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April 11th.

Accepted a Bill drawn by Andrews and Co., London,
No. 5, payable to Ford and Co., due at 3 mos. £238 17 4

—— 12th. ——

Sold to Allison and Co., of London, 12 bags of West India Cotton (on credit)

Net 4236]bs, at 8:#d. per lb. e - © ... £150 0 6 13th. T}rew a Bill on Allison and Co., London, No. 1, Payable to my Order, due at 2 mos. $150 0 6

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Sold at Liverpool, by the agency of Thomas Jones, 24 bales of Madras Cotton

Net 8580lbs at 6:#d. per lb. e ete ... £232 7 6 His Commission and other expenses to e O 5 16 2. £226 11 4 —— 18th. —— Drew out of the London and Westminster Bank £190 0 0 — 18th. — Paid Osmond and Co., of London, ' For Cotton bought of them on the 4th inst. ... $183 4 3 — 20th. — Sold Lloyd and Co., of Manchester, 24 bales of Madras Cotton (on credit) Net'8216lbs. at 6%d. per lb. • * > ... $222 10 4 Incidental expenses • ‘o o to e & * - so 0 19 .6 $223 9 10 —— 22nd. —— Bought of Ovington and Co., London, 24 bags of Demerara Cotton Net 7362lbs. at 8d. per lb. to o o ... $245 8 G. 24th. Drew out of the London and Westminster Bank £290 0 0° — 24th. — Paid Bill No. 1, drawn by Osmond and Co. £288 3 4

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—April 26th. — | — May 12th. — Received of Thomas Jones, of Liverpool, Received of Thomas Jones, of Liverpool, The following remittances in Bills, The following remittances in Bills, - * No. 4, drawn on Parker and Co., due May 11th £190 10 6 No. 9, drawn on Lubbock and Co., due June 16th £300 0 0. No. 5, , , , , Baring and Co., , June 3rd 36 0 10 | No. 10, , ,, Payne and Co., , ,, 18th 37 0 8 — 27th. — 13th. Sold at Liverpool, by Thomas Jones too 24 bales Madras Gotton (on credit Boo of ;Yo..." §§ o; Net 8068lbs. at 6%d. per lb. to is to £218 10 2 n account or Perkins and Uo., of London, His Commission and other expenses S 9 2 30 bags of New Orleans Cotton, value ... 32.212 6 8 p -* My Commission and other expenses * - G 5 6 8 #213 l () 14th. 29th. Received of Thomas Jones. of Liverpool Accepted a Bill drawn by Ovington and Co., The following remittances in #;" 9 No. 6, payable to Spicer and Co., due at 3 mos. £245 8 o No. 11, drawn on Smith and Co., due June 12th £200 0 0 — 30th. — No. 12, , , , Baring and Co., , ,, 21st 41 5 2 Sold at.Liverpool, by Thomas Jones, 15th. 30 b foL) Cott N: j. * . ... e345 13 6 Received of Powell and Co., of Manchester, His Commission and other expenses to o 8 12 10. The following remittances in Bills, $omo-e No. 13, drawn on Wagnall and Co., due #337 0 8, June 26th ... to o to to o so ... £100 0 0 30th. — | No. 14, drawn on Margetson and Co., due * Took out of Cash for Private Account ... .329 0 0: June 30 to & © to so so ... £199 17 2 -— May 2nd. — — 15th. — f Sold to Lloyd and Co., of Manchester, | Received in Cash for Bill No. 2, Warwick and Co. £120 10 0 16 bags of Berbice Cotton (on credit) : 15th Net 4960lbs. at 10%d. per lb. ... £217 0 (0. * , - o i Incidental expenses & to o o © e C 0 18 10||Deposited in the London and Westminster Bank £120 0 0 #2217 IS 10 —— I6th. s=g 3rd. - Bought of Stewart and Co., of Liverpool, Drew out of the London and Westminster Bank £340 0 0 || On account of Perkins and Co., of London, } *3rd 40 bags of Sea-island Cotton, fine ... ... #610 19 +4 * My Commission and other expenses * ... 15 19 2 Paid Bill, No. 2, drawn by Andrews, and Co. £327 5 0 20th 4th. *so Drew out of the London and Westminster Bank £210 0 0 Sold at Liverpool, by Thomas Jones, 24 bags of Madras Cotton (on credit) — 20th. — Net 8484lbs. at 7d. perlb. we o os ... £247 9 0 | Remitted in Cash to Stevenson and Co., Liverpool, | His Commission and other-expense to 6 3 10 || On account of Perkins and Co., London, #241 5 2 For Cotton bought on the 13th inst. ... £212 6 8 + 5th. — 25th. Sold to Powell and Co, of Manchester, Received in Cash for Bill No. 3, Thiselton and Co. £102 19 10 22 bags of Maranham Cotton (on credit) 25th Net 7166bbs. at 10d. per lb. * * * £298 11 8 wo Incidental expenses to o o < * * > & ot 1 5 6 Discounted and received in Cash for Bills, somosomso No. 8, Barclay and Co., due June 1st ... $217 18 10 £299 17 2 | No. 9, Lubbock and Co., , , ,, 16th 300 0 0 6th. — Paid for discount on the Bib's & © to to g to 1 2 3 Received of Thomas Jones, of ol, co — 25th. The following remittances in Bills, Remitted in Cash to Stewart and Co., Liverpool No. 6, o on Abrahams and Go, due $113 1 0 On account of Perkins and Co., London, y use * * $o ove * & a F 4. * & Q & e & O & N.m. on win and c.aue May on to 6 & " " "go" the 19th inst £610 19 4 Roo.o.o.o. *śnia hand, ill No. 8, drawn on Barclay and Co., due 3. : * june ist.” * ... to to o so 5 ... $217 18 10 Net 38961bs. at 6d. per lb. to o o ... so? '8 0 ——10th. --— * e - of e —29th — -- * Received in Cash for Bill No. 4, Parker and Co. £190 10 6|Deposited in the London and Westminster Bank £100 0 0 11th. — 29th. — Took out of Cash for Petty Cash to o o ... E10 0 0 ||Received in cash for Bill No. 7, Welch and Co., £1003 to 0 11th. 30th. Deposited in the London and Westminster Bank £180 0 0 1 Deposited in the London and Westminster Bank £100 0 0

