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proceed at once to the verbs. The verb is the life of a language, and he who knows the verbs thoroughly has mastered the chief difficulty of his task. The remainling kinds of words will be taught and discussed in the same natural order. These lessons will contain, if I may so speak, two grammars. Presuming that I may find two classes of readers, one anxious for knowledge by the most easy and rapid manner, the other with more preparation, inclination, and leisure for study, I have so shaped my labour as to combine in a form sufficiently marked though not separated, an elementary grammar which shall give the before-mentioned indispensable foundation and skeleton; and a grammatical treatise which shall, with philosophical reasons, satisfactorily explain the ornaments, the delicacies, the accidents, and exceptions of the language. As I have said, I shall not divide my grammar into parts of speech, but into paragraphs. In the paragraphs I shall distinctly mark the line of separation between the elementary grammar and the grammatical treatise by the title of “ADDITIONAL REMARKs.” The student who only desires to learn the language sufficiently to enable him to read, speak, and write with tolerable accuracy, need only attend to the numbered paragraph ; but he who would learn the language thoroughly, must follow me closely and carefully in all I may find occasion to say in the additional remarks. Each paragl aph will be complete in itself—a decided step in knowledge of the language. Every principle of the language will be clearly illustrated by examples, including vocabularies and exercises. I have now only to ask the earnest and patient attention of my pupil readers.
I shall teach the pronunciation of the Italian language in more detail than is generally pursued in English tuition. The profit to be derived from the study of any living language is much less if we are unable to pronounce it correctly. We can make little practical use of our theoretical acquirements, if in communication with those to whom this language is the mother tongue, we can neither make ourselves understood when we speak, nor understand when we are spoken to. And besides, no man, though he may gather the sense, can relish or even comprehend the beauties or delicacies of great poets, and prose writers too, in any language, and more especially in that of Italy, without an accurate knowledge of the sounds. In reading such poets as Ariosto or Tasso, the pleasure does not consist altogether in appreciating the thoughts or even shades of thoughts, but in the faculty to enjoy that divine harmony to which they have attuned the language. One may relish the beauty of the rose, but if he is deprived of the sense of smell, he can admire only a lifeless beauty. Such students of the Italian poets, to use a more homely figure, may read their poetry with the satisfaction with which one might admire a Turkey carpet, who has seen the reverse side only. There is no insuperable or even very considerable difficulty in mastering Italian pronunciation; but a thoughtful attention to some leading principles, and a student-like diligence, are conditions essential to success. My thoughtful and industrious pupils will very soon find that a prolixity in this the very outset of my labours which might seem trifling, is really most important—one of the fundamental parts of the language. I am aware that I am writing for the most part for adult readers; but let them for a little space forget the dignity of manhood; for every learner of a language, be he as old as Cato was when he learnt Greek, should be regarded as a child learning to express his thoughts. Indeed the more he is taught a foreign tongue as the child his mother's speech, the better for him. A living language can never be accurately and completely expressed by signs. They who profess the contrary only mislead the uninformed. But a tolerable approach to accuracy in fixing pronunciation may be made by letter-signs representing analogous sounds familiar to the ear in one's own lamguage. If one has made himself so familiar with the imitated sounds, as to have acquired a considerable vocal command of the leading ones, he may very soon accurately and permamently acquire them, by a few brief communications with an educated native. Perhaps the most useful beginning I can make, is to point
out the leading errors which Englishmen commit in pronouncing Italian. The reason of this is, that men are apt to transfer involuntarily the peculiarities of their own language to that which they are studying. The first effort therefore in learning to pronounce Italian, should be to forget your native peculiarities. In the mastery of the pronunclation of the continental languages, and particularly of Italian, the Englishman's great difficulty is in the vowels. The Englishman, perhaps from childhood, has heard no vowel sounds but those of his own island—his four sounds of a, his four sounds of o, his three sounds of u, his two sounds of e, ana. his two sounds of i, sounds little swayed by rule, and changing continually. He begins Italian, but carrying to the study the complex vocal habit of his language, it must be some time before he can comprehend and practise the simplicity and permanence of the sound of one Italian a. one Italian v. One Italian u, two Italian e's, and two Italian