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antimony, afford crusts which may be confounded with that arising from arsenic. So far as the objection applies to antimony, you shall form your own opinion hereafter; as regards stains in the substance of glass, you may form an opinion presently. It is scarcely possible for a beginner to fuse a glass tube in a spiritlamp flame without giving rise to a dark stain in the glass—this stain depends upon the change of oxide of lead, an ingredient of flint-glass, into metallic lead. If, instead of a spirit-lamp flame, that of an oil lamp be employed, then, in addition to the lead stains, others are apt to be produced by the imbedding of charcoal in the fused glass. These stains, it is said, may be confounded with the arsenical crust; but if the remark apply in any degree,
it can only apply to the most careless of observers. An arsenical crust may be volatilised, and caused to deposit further on towards the mouth of the tube : lead and charcoal stains are fixed, at least
so far as locality is concerned. By dexterous manipulation they
may sometimes be altogether removed; but the operation of removing them causes no fresh stain. Remark well the appear
ance of an arsenical crust, and never fear you will mistake it for
anything else. A very simple plan of avoiding lead stains consists, in the use of glass which is totally free from lead. .
The glass known as German or Bohemian is of this kind. I have not recommended it to the beginner, on account of its extreme infusibility, and the difficulty with which it is worked.
(13) Remarks on so stem, must be kept in view. The following examples will be sufficient. * . ... i to show this:
The primary and prevalent use of fossen is to indicate obligation i. e. g &: as S
Or jo. word or phrase shall be employed | * o bū3 o o o t *:::* to) do that s:
to translate it, in any given case, must be determined by cir-i (Śr so gton, he is to (i.e. is go: ifted
!cumstances. It is only necessary always to adhere to the pri- ©oss id) eg soften ? am I to (i. e. am I bound or an I pesmitted
mary idea; for in whatever way expressed, that primary sense to) have it?
* One of the exceptional words, where the s must be pronounced with i. sharp, hissing sound, though it is placed between two WOWelS,
IESSONS IN ITALIAN GRAMMAR.—No. IX. Italian. JPronounced. English By CHARLES TAUSENAU, M.D., Acera âh-tchai-rah Maple. e Of the University of Pavia, and Professor of the German and Italian Acerra. short-rah Acerra, a town in Naples Languages at the Kensington Proprietary Grammar School. Azelo ah-nē-lo I pant, panting Anello ah-nēl-lo Ring As the proper vibrated sound of double consonants can Ano âh-no Anus (in anatomy) only be acquired by much steady practice, I have to request Anno âhn-no Year my pupil readers frequently to read aloud the following table, | Baco bâh-ko Worm, silkworm * in which I have selected a series of words showing the differ- || Bacco báhk-ko Bacchus ence of pronunciation, and, at the same time, of meaning, Beco bé-ko Dominicus *. caused by the doubling of consonants in words, but for this Becco bék-ko Beak ) change, identical :— Cacio káh-tcho Cheese SIXTH PRONOUNCING TABLE, o káht-teho I chase, expel * 'apello kah-pél-lo Hair ILLUSTRATING THE PRONUNCIATION OF SINGLE AND Dou BLE | Cappelio kahp-pèl-lo Bat : CONS ON ANTS, Dama dáh-mah Lady of rank Italian Pronounced. English. Damma. dáhm-mah Doe Ala âh-lah Wing Jøbe é-bai Ebb, he grows weak, -Alla. âhl-lah To the (fem.) blunt Ara. âh-rah. Altar Ebbe êb-bai He had Arra ähr-rah Earnest-money Face fāh-tchai Torch. Came . kāh-nai Dog Facce fäht-tohai Faces (pl.) Can?!e káhn-nai Canes, reeds, tubes Pavi fāh-vee Honeycombs Caro káh-ro Dear Faww. fāhv-vee He does or makes there Cary’s kähr-ro Car, cart, waggon Mora, mee-rah He looks Cass, káh-sa FIouse Mora - mirr-rah. Myrrh Cassa kåhs-sa Chest, box Tenero tê-nai-ro Tender JF&to fāh-to Fate Te????ero tén-nai-ro They held Futto făht-to Done, made, fact, deed Wendete ven-dāi-tai You sell I'loco feed-ko Hoarse Vendette ven-dét-tai Acts of vengeance Fiocco feedk-ko Flake Aceto ah-tchâi-to Vinegar Fumo foô-mo Smoke Accetto aht-tehét-to I accept Jort innio foôm-mo We were Acopo ah-kö-pee Tonic medicines Goft. gó-tah Cheek Accopp? ahk-köp-pee Thou knockest down G, too, gót-tah Gout Acor? ah-kö-ree Scab, scald, achor Asht/o moč lo Mule Accorr: ahk-kór-ree Thou runnest hither or Afollo močl-lo Barb (a fish) helpest Tropo' tl 6-po Trope Adito âh-dee-to Admittance, access Troppo trôp-po Too much Additto ahd-dit-to Devoted, obliged f*c.176, pāi-nah Pain, punishment Afato