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Sold to Powell and Co., of Manchester, 24 bags of Demerara Cotton (on credit)

Net 7362lbs. at 10d. per lb. to o 'o ... £306 15 0 Incidental expenses . . to e - to e de 1 10 0 £308 5 0 3rd. — Received in Cash for Bill No. 5, Baring and Co. £36 0 19 3rd. — Drew out of the London and Westminster Bank £100 0 0 — 3rd. — Paid Bill No. 3, Smith and Co. to a to ... £135 18 9 — 5th. — Took out of Cash for Petty Cash Account ... £10 0 0 — 6th. — Received in Cash for Bill No. 6, Abrahams and Co. £113 1 0 — 6th. — peposited in the London and Westminster Bank £100 0 0 7th. |Received in Cash for Bill No. 15, Warner and Co., £200 0 0 7th, Deposited in the London and Westminster Bank £200 0 0 10th. Received in Cash for Bill No. 16, Russell and Co., £200 0 0 10th. Deposited in the London and Westminster Bank £200 0 0 11th. —

Received from Powell and Co., Manchester, 2 Bills, viz., No 19, drawn on Payne, Smith and Co., due

July 10th ... £150 0 0

,, 20, ," iioyd and Co. July 20th £158 5 Ö 12th. * Received in Cash for Bill No. 11, Smith and Co., £200 0 0 12th. Deposited in the London and Westminster Bank £200 0 0 15th. Received in Cash for Bill No. 17, Payne and Co., £375 10 0 — 15th. Took out of Cash for Private Account e - © $20 0 0 15th. Deposited in the London and Westminster Bank £360 0 0 - 16th. — Received in Cash for Bill No. 1, Allison and Co., £150 0 6 i 16th. Deposited in the London and Westminster Bank £150 0 0 — 18th. Beceived in Cash for Bill No. 10, Payne and Co., £37 0 8 — 18th., Deposited in the London and Westminster Bank £40 0 0 21st. —

Received in Cash for Bill No. 12, Baring and Co., 4:41 5 2

June 21st. Deposited in the London and Westminster Bank £50 0 0 — 26th. — Received in Cash for Bill No. 13, Wagnall and Co. £100 0 0 — 26th, – Deposited in the London and Westminster Bank. £100 0 0 - 28th. Received in Cash for Bill No. 18, Alexander and Co. e to e * * * to to to ... £47 16 0 — 30th. — Received in Cash for Bill No. 14, Margetson and Co., w is to to to to * * * ... $199 17 2 30th. — Deposited in the London and Wes muster Bank £250 0 0 — 30th. —

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WHITE arsenic (arsenious acid) is not very soluble in water, but it readily dissolves in potash solution: add, therefore, about fifteen or twenty drops of liquor potassae to about a wine-glassful of distilled water, and place the fluid in a widish-mouthed bottle, capable of holding about four wine-glasses full—that is to say, a bottle having a capacity of about six fluid ounces. Instead of a bottle of this kind, a clean Florence flask may be employed, and probably it will be the better of the two. Assuming a Florence flask to be used, I shall construct my diagram accordingly, fig. 32.

