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ness, zeal.

The adjectives. in εις, εν, whose stem ends in ντ, append the terminations τερος and τατος immediately to the stem ; but in

April 11th. the.coming together of two z's the first changes into o, whereon Accepted a Bill drawn by Andrews and Co., London, the foregoing v is dropped ; the process and the result may be

No. 5, payable to Ford and Co., due at 3 mos. £238 17 4 presented thus

12th. Ρ. χαριεις, ιεν, G. χαριεντ-ος, pleasing.

Sold to Allison and Co. of London,
χαριεντ -τερος.

12 bags of West India Cotton (on credit)
Net 4236lbs, at 8 d. per Ib.

£150 06
χαριενσ-τερος.
Comp. χαριεσ-τερος. Sup. χαριεσ-τατος.

13th. Compounds of xapıs interpose w, as

Drew a Bill on Allison and Co., London,

$150 06 Ρ. επιχαρις, ,

No. 1, Payable to my Order, due at 2 mos.
G, επιχαριτ-ος, pleasing.
C. επιχαριτ-ω-τερος. S. επιχαριτ-ω-τατος.

13th.
VOCABULARY.

Received of Spencer and Co., London,

For Cotton sold to them on the 13th March £160 137 Βαθυς, εια, υ, deep. [some. | Ατυχια, ας, ή, misfortune. . Βαρυς, εια, υ, heavy, burden- Αφροδίτη, ης, η, Aphrodite

14th. Πρεσβυς, ο (the only cases (Venus). besides . the nom. are acc. Ηβη, ης, ή, youth.

Drew out of the London and Westminster Bank £170 00 πρεσβυν, and voc. πρεσβυ; “Ορμη, ης, ή, impulse, eager

14th. in the plur. πρεσβεις), old, an old man. Κριτιας, ου, ο, Critias.

Paid the East India Company a moiety of the Ωκυς, εια, υ, Swift.

Μεσοτης, ητος, ή, the middle, amount due for Cotton bought on the 25th Ασθενης, ες, powerless, weak. moderation.

February

£330 16 0 Εγικράτης, ες, self-controlled, { Νοημα, ατος, το, a thought

15th, abstinent.

(something in the νους, Ευσεβης, ες, pious.

mind).
Took out of Cash for Petty Cash

£20 0 0 Ευχαρις, ι (g. ίτος), attractive. Παρερχομαι, I pass by.

18th,
Ορθος, η, ον, straight, right. Αιψα, suddenly.
Αιτνη, ης, ή Etna.
Ουδε, nor.

Sold at Liverpool, by the agency of Thomas Jones,

24 bales of Madras Cotton EXERCISES.-GREEK-ENGLISH,

Net 8580lbs at 6d. per lb.

£232 7 6 His Commission and other expenses

5 16 2 Αιψα, ως νοημα, παρερχεται ηβη, ουδ' ίππων ορμη γιγνεται ωκυτερα. Το γηρας βαρυτερον εστιν Αιτνης. ο θανατος το

£226 11 4 βαθυτατο υπνη παραπλησιωτατος εστιν. Οι νεοι τοις των

18th, πρεσβυτερων επαινοις χαιρoυσιν. Φιλιας δικαιας κτησις εστιν

Drew out of the London and Westminster Bank £190 00 ασφαλεστατη. Η μεσοτης εν πασιν ασφαλεστερα εστιν. oi γεροντες ασθενεστεροι εισι των νεων. Βουλης ορθης ουδεν εστιν

18th, ασφαλεστερον. Οι κορακες μελαντατοι εισιν.

κορακες μελαντατοι εισιν. Σωκρατης εγκρα-Paid Osmond and Co., of London, τεστατος ην και σωφρονεστατος.

$183 4 3 Εν ταις ατυχιαις πολλακις For Cotton bought of them on the 4th inst. οι ανθρωποι σωφρονέστεροι εισιν, η εν ταις ευτυχιαις. Κριτιας

20th, ην αρπαγιστατος. Αφροδιτη ην χαριεστατη πασων θεων.