o’s. He therefore pronounces no vowel purely, and wherever he may move in Italy, his insular nativity will be instantly recognised by the facchino of any village inn, from his inveterate habit of giving to the Italian a, that most comical of sounds to a Tuscan ear, of a in hat and fatAnother radical error committed by Englishmen in pronouncing Italian. arises from two opposite principles which may be said to be the fundamental rules of the accentuation of the languages. In English, every word has its leading, marked, or strongly accented syllable—generally speaking the root of the word; and it follows that while this syllable is distinctly marked by the voice, the subordinate unaccented fade away in the utterance into an airy nothingness that can hardly be described. It is quite different with Italian. It has its accented syllables just as English, but the accent on the one does not destroy the vocal enunciation of the others. On the contrary, full and substantial justice must be done to every syllable, each being clearly sounded, full and roundly with the vowels, and in a resouant or vibrating tone with the consonants. The contrast may be observed in the pronunciation of any of the many words of a kindred sound in both languages derived from the same classic stock. Take the following :
English. Italian. Difficulty. Dif-fi-col-ta. Voluntarily. }'o-lon-ta-red-mén-ti. Detestably. De-te-sta-bil-men-te. Generously. Ge-ne-ro-sa-men-te. Indifferently. In-diffe-ren-te-men-te. Repetition. Re-pe-to-zi-o-ne.
This peculiarity of the English language, it may be remarked, is the great obstacle which every English poet has encountered in the effort to naturalise the classic measures of antiquity. Contrasted with the open limpid vocalisation of Italy, the pronunciation of the English is to an Italian so obscure or indistinct, as very frequently not to be even understood. It might be presumed that in a word so sonorous as detestabilimente or colontariamente it would be impossible to miss the true sounds, yet an Englishman will, generally speaking so slur over what he would from the analogy of his own language conceive to be the subordinate parts of the word, as to be often quite unintelligible to an Italian.
A third and radical difference between the two languages, as regards the principles of pronunciation, proceeds from what may be termed the vocal mechanism or the physical principles of enunciation. Shortly stated, the physical difference is this, in England, they speak from the mouth; in Italy, from the chest. The Englishman whispers his words through the palate, tongue, teeth, or lips; the Italian throws them out with the vigour of his lungs. When therefore the Englishman attempts the pronunciation of Italian after his accustomed mode, he confines the open sounds of Italy to the limited mechanism of his hissing or lisping articulation above the throat, and turns Italian melody into harmonious discord, now a croak, now a hiss.
These are the radical differences and difficulties which my readers must strive to overcome. This is only to be accomplished by a constant recollection of these points of difference in connection with the rules I am about to state and illustrate, and by reading aloud, and with a clear and distinct voice uttered from the chest, every Italian word which I may have occasion to give in the course of the grammar
Abaisser (s'), to Stoop
I,’homme m'aime point & S'occuper de son néant, et de Sa bassesse. MASSILLON. Avez-vous jamais pensé & offrir à Dieu toutes ces souffrances 2 THE SAME.
Etre, étre à lire, }: be reading,
Man does not like to contemplate his nothingness and his vileness.
Have you ever thought of offering all these sufferings to God?
ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.
HARRIET STYLE : The German is very correctly translated into English ;
not so the English into German, as might be expected. All substantives should begin with a capital letter, and the final s should not be used anywhere else than at the end of a word. The inverted arrangement, according to which the verb is placed at the end of a sentence, only takes place in relative and other subordinate clauses. W. MABRA1son : We cannot, as we have before said, undertake to correct exercises. Those sent by our correspondent contain a good many errors. In translating from German to English, he appears more anxious to make some sort of sense than to get at the exact meaning of the original. Thus he renders : Was sonstals was die Nachtigall einst zu der Lerche sagie Ż by “Wherefore as the nightingale said to the lark.” The proper translation is: “What else than what the mightingale once said to the lark P” Again, machte er seinen Gruss unter allen Göttern der Juno zuerst, does not mean “he made his salutation to all the gods of Juno first,” which is scarcely sense at all, but “he made his obeisance to Juno first of all the gods (and goddesses).”. It is not English to say—“those which my brother in his hands has had.” This is carrying literal translation too far. Our correspondent seems to have forgotten that in writing German two distinct characters are used for the letter 8. He puts the final one at the
beginning and in the middle of the words. Welcher Regenschirm haben Sie cannot be right. It should be Welchen, accusative masculine to agree with Regenschirm. We have not time or room to point out more mistakes.