Fig. 42.

B is the bottle in which the arseniuretted hydrogen gas is to pe generated by mixing together zinc, dilute sulphuric acid, and liquor arsenicalis; t the tobacco-pipe shank, and f the flame produced by the burning gas.; T is a thin bent glass tube, through which the products of combustion (water and arsenical fumes) pass into the Florence flask F. The tube bends downwards in the flask until it nearly touches, but not quite, the potash solution. By this arrangement most of the arsenic enters the bent tube in the state of arsenious acid, passes along the tube, comes in contact with the potash solution, and is by the latter eventually absorbed. During the progress of the operation it will be well, from time to time, to agitate the Florence flask in order to facilitate absorption of the gas.

The student must not imagine that by the arrangement of

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apparatus just described all the arsenic contained in the liquor arsenicalis will be collected. Some portion will inevitably escape. Were it our object to collect absolutely all, other methods must be had recourse to. I wish the reader, however, to understand that these lessons involve qualitative, not quantitative chemistry—the latter department of the science being a subject for future consideration. It so happens, however, that a great number of the practical chemical operations having reference to arsenic involve qualitative rather than quantitative questions—the question being not so much to determine the exact quantity of arsenic present as whether it exists at all. The operator will soon see how every particle of arsenic might be collected and estimated if desired. Before passing on, to a further consideration of our arsenical solution, just reflect for an instant on the elegant power of analysis with which the property of arsenic to combine with hydrogen and form a gas furnishes us. Hereafter a few other instances of the

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The latter class contains all the substances we commonly term metals. All calcigenous metallic solutions yield a precipitate, either with hydrosulphuric acid, hydrosulphate of ammonia, or yellow prussiate of potash—generally with all these. The normal colour of precipitate with hydrosulphuric acid or hydrosulphurate of ammonia is black; but two metals yield a white, and four a yellow precipitate. Solutions of all calcigenous metals, save five, yield precipitates with hydrosulphuric acid alone. Five do not; but they yield a precipitate with hydrosulphate of ammonia. They are iron, manganese, uranium, cobalt, and nickel. Now commence the operation of testing. Transfer the arsenical solution from the Florence flask to a tall wine-glass or a bottle, and transmit5through it sulphuretted hydrogen gas. Most probably you will have no precipitate; and possibly you will infer that hydrosulphuric acid is incapable of furnishing a precipitate with an arsenical solution. Do not arrive at any such hasty conclusion : we will proceed to examine the conditions of this liquid. In the first place, is it alkaline Try it by means of a piece of reddened litmus paper, or a piece of yellow tissue-paper, you have been already instructed as to the changes on these which alkalinites would produce. Do not, however, dip the paper into the liquid—that is a dirty plan, only followed by slovenly people. Lay the slip of paper, previously moistened with distilled water, upon a little slip of clean window-glass; then dip the end of a glass rod into the fluid, from which withdraw a small quantity, and apply it to the paper. This is the proper way to conduct the operation. Well, if the solution be alkaline, we have a sufficient explanation of the reason why no precipitate ensued; for sulphuret of arsenic, like most other sulphurets, refuses to fall in the presence of alkalies: the greater number of acids also prevent its falling, but acetic acid is an exception to this rule: therefore add acetic acid to the arsenical solution until the liquid, on being tested with blue litmuspaper, manifests distinct signs of acidity. Now transmit through it a current of hydrosulphuric acid gas, as already directed, and you will have a result, but the kind of result will depend upon circumstances. If the amount of arsenic contained in the solution be less than a certain amount, precipitation does not immediately ensue, but the fluid is tinged yellow. Now, why is this? The explanation has already been given. I have already said, that sulphuret of arsenic is soluble in the greater number of acids. Well, even hydrosulphuric acid gas is not an exception to this rule,

A certain definite portion of this acid throws down the arsenic in

an insoluble form, but an excess redissolves that precipitate. If, therefore, you obtain a solution which is merely tinged yellow,

although acetic acid in distinct excess should have been added, boil the liquid for a few seconds in a shallow vessel, when a precipitate will certainly ensue. The proper vessel for conducting the boiling operation is a porcelain evaporating dish, fig. 43; but an enamelled saucepan will answer perfectly well.

Fig. 43.