Sold Lloyd and Co., of Manchester,
ENGLISH-GREEK.

24 bales of Madras Cotton (on credit)
Net 8216lbs. at 67d. per lb.

£222 10 4 Old age is very burdensome. Nothing is swifter than thought. Incidental expenses

0 19 6 Moderation is the safest No bird is blacker than the raven. The boy is swift, the man is swifter, the horse is swiftest.

€223 9 10 The horse is swifter than the man ; the man is swifter than

22nd.
the boy. . Youth is more attractive than old age. The
Ethiopians are very black. No one of the Athenians was Bought of Ovington and Co., London,
more self-controlled than Socrates. Crities was more given

24 bags of Demerara Cotton
Net 7362lbs. at 8d. per 1b.

£245 8 0 to plunder (robbing) than Alexander. Nothing is more pleasing than beautiful flowers.

24th.

Drew out of the London and Westminster Bank £2900 0 LESSONS IN BOOKKEEPING.--No. VII. .. .

24th. HOME TRADE. .

Paid Bill No. 1, drawn by Osmond and Co. 8288 3 4 (Continued from page 110, Vol. IV.)

25th. April 4th. .

Received of Lloyd and Co., of Liverpool, Bought of Osmond and Co., London,

The following remittances in Bills, 16 bags of Berbice Cotton (at a fortnight's credit)

No. 2, drawn on Warwick and Co., due May 15th £120 100

due No. 3, drawn on Thiselton and Co.,

25th 102 19 10 Net 4960 lbs. at 9d. per lb.

£186 0 0 Discount 17 per cent. , 2 15 9

25th,

και £183 4 3 Drew out of the London and Westminster Bank £330 0 0 7th,..

25th. Bought of Andrews and Co., London,

Paid the East India Company, 22 bags of Maranham Cotton (on credit)

The remaining moiety of the amount due for Cotton Net 7166lbs..at 8d. per lb. £238 17 4 Bought on the 25th February

£330 16

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-April 26th.

!

May 12th. Received of Thomas Jones, ofiLiverpool,

Received of Thomas Jones, of Liverpool, The following remittances in Bills,

The following remittances in Bills, No. 4, drawn on Parker and Co., due May 11th £190 10 6 No. 9, drawn on Lubbock and Co., due June 16th £3000 No, 5, » » Baring and Co.,

June 3rd 36 0 10

No. 10,
„ Payne and Co.,

18th 37 0 8 27th.

13th. Sold at Liverpool, by Thomas Jones, 24 bales Madras Cotton (on credit)

Bought of Stevenson and Co., of Liverpool, Net 8068lbs. at 6 d. per lb.

On account of Perkins and Co., of London,

£218 10 2 His Commission and other expenses

30 bags of New Orleans Cotton, value

£212 6 8 5 92 My Commission and other expenses

5 6 8 £213 1 0

14th. 29th.

Received of Thomas Jones, of Liverpool, Accepted a Bill drawn by Ovington and Co.,

The following remittances in Bills,
No. 6, payable to Spicer and Co., due at 3 mos. £245 8 0

No, 11, drawn on Smith and Co., due June 12th £200 0 0
No. 12,
Baring and Co., ,

21st 41 5 2 30th. Sold at.Liverpool, by Thomas Jones,

15th. 30 bags of Demerara Cotton Net 9218lbs. at 9d. per Ib.

£345 13 6 Received of Powell and Co., of Manchester, His Commission and other expenses

8 12 10 The following remittances in Bills,

No. 13, drawn on Wagnall and Co., due £337 0 8 June 26th

£100 0 0 30th.

No. 14, drawn on Margetson and Co., due
June 30

£199 17 2 Took out of Cash for Private Account

£9
£9.00

15th.
May 2nd,
Sold to Lloyd and Co., of Manchester,

Received in Cash for Bill No.2, Warwick and Co. £120 100 16 bags of Berbice. Cotton (on credit)

15th. Net 4960lbs. at 10 d. per lb.