ah-fah-to Withered, thin Tenna, pén-nah Pen Affatto ahf-fäht-to Entirely, quite Seto sāi-tah Silk Alato ah-lâh-to Winged, bird, beside Setta, sét-tah Sect Allatio ahl-läht-to I suckle Joosoo 1 Ó-so Gnawed Aletto ah-lèt-to Alecto, one of the three Ioossa rós-so Red furies Seco sāi-co With himself Alletto ahl-lèt-to I allure r Secco sék-ko Dryness, dry Aneto ah-nē-to Dill, a plan Solo sāi-no Bosom A????etto ahn-nēt-to I annex * Senato sén-no Good sense, intelligence | Anulare ah-noo-lâh-rai - Ring-finger Sera, sāi-rah Evening Aonullare ahn-nool-láh-rai To abolish, annul Serra, gèr-rah Defile, hothouse Asilo ah-zée-lo Asylum . Sele sāi-tai Thirs", Assillo ahs-sil-lo Horse-fly # Sette sét-tai Seven Atene ah-tê-nai Athens Sono só-no I am Attenne aht-ten-mai He kept his word Sonjoo sön-no Sleep Cometa ko-mâi-tah Comet Base bâh-zai Foundations Commeta kom-mét-tah Hemay commit (a crime) JBasse bâhs-sai * Low, vile, base Faceta fah-tehé-tah & Facetious, droll (fem.) Mese mâi-zai Month JFaccetta faht-tehét-tah Facet (on cut stones) Messe mès-Sai Harvest Roseto ro-zái-to Rose-garden, hedge of Rosa, rö-zah Rose a roses, | Rossa. rós-sah Bed o Rossetto roS-Sét—to Beddish | £eSO âi- xtende #. . i. I shall now proceed to an explanation of the Italian Abate ah-bā-tai Abbot accents as they are used in Italian writing and printing; for I Abatte ahb-bāt-tai He batters down, he have already remarked on the accent of tone (an accent not abates marked in Italian writing and printing), and its primary Inseto in-sé-to Ingrafting importance in the enunciation of each word. This is, properly Insetto in-sét-to Insect speaking, rather a part of orthography than of pronu.aciation; Invito in-vée-to § Invitation but I speak of it here because it is so intimately connected " | Invitto in-vit-to Invincible with the rules of pronunciation, and, indeed, with the whole Acceso aht-tehāi-zo Inflamed, kindled grammar, that I prefer to explain it at the beginning of these Accesso aht-tohès-so Admittance, access grammatical instructions, instead of at the end of them, as Contesa kom-tái-zah Dispute, contest generally grammarians do Contessa, kom-tés-sah Countess
Strictly speaking, there is only one Italian accent, which is the grave accent, marked with a stroke from the left to the Its use is not left to the discretion of the writer, but is regulated by invariable rules: its omission is
right, thus (°).
therefore an infraction of grammatical laws. A characteristic of this accent is, that only final letters of Italian words can be marked with it. It is placed—
1st. On the last vowel of those words of more than one syllable, the pronunciation of which requires a very emphatic stress
to be laid on that vowel; as, for example, pietà (peeai-táh), * |
piety, pity; bontà (bon-tá), goodness; libertà (lee-berr-táh), liberty; carità (kah-ree-táh), charity; virtù (virr-toé), virtue; giovento (jo-ven-toé), youth; peró (pai-ró), for that reason, still; amó (ah-mö), he loved; crede (krai-dái), he believed; «di (oo-deá), he heard; amero (ah-mai-rô), I shall love; cost; (ko-steð), here ; costà (ko-stáh), there; cosi (ko-see),t thus. 2nd. On some monosyllables, where, to avoid ambiguity and confusion, the grave accent is used as a means of indicating the difference of signification. For example:
3rd. It is placed on those monosyllables which have more than one vowel as termination, to indicate the necessity of" pronouncing them as monosyllables; as, for example: eið (tchó), that, what ; pud (pooã), he can ; più (peeo6), more; gill (joo), below; qui (kwee), here; sié (seeč), he is seated (for Siede).
Other monosyllables offer no ambiguity, and must therefore be considered as naturally unaccented, as they can neither be confounded with other words of the same spelling, nor can their pronunciation offer any difficulty. To mark these, as is sometimes done, with a grave accent, merely because they are monosyllables, is not only a grammatical fault, but useless, serving no purpose whatever, and encumbering Italian writing with superfluous signs; for example: , re (rai), king; fu (foo), was ; gru (groo), crane; sw (soo), above; ce (tchai), us, here; ma (mah), but; mo (m6), now ; no (né), not ; so (sô), I know ; me (mai), me; &c.
Of the monosyllable qua (kwah), here, it may be remarked that it is more frequently written without than with the grave accent, and of ste (sté), he stood (for stette), that being an abbreviated word, it is always written with the grave accent.
I shall terminate these remarks on the grave accent with two important rules, of very frequent application in Italian grammar.
