially as relates to the reagency of hydrosulphuric acid and hydrosulphate of ammonia, we then branched off collaterally into a discussion concerning the properties of these two gases; which discussion being brought to a conclusion, for the time at least, back we return to the metals once more. Notwithstanding the digression, we have not wandered so far from the study of metals as the reader may have supposed. This light and invisible gas—hydrogen—has many of the properties of a metal; indeed by certain chemists it is considered to be a metal; at any rate, it has the singular property of combining with two metals in a marked degree, and with a third to a less extent. These metals are arsenic, tellurium, and antimony, This circumstance furnishes us with a sufficient link of connexion to lead us at once to arsenic as being the most important metal of the three; but there is another connecting link. Arsenic, as I have mentioned already, is one of the few calcigenous metals (don't pass the term calcigenous without understanding it, I have explained its meaning once)—one of the calcigenous metals which does not yield a black precipitate with hydrosulphuric acid; so let arsenic be Our present theme.
The student has heard of arsenic frequently enough ; he has perhaps, however, never seen it, for the true arsenic, i.e. the metal arsenic, is rare. What people usually call arsenic is really a white powder, a combination of arsenic with oxygen; in like manner, the substance usually called manganese is really an oxide of the true manganese, which is a brittle metal something like steel in aspect. Arsenic is also a resplendent brittle metai, as will be evident hereafter. *
The substance I wish you to take for the purpose of studying the general properties of arsenic, is the white arsenic of the shops. There will be some difficulty in procuring this, however, druggists not being allowed to sell it, except disguised by the mixture of other substances; perhaps, therefore, the easier, and certainly the safer plan, will consist in the purchase of about a drachm of a very weak solution of white arsenic, used in medical practice under the denomination of liquor arsenicalis. The strength of this solution is one grain of white arsenic in fluid ounces; a very weak solution consequently, but strong enough for our purposes.
The experiments about to be performed are not theoretically interesting merely; they will comprehend one of the processes, and perhaps the best of all, followed in the process of extracting arsenic from bodies which contain it. The objects Ishall have in view are—firstly, the extraction of arsenić from the liquor arseniealis; secondly, the examination by tests of the arsenic thus extracted.
Doperiment 1. Take a bottle with tobacco-pipe shank and perforated cork. Pour into the bottle, the usual ingre
ric acid; replace the cork, and ignite the escaping jet. Hold over the latter firstly, a white plate in such a manner that the jet of hydrogen flame may play against the plate, fig. 38, If all the materials be freed of arsenic, the hydrogen will leave no stain. Secondly, repeat the experiment, substituting for the plate a piece of glass tube open at either extremity, and about a foot long ; the diameter of the tube may be about the fourth or the third of an inch. Again, if arsenic be absent from thematerials employed, the burning flame will impress no stain. Remove now the cork, pour into the bottle a small portion of liquor arsenicalis, and repeat the experiments with plate and tube as before. The flame will now be recognised to evolve a dense smoke, which may be white or black according to circumstances. If collected from within the flame thus, fig. 39, the stain is black,
dients for generating hydrogen gas, i.e. zinc and dilute sulphu,
to the curious fact, that the peculiarity of hydrogen gas, which
we have just been investigating, namely, its property of combining with arsenic and carrying this metal away in the form of gas, presents us with an elegant and a powerful agent of analysis. , Supposing arsenic, to exist in the contents of a stomach, it may be extracted in this way; or supposing a compound to exist of the three metals already examined, i.e. zinc, manganese and arsenic, and supposing it desired to remove the arsenic, this might easily be done by adding to the mixture dilute sulphuric acid, and thus driving the arsenic away in the form of arseniretted hydrogen gas. Finally, the zinc and manganese might be separated, as already described at p. 78. Baving thus indicated the general method of obtaining— extracting—arsenic from liquor arsenicalis, we will in our next lesson resume the subject, with the special view of obtaining from the fluid in question a sufficient amount of arsenic in the form of arsenious acid to prosecute our experiments upon.