£217 0 0 Incidental expenses

0 18 10 Deposited in the London and Westminster Bank £120 00

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25th,

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£217 18 10

I6th. 3rd.

Bought of Stewart and Co., of Liverpool, Drew out of the London and Westminster Bank £340 0 0 On account of Perkins and Co., of London,

40 bags of Sea-island Cotton, fine *3rd.

$610 19 My Commission and other expenses

15 19 2 Paid Bill, No. 2, drawn by Andrews and Co. £327 5 0

20th. 4th.

Drew out of the London and Westminster Bank £210 0 Sold at Liverpool, by Thomas Jones,

20th. 24 bags of Madras Cotton (on credit) Net 84841bs. at 7d. per Ib.

$247 9 0 Remitted in Cash to Stevenson and Co., Liverpool, ! His Commission and other expenses

6 3 10 On account of Perkins and Co., London,
For Cotton bought on the 13th inst.

£212 6 8 £241 5 2

25th. 5th. Sold to Powell and.Co,..of Manchester,

Received in Cash for Bill No.3, Thiselton and Co. £102 19 10 22 bags of Maranham Cotton (on 'credit) Net 7166łbs, at Iod. per lb.

£298 11 8 Incidental expenses

1 5 6 Discounted and received in Cash for Bills,
No. 8, Barclay and Co., due June 1st

£217 18 10 £299 17 2 No. 9, Lubbock and Co.,

16th

300 0 0 6th, Paid for discount on the Bils

1 2 3

25th, Received of Thomas Jones, of Liverpool, The following remittances in Bills,

Remitted in Cash to Stewart and Co., Liverpool,
No. 6, drawn on Abrahams and Co., due

On account of Perkins and Co., London,
June Bth

$113 1 0
For Cotton bought on the 16th inst.

£610 19 4 No. 1, trawn on Welch and Co., due May 29th 100 Ö Ö

27th. 9th.

Sold Brown and Smith, London, Received of Lloyd and Co., of Manchester,

12 bales Madras Cotton, for Cash in hand, Bill No. 8, drawn on Barclay and Co., due

Net 3896lbs. at 6d. per lb.

$97 S 0 : June 1st

£217 18 10

29th. 10th. Received in Cash for Bill No. 4, Parker and Co. £190 10 6 Deposited in the London and Westminster Bank £100 0 0 11th.

29th. Took out of Cash for Petty Cash

£10 0 0 Received in cash for Bill No. 7, Welch and Co., £10010 0 11th,

30th. Deposited in the London and Westminster Bank £180 0 01 Deposited in the London and Westminster Bank £100 0 0

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May 31st.

June 21st. Received of Perkins and Co., London, 4 Bills, viz.,

Deposited in the London and Westminster Bank £55 00 No. 15 drawn on Warner and Co., due June 7th £200 0 0 16 Russell and Co. 10th £200 0 0

26th. 17 Payne and Co.

15th £375 10 0 Received in Cash for Bill No. 13, Wagnall and Co. £100 0 0 18 Alexander and Co. 28th $47 16 0

26th, June 1st.

Deposited in the London and Westminster Bank. £100 0 0 Sold to Powell and Co., of Manchester, 24 bags of Demerara Cotton (on credit)

28th. Net 7362lbs. at 10d. per lb.

£306 15 0 Received in Cash for Bill No. 18, Alexander Incidental expenses

1 10 0
and Co.

£47 16 0 £308 5 0

30th. 3rd.

Received in Cash for Bill No. 14, Margetson Received in Cash for Bill No. 5, Baring and Co. £36 0 10

and Co.,

£199 17 2 3rd.

30th, Drew out of the London and Westminster Bank £100 0 0 Deposited in the London and Wes ini ster Bank £250 0 0 3rd.

30th. Paid Bill No. 3, Smith and Co.

£135 18 9 Made up the account of Petty Cash from Jan, 1st
'till this day

£57 8 9 5th. Took out of Cash for Petty Cash Account

£10 0,0

30th. 6th.