D. D. CAUSALITY: For something of the Art of Photography, see the “Magazine of Art.” For proving your Apothecaries weights, apply to her Majesty's inspector of Weights and Measures in your own district.—A. LISPER (D–d): We know of no cure for lisping but a strong effort of the will to speak without lisping.—R. LAMBIE (Glasgow): Cassell's French Dictionary will be completed in two divisions—l, French-English, which is now published, price 4s. in stiff covers, or 5s, in cloth. The EnglishFrench Division will be completed in December. The entire work will be published, bound, at 8s. 6d.—S. GRAHAM (Liverpool): We have had lessons on Floriculture and Horticulture in view ; and we shall by no means lose sight of them.—J. M. (Aberdeen): We have seen some American (U. S.) publications on Book-keeping, and they are so extremely similar to our own, that it is very evident that brother Jonathan is indebted to us for this as well as many other lessons relating to the business of human life. There is one difference which must be carefully looked into, viz., that of Federal Money instead of Sterling Money. When we come to Exchanges in our Arithmetic, this will be considered; and we shall soon give an inkling of it under the head of Reduction. As to the conversion of the money of differen nations, see Kelly’s “Universal Cambist,” or Macculloch’s “Commercial Dictionary.”—JAMES WARDLE (Dean Mills): Right.
Apollo (Cheltenham) should apply to R. Cocks and Co., New Burlingtonstreet, about Musical Instruments, &c.—T. CHOPE (Hartland): His sug gestions are good, and will be considered.—J. Hou LDEN, Jr., (Edinr.): "The Perpetual Almanac extends only from 1758 to 1830 !—INQUIsITIVE (Liverpool) must omit the word of in the sentences to which he refers. As to books which are deemed authorities for excellence of style, we say Addison's papers in the “Spectator,” and his writings generally; Dean Swift’s “Gulliver’s Travels,” and his writings generally; and Dr. Samuel Johnson’s papers in the “Rambler,” and his writings generally. Macaulay, our most recent historian, is admired for his style, but it is too flippant for us ; those of Sir James Macintosh, Dugald Stewart, and Professor Playfair, are vastly superior.—G. ARCH BoLD (St. Peter’s): Right.—H. S. : We can’t tell.—A LEARNER (Swaffham): The plants referred to, grow from seeds that preceded them. Griffith’s “Chemistry of the Seasons” is good and useful. There is a larger edition than the 4s. one which is greatly improved.
QUINTIN PRINGLE (Glasgow): His solutions of the teak and pine question are correct.—G. S. (Cupar): See p. 223, vol. III., P. E.-J. L. (Duke-st.): Binding 2d. vol. 1s. 6d.—G. J. B. ANVERs had better write to Professor De Lolme.-SAMUEL Esqui RE (Logierait) will find an explanation of his difficulties in a note to the Article Duodecimals of the 1st vol. of Hutton’s Mathematics, at pp. 63 and 64 of the 12th edition.—ZENO (Glasgow): We strongly advise him to persevere at self-education in the midst of all his difficulties and discouragements, as he will be ultimately rewarded. The errors to which he refers are now corrected. Ovv becomes Ovpt when combined with BovXm for the sake of euphony.—G. ELTON (Beatton) : The writing out of the French Exercises is generally considered all that is necessary; and the committing of the rules to memory in the best way you can; but we may be allowed to remark that the writing out of a rule once is equivalent to reading it carefully, at least, siz or seven times.—W. TAYLOR: The best and the cheapest are seldom combined; we know of no case where this is certain, but the Bible, As to globes, try Smith in the Strand.—S. O. (Camberwell): Right.—T. HUNTER should add the study of English to that of Chemistry.—J. RUSSELI, (Kingscavil): Received.