1. suppauvo, I rejoice (transitively); AvT), mc, j, grief. 2. Trevua, ag, à, poverty; Taorstvow, I lovcer, degrade; avöpstog, a, ov, manly, excellent; TAovrićw, I make rich (from what noun is the verb derived?) 3. evXoyua, ac, j, a blessing (what are the components of the noun ?); Kupwog, ov, Ö, lord, master, the Lord, that is, the Almighty, in the Old Testament; 6tkauov for row oucatov, the article is often omitted in the Greek version of the Hebrew Scriptures: this version is called the Septuagint, sometimes “ the Seventy,” because said to have been made by that number of learned Jews at Alexandria in Egypt; the translation was completed in the second century before Christ. 4. uvmum, mg, j, memory, the memory; sykwutov, ov, ro, praise, eulogy, our word encomiton; ao'ssłmg, oùg, impious, compare osgopal, I worship ; affevvvpu, I eatinguish ; offsvywrat, is extinguished, that is, destroyed. * 5. potoog, oùg, ro, hatred, connected with utorso, I hate; wsukoç, oùg, ro, strife; here is exemplified the remark that the Seventy are given to the omission of the article, for in Attic Greek this proposition would be to pugog syspst ro vetkoç. 6, Öc, the relative pronoun he who ; xst)\oc, oùc, ro, a lip; pagóov, ov, ro, a stick, staff; akapātog, ov (from a, not, and rapöta, the heart), heartless, senseless.
7.0ty\oogoc (from 3ic, twice, and y\orra, mc, h, a tongue), double tongued ; atroka)\varra (aro, from, and cax virro, I jiide; I *064; avvæðptov, ov, ro, an assembly, hence our word sanhe’ 3rim, the name of the Jewish Parliament; rvon, ic, ), a breathing, breath; truoroc here would in classical Greek be o triartog. 8. gre?avoc, ov, 6, a crown, hence our proper name Stephen. 9. ataxwwouai, I am ashamed, from ataxoc, oùc, hatefulness, Shame. 10. gompoc, ov, 6, iron; oivvo, I sharpen; in trapošvvet, the preposition trapa strengthens the force of the verb; graipoc, ov, Ö, a companion, friend. t 11. gunrog, (from apaw, I bind in bundles), harvest time; veroc (from beiv, Lat. Aluore, to rain), rain; 9epos, oùg, ro, 82447,726.7°. 12. arav0a, mc, #, a thorn; puto, I produce (Lat. fui, I was), ?vg|tal, I am produced, I am born, I spring up; uséuguoc (from Hé6v wine, strong drink), drunken; applow, ovoo (from a and ppmw), senseless, fools. 13. evvola, ac, #, sense (from ev, in, and vouc, the mind), orv\m, mc, h, a gate; ekkäuva (sk, from, and r\wa, Ibend), I turn away. * 14. atrobunoko (arro, from, and 9Vmax”, I die), I die; &papTua, ac, #, sin; consult ápapravo, already explained. 15. xalpo, I rejoice; kakorotoc, ov, Š (kakoç, evil, and Totew, I do), an evil-doer; &mkow, I desire, envy; &uaproxog (āpiapravo), a sinner. 16, posłeopat, I fear, reverence. 17. Trapaga)\\0 (trapa, near, Baxxw, I throw), I apply to ; goç, thy, here the, personal pronoun is used for the article, ordinary Greek giving to oig ; spoc, ony. 18. Aemstoovym (from s}\soc, pity), mercy; hence our word eleemosynary, which, through the old English almesse, is contracted into alms. 19. Trpeg|3vrng (our presbyter, whence our priest), an old *an ToMioc, a, ov, bald, grey; troXual, grey hairs (sc. rptysc, hair). 20. śaivopiat, I appear; Śavrip, to himself; karsv6vva, I direct, guide. 21. akokaoroc, ov (a not, and ko)\ačw, I punish, restrict), unrestrainable, riotous; tığplorikoç, ov, insulting : pusén, ng, j, drunkenness: Totovtoc, such ; rotovtouc, such things ; a vuTAskø. (avv, with, nd träska, I weave), I bind together; avplorMsksrat, is entangled in, is chained to.