Estimated my unsold Cotton at prime cost, as

follows, on taking a General Balance this day, Received in Cash for Bill No.6, Abrahams and Co. £113 1 0

12 bags of Madras Cotton
6th.
Net 4004lbs. at 4 d. per lb.

£75 1 6 Deposited in the London and Westminster Bank £100 0 0 7th.

LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.-No. VIII. Received in Cash for Bill No. 15, Warner and Co., £200 0 0

WHITE arsenic (arsenious acid) is not very soluble in water, but 7th,

it readily dissolves in potash solution : add, therefore, about Deposited in the London and Westminster Bank £200 0 0 fifteen or twenty drops of liquor potassæ to about a wine-glassful

of distilled water, and place the fluid in a widish-mouthed bottle, 10th.

capable of holding about four wine-glasses full-that is to say, a Received in Cash for Bill No. 16, Russell and Co., £200 0 0 bottle having a capacity of about six fluid ounces. Instead of a 10th.

bottle of this kind, a clean Florence flask may be employed, and

probably it will be the better of the two. Assuming a Florence Deposited in the London and Westminster Bank £200 0 oilask to be used, I shall construct my diagram accordingly, fig. 22. 11th.

Fig. 42.
Received from Powell and Co., Manchester, 2 Bills, viz.,
No 19, drawn on Payne, Smith and Co., due

T
July 10th

£150 00
Lloyd and Co.

July 20th £158 5 0

12th. Received in Cash for Bill No. 11, Smith and Co., £200 0 0

f

F 12th. Deposited in the London and Westminster Bank £200 0 0

15th. Received in Cash for Bill No. 17, Payne and Co., £375 10 0

15th. Took out of Cash for Private Account

£20 00

15th, Deposited in the London and Westminster Bank £360 0 0

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16th.

1 is the bottle in which the arseniuretted hydrogen gas is to ne Received in Cash for Bill No. 1, Allison and Co., £150 0 6 generated by mixing together zinc, dilute sulphuric acid, and

liquor arsenicalis ; t the tobacco-pipe shank, and f the fiane 16th.

produced by the burning gas; Tis & thin bent glass tube, through Deposited in the London and Westminster Bank £150 0 o which the products of combustion (water and arsenical fumes)

pass into the Florence flask F. The tube bends downwards in the 18th.

task until it nearly touches, but not quite, the potash solution. Received in Cash for Bill No. 10, Payne and Co., £37 8 By this arrangement most of the arsenic enters the bent tube in

the state of arsenious acid, passes along the tube, comes in contact 18th.,

with the potash solution, and is by the latter eventually absorbed. Deposited in the London and Westminster Bank £40 0 0 During the progress of the operation it will be well, from time to

time, to agitate the Florence flask in order to facilitate absorp21st.

tion of the gas. Received in Cask for Bill No. 12, Baring and Co., £415 5 2 The student must not imagine that by the arrangement sur

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apparatus just described all the arsenic contained in the liquor | although acetie acid in distinct excess should have been added, arsenicalis will be collected. Some portion will inevitably escape. boil the liquid for a few seconds in a shallow vessel, when a preWere it our object to collect absolutely all, other methods must be cipitate will certainly ensue. The proper vessel for conducting had recourse to. I wish the reader, however, to understand that the boiling operation is a porcelain evaporating dish, fig. 43 ; but these lessons involve qualitative, not quantitative chemistry--the an enamelled saucepan will answer perfectly well. latter department of the science being a subject for future consideration. It so happens, however, that a great number of the prac

Fig. 43. tical chemical operations having reference to arsenic involve qualitative rather than quantitative questions--the question being not so much to determine the exact quantity of arsenic present as whether it exists at all. The operátor will soon see how every particle of arsenic might be collected and estimated if desired.