Vol. III., p. 216, col. 1, Ans. to Ex. 14, for 96 read 84.
2, Ans, to Ex. 38, for a 1+* read 1+3*.
INSTRUMENTAL ARITHMETIC, No. [I. THE PLANE SCALE ; ITS CONSTRUCTION AND USE.
IN our first lesson on Instrumental Arithmetic, we explained the nature and use of an apparatus called the Neperian Abacus. In this lesson, we propose to explain the construction and use of the Plane Scale. This scale is usually found in a case or box of Mathematical Instruments, and is one of the most useful inventions we know for the purpose of the practical Mathematician, the Artist, the Mechanical Draughtsman, and the Designer and Drawer of Plans, whether relating to Architecture, Machinery, or Civil Engineering. In our illustrations, fig. 1 and 2, we have given an example of a Plane Scale of the most useful construction, for there are several varieties in this respect, which we shallhave occasion to explain. This example is a sae simile of an ivory Plane Scale which has been in our own possession for more than thirty years, and a more useful instrument in the solution of practical problems in Mathematics is not easy to be found. This instrument, although only six inches long, contains the same Lines as those which are put
upon one side of the Gunter s Scale, called the Common Gunter by sailors who use this instrument, and who solve their problems
in Navigation by its means. The Common Gunter is 24 inches long, and contains on the other side of it, Lines representing the Logarithms of the numbers which are represented by the Lines on the one side just alluded to. In explaining the nature and use of the Plane Scale, therefore, we are explaining the nature and use of one side of Gunter’s Scale, so useful in the study and practice of Navigation. In fig. 1, from A to B there is a common six inch rule, with the inches marked on it from 1 to 6 each inch being subdivided into tenths of an inch; this, then, is a decimal inch
in like manner subdivided into tenth parts.
mark it; you can then take 5'5, inches from the scale and mark it in a straight line with the former; then the whole length will be that of the line of 11-5 inches required. Under the line or rule thus described, there is another consisting of six inches divided into 5 equal parts, and having these parts These parts are marked at every large division, thus: 10, 20, 30, &c., which means 10 hundredths, 20 hundredths, 30 hundredths, &c., of a foot, or 1 tenth, 2 tenths, 3 tenths, &c., of a foot. This, then, is a decimal scale of a foot, containing tenths and hundredths of a foot without regard to inches; and from it you may lay down or measure lengths of lines very accurately to hundredths of a foot, as far as it goes, and it may be extended to the laying down or the measurement of a line longer than the scale itself by doing it by parts as shown above. Thus, if you wished to lay down a line of 2.37 feet, that is, 2 feet 3 tenths of a foot and 7 hundredths of a foot; you would draw an indefinite straight line, and repeat the length of the scale four times in succession on that line, this would give the length of the 2 feet, then stretch the legs of your compasses so that the distance between the two points of the legs may extend from the
extremity A to the 7th vertical division beyond that marked 30, and this will give the length of the '37 of a foot ; next place this length on the straight line above mentioned, in continuation of the 2 feet already laid down, and you will have a line of the whole length of 2.37 feet as required. By comparing the two scales extending from A to B, just explained, at the points where their divisions coincide, you will see that 5 hundredths of a foot is 6 tenths of an inch; 10 hundredths or 1 tenth of a foot is 1 inch and 2 tenths of an inch; 15 hundredths of a foot is I inch and 8 tenths of an inch ; 20 hundredths or 2 tenths of a foot is 2 inches and 4 tenths of an inch; 30 hundredths or 3 tenths of a foot is 3 inches and 6 tenths of an inch ; 35
scale, and you may m2asure or lay down the lengths of lines by its means very accurately to tenths of an inch, as far as it extends. Thus, if you stretch the legs of a pair of compasses, so that the distance between the two points of the legs may extend from the extremity A to the fourth vertical division beyond that marked 3, you have in this distance the measure or the length of 3-4 inches or 31% inches. If you wish to measure or lay down a longer line, you can do it from the same scale by parts; thus, to measure or lay down a line of 11-5 inches, you can first take 6 inches complete from the scale and