I stated a short time since that the method of obtaining every portion of arsenic from a liquid containing it would soon be made evident. This is the method. The arsenical solution being brought to the proper condition, that is to say, perfectly neutral, or else acidulated with acetic acid, hydrosulphuric acid is passed through it; the liquid boiled and filtered ; all the arsenic is obtained in the condition of sulphuret upon the filter. Instead of filtration, decantation may, in many instances, be profitably adopted. Decantation consists in the pouring away of a liquid from a sediment, and is best conducted by means of what chemists term a Phillips's testglass—a vessel of this form, fig. 44. Owing to its peculiar construction,

being widest below, the deposition of a precipitate takes place with great facility. Even the operation of pouring requires some practice—that is to say, pouring without disturbing the deposited precipitate. First dip a glass rod into the fluid, then do as represented below, fig. 45. In this manner the major portion of a fluid may be drawn off from a precipitate.

I need hardly say that no precipitate can be considered pure until it has been frequently washed by distilled water, and the water separated, either by decantation or filtering.

If the process of filtering be adopted, and circumstances make it requisite to separate the precipitate from the filter, it may be effected by holding the unfolded filter lightly between the thumb and finger over an evaporating dish, and directing against the filter a powerful but minute jet of water by means of an apparatus already detailed, and here represented, fig. 46. The nature of the combination is such, that air being forced by the mouth down the tube t, water emerges through the jet to against the filter.

In the greater number of operations, however, we do not require to effect the separation of a precipitate from its filter. Our operations being qualitative, a sufficient quantity of the pre

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Fig. 46.

cipitate for our future purposes could have been separated from the filter by mere scraping. I would strongly advise the student, however, not to neglect the practice of learning how to remove the precipitate from the paper in the manner detailed; of course the sulphuret will be found in the evaporating dish, mixed with a great deal of water. As much as convenient of the water is now to be poured off, and the remainder dissipated by gentle evaporation over a steam or water-bath ; the sulphuret will then be obtained dry and pure. It is almost superfluous to state, that the steam or water bath may be a saucepan containing water, over the mouth of which the basin or evaporating dish is laid, as represented in the accompanying diagram, fig. 47.

Fig. 47.

If the basin or evaporating dish touch the water contained in the salterpan, it is said to be heated by a water bath; if it only come into corri act wuth steam, it is said to be heated by a steam bath.

Reduction of Sulphuret of Arsenic (ormoneys) into Metallic Arsenio. -Take a piece of quilled glass tube, about ten inches long, and onefourth of an indh in diameter, and applying the flame of a spirit

Fig. 48.

lamp, fig. 48, fuse it at the point t, revolving it all the time heat is applied. Separate the two ends by gentle extension, then twist the tubes in reverse directions, so as to obliterate the capilary orifice at t; break the filament, and continuing to apply the point of a spirit-lamp flame, finish by making a tube like that represented in the following diagram, fig. 49, about the diameter there given, but almost twice the length. In all probability you will not be able to finish off the tube so meatly as represented—most likely you will have a bead of glass at the closed end like

this. To get rid of this bead entirely requires some practice and address: take no heed of it, therefore. I shall hereafter give more specific directions for working glass, by attending to which the disfigurement may be prevented; meantime, the tube you have succeeded in forming will answer the purposes intended. Incorporate by a pestle and mortar, or on a piece of paper with a knife, the sulphuret of arsenic you have made, and dried, with about its own weight of a mixture of powdered charcoal and carbonate of soda (washing soda) in equal proportions; then carefully throw the mixture into the closed tube thus prepared, in such a manner that its sides may not remain soiled—toremove which soiling, a feather may be used—but whatever be the plan adopted, the sides of the tubermust be made quite

clean.

Fig. 50.

If now the flame of a spirit-lamp be applied to the tube containing the myxiure of sulphuret, carbonate of soda, and charcoal -the tube being held by a slip of thick paper wound round it— t the first effect will be the evolution of watery vapour, which, on ris| inft, Will dim the tube, fig.50. The operatorshould carefully remove it by means of a strip of blotting-paper, otherwise it might trickle

back, and, falling on the hottest part of the tube, break it. The

| next effect will be the decomposition of the sulphuret of arsenic into metallic arsenic and arsenious acid (white arsenic); the forImer coating the tube with a resplendent ruetallic ring a, b, the latter appearing as white crystalline (octagonal) particles further up 0, d. towards the mouth of the tube. By applying the spiritlamp flame carefusly to the ring a, b, the arsenio of which it is composed may be readily volatilised, and partially convert ‘d, by $ombination with atmospherie oxygen, into arsenious acid; and by repeating the operation sufficiently often, the total converSion.9f the metal into the acid or oxide (white arsenic) may be readily accomplished. This volatility of the crust of metallic arsenic is a character of Yast importance, distinguishing aisenic from everything else. I *m.aware that books—especially medico-legal books—state that Various stains which occur in the substance of glass, and also

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