Before passing on to a further consideration of our arsenical I stated a short time since that the method of obtaining every solution, just reflect for an instant on the elegant power of analysis portion of arsenic from a liquid containing it would soon be made with which the property of

arsenic to combine with bydrogen and evident. This is the method. The arsenical solution being brought form a gas furnishes us. Hereafter a few other instances of the to the proper condition, that is to say, perfectly neutral, or else separation of solid bodies from each other, by converting one into acidulated with acetic acid, hydrosulphuric acid is passed through a gas, will be made known. Flint is one of these. This hard, it; the liquid boiled and filtered ; all the arsenic is obtained in the heavy, apparently untractable substance, can be readily made to condition of sulphuret upon the filter. Instead of filtration, decanassume the form of a gas.

tation may, in

in many instances, be profitably adopted. Decantation Experiments with the Arsenical Solution. However much we consists in the pouring away of a liquid frora a sediment, and is have been discursively beating about since we first commenced best conducted by means of what chemists term a Phillips's testthese lessons with the examination of a metal, I trust you have glass-a vessel of this form, fig. 41. Uwing to its peculiar connot forgotten two or three red-letter rules mentioned some time struction, back. I will repeat them: they are as follows:Metals are divided into

Fig. 41.
Kaligenous,
Terrigenous,

Calcigenous.
The latter class contains all the substances we commonly term
metals.

Al calcigenous metallic solutions yield a precipitate, either with hydiosulphuric acid, hydrosulphate of ammonia, or yellow prussiate of potash--generally with all these,

The normal colour of precipitate with hydrosulphuric acid or hydrosulphurate of ammonia is black; but two metals yield a white, and four a yellow precipitate.

being videst below, the deposition of a precipitate takes place Solutions of all calcigenous metals, save five, yield precipitates with great facility. Even the operation of pouring requires some with hydrosulphuric acid alone.

practice that is to say, pouring without disturbing the deposited Five do not; but they yield a precipitate with hydrosulphate precipitate. First dip a glass rod into the fluid, then do as repreof ammonia. They are iron, manganese, uranium, cobalt, and sented below, fig. 45. In this manner the major portion of nickel.

fluid may be drawn off from a precipitate. Now commence the operation of testing. Transfer the arseni.

Fig. 45. cal solution from the Florence flask to a tall wine-glass or a bottle, and transmit through it sulphuretted hydrogen gas. Most probably you will have no precipitate; and possibly you will infer that hydrosulphuric acid is incapable of furnishing a precipitate with an arsenical solution. Do not arrive at any such hasty conclusion : we will proceed to examine the conditions of this liquid. In the first place, is it alkaline? Try it by means of a piece of reddened litmus paper, or a piece of yellow tissue-paper, you have been already instructed as to the changes on these which alkalinites would produce. Do not, however, dip the paper into the liquid—that is a dirty plan, only followed by slovenly people. Lay the slip of paper, previously moistened with distilled water, upon a little slip of clean window-glass; then dip the end of a glass rod into the fluid, from which withdraw a small quantity, and apply it to the paper.

This is the proper way to conduct the operation. Well, if the solution be alkaline, we have a sufficient explanation of the reason why no precipitate ensued; for sulphuret of arsenic, like most other sulphurets, refuses to fall in the presence of alkalies: the greater number of acids also prevent its falling, but acetic acid is an exception to this rule: therefore add acetic acid to the arseni. cal solution until the liquid, on being tested with blue litmuspaper, manifests distinct signs of acidity. Now transmit through until it has been frequently washed by distilled water, and the

I need hardly say that no precipitate can be considered pure it a current of hydrosulphuric acid gas, as already directed, and you will have a result, but the kind of result will depend upon water separated, either by decantation or filtering, circumstances. If the amount of arsenic contained in the solution If the process of filtering be adopted, and circumstances make be less than a certain amount, precipitation does not iminediately iti requisite to separate the precipitate from the filter, it may be ensue, but the fluid is tinged yellow. Now, why is this? The effected by holding the unfolded filter lightly between the thumb explanation has already been given. I have already said, that and finger over an evaporating dish, and directing against the sulpburet of arsenic is soluble in the greater number of acids. filter a powerful but minute jet of water by means of an apparatus Well, even hydrosulphuric acid gas is not an exception to this rule. already

detailed, and here represented, fig. 46. The nature of the A certain definite portion of this acid throws down the arsenic in combination is such, that air being forced by the mouth down an insoluble form, but an excess redissolves that precipitate. If, the tube t, water emerges through the jet t against the filter. therefore, you obtain a solution which is merely tinged yellow, In the greater number of operations, however, we do not require to effect the separation of a precipitate from Its filter. lamp, fig. 48, fuse it at the point to revolving it all the time heat is Our operations being qualitative, a sufficient quantity of the pre- applied. Separate the two ends by gentle extension, then twist

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the tubes in reverse directions, so as to obliterate the capilary orifice Fig. 46.

at t; break the filament, and continuing to apply the point of a spirit-lamp flame, finish by making a tube like that represented in the following diagram, fig. 49, about the diameter there given, but almost twice the length. In all probability you will not be able to finish off the tube so neatly as represented-most likely you will have a bead of glass at the closed end like

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Fig. 49.

this. To get rid of this bead entirely requires some practice and address : take no heed of it, therefore. I shall here. after give more specific directions for working glass, by attending to which the disfigurement may be prevented; meantime, the tube you have succeeded in forming will answer the purposes intended. Incorporate by a pestle and mortar, or on a piece of paper with a knife, the sulphuret of arsenic you have

made, and dried, with about its own weight of a mixture of powcipitate for our future purposes could have been separated from dered charcoal and carbonate of soda (washing soda) in equal the filter by mero scraping. I would strongly advise the student, proportions; then carefully throw the mixture into the closed however, not to neglect the practice of learning how to remove the tube thus prepared, in such a manner that its sïdes may not remain precipitate from the paper in the manner detailed; of course the soiled to remove which soiling, a feather may be used—but whatsulphuret will be found in the evaporating dish, mixed with a ever be the plan adopted, the sides of the tube must be made quite great deal of water. As much as convenient of the water is now clean. to be poured off, and the remainder dissipated by gentle evapora

Fig. 50. tion over a steam or water-bath ; the sulphuret will then be obtained dry and

and pure. It is almost superfluous to state, that the steam or water bath may be a saucepan containing water, over the mouth of which the basin or evaporating dish is laid, as represented in the accompanying diagram, fig. 47.

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Fig. 47.

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If the basin or eraporating dish touch the water contained in t? Sanderpan, it is said 10 be henied by a water hath; if it only Come into cofriart with steam, it is said to be heated by a steam bath.

Reduction of Sulphuret of Arsenic (orout into Nirtallic Arsenic. -Take a piece of quilled glass tube, about ten inches long, and onefourth of an inch in diameter, and applying the flame of a spirit

Fig. 48.

If now the flame of a spirit-lamp be applied to the tube containing the mixture of sulphuret, carbonate of soda, and charcoal the tube being Delci by a slip of thick paper wound round itthe first effect will be the evolution of watery vapour, which, on riging, vill dina the tube, fig. 50. The operacor sbould carefully remove it by means of a strip of blotting-paper, otherwise it might trickle back, and, falling on the hottest part of the tube, break it. The next effect will be the decomposition of the fulphuret of arsenic into metallic arsenic and arsenious avir (wbite arsenie); the former coating the tube with a rtsplundene ruetallic ring a, b, tho latter appearing as white crystalline (oc:agowal) particles further uzp c, d towards the mouth of the tube. By applying the spiritlamp flame carefully to the ring a, b, the arsenio of which it is composed may be realily volatilised, and partiylly convert :d, by combination with almospheric oxyyen, iuto arsenious acid; and by repeating the operation sufficiently often, the total conversion of the metal into the auld or oxide (white arsenic) may be readily accomplished.

This volatility of the crust of metallic arsenic is a character of vast importance, distinguishing arsenic from everything else, am aware that books-especially medico-legal booksmatate that various stains which occur in the substance of glass, and also

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