1. When any monosyllable, written with the grave accent or unaccented, or when any word of more syllables than one, having the grave accent on its final vowel, is joined to another word so as to make a compound with it, the initial consonant of the latter word (unless an 8 with another consonant to follow) must be , strongly vibrated in pronunciation, and therefore doubled in writing, and the grave accent of the first Word taken off. For example:
* For the sake of consistency of system, I shall not deviate, in these cases, from my usual practice of marking every syllable which has the accent of tone by the acute or circumflex sign. The reader will, of course, understand that these are mere arbitrary signs used for the purpose of instruction, and which must not be imitated when he may have occasion to write words requiring the grave accent.
+ This is another of those exceptional words where the s must be pronounced with a sharp, hissing sound, though it is placed between two vowels. It is obvious, from its meaning, that, like cosa (kö-sah), thing, it is of the most frequent occurrence.
è (é), is, and wi (vee) there=evvi (év-vee), there is. più (peeo6), more, and tosto (tô-sto), soon=ptuttosto (peeootô-sto), sooner, rather. gid (jah), indeed, and maž (mahee), never-giannat (jahm(mâhee), never. dó (dah), give, and mt (mee), to me=dammi (dāhm-mee), give me. d fa (fah), do, and m3 (mee), to me=fammi (fāhm-mee), O IOM 8, amó (ah-mö), he loved, and la (lah), her=amolla (ah-mêllah), he loved her. farò (fah-ró), I shall do, and lo (lo), it::=farollo (fah-röl-lo), I shall do it. jra (frah), between, and tanto (táhn-to), so much or so long a time= frattanto (fraht-tähn-to), in the mean time. da (dah), from, and lo (lo), the-dallo (dáhl-lo), from the. sw (soo), upon, and lo (lo), ther-sullo (soël-lo), upon the.
2. Monosyllables, though naturally unaccented, must be marked with the grave accent, when as last syllables of a compound they are joined to particles or other words. For example: per (per), through, and che (kai), which=perché (perr-kái), why, because. a (ah), to, and do (d6), I give-adžd (ahd-d6), I apply myself to. contra (kön-trah), against, and fo (fö), I make=contraffo (kon-trahf-f6), I counterfeit. ri (ree), a particle, and ho (hô), I have-rikó or rid (ree-6), I have or get again. ri (ree), a particle, and so (sô), I know-risó (ree-só), I know
sopra (sô-prah), upon, and sto (stö), I stand-soprastó pra-stö), I am above. tras (trahs), a particle, and wo (vö), I go=trasvö (trahs-v6), I pass beyond or exceed. qua (kwah), here, and su (soo), above=quassi (kwahs-s06), up here. mai (mahee), never, and no (nó), not=mainó (mahee-nó), no, not at all. oi (oee), ah alas! and me (mai), me=oiné (oee-mái), alas ! unhappy me ! vice (vée-tchai), substitute, and re (rai), king=viceré (veetohai-rái), viceroy. And so all the numerous and similar compounds of che, the compounds of su, and of the verbs do, fo, ho, so, sto, wo, &c.
The acute accent has been adopted by modern authors as the mark to show the difference of meaning in some words of the same spelling, though differently pronounced, which words, without the acute sign, might occasion confusion and ambiguity, particularly in the case where words of more than one syllable terminate in the diphthongs id, ie, and io, and from the use of the acute sign over the 3, and the necessary stress laid on the syllable thus accented, acquire a different signification. But even in words ending in to and ia, and presenting no ambiguity, the acute sign is not unfrequently placed merely to indicate that the letter i does not make the two terminating vowels o and a in conjunction with the diphthongs, but that they are separate syllables. It is a characteristic of the acute sign that it can never be used in final letters, as the grave accent is used. But the use of this accent is, generally speaking, not regulated by invariable rules, and is frequently left to the discretion of the writer. I need not say that the acute sign, which I have adopted in these grammatical instructions, exactly answers the purpose for which it has been introduced by Italian writers, with this difference only, that I shall use it throughout the whole course of the grammar, while they place it merely on some words:to avoid ambiguity.
by hearsay, I learn. (so- at
balia (bâh-lee-ah), nurse gid (jah), already, indeed náč (né-ee), moles, patches nei (nái-ee), in the (pl.) . dincora (ähn-ko-rah), anchor ancora (ahn-kó-rah), again stropiccio (stro- pit-tehée -o), stropiccio (stro-pít-tcho), Irub friction, rubbing The circumflex accent is of more recent use, particularly
among poets, to distinguish words of the same form, but of different signification; as, for example: With the Circumflex Sigo. Without the Circumflex Sign. tórre (tôr-rai), to take, seize torre (tór-rai), tower (for togliere) . • o córre (kör-rai), to gather (for corre (kór-rai), he runs cogliere) o amóro (ah-mâh-ro), they loved amaro (ah-mâh-ro), bitter (for amarono) fêro (fāi-ro), they did fero (fé-ro), fierce, wild &ra (6-rah), breeze, zephyr ora (ó-rah), now allór (ahl-iör), laurel (for alloro allora (ahl-ló-rah), then or allor.) wdir (oo-deár), they heard (for udire (oo-deč-rai), to hear udirono) The reader will have remarked that the circumflexed 6 in the above examples has the open sound; and thus this marking of those words on the part of modern Italian authors agrees with the sign that I have uniformly adopted to mark the open or second sound of 0.
A K E Y TO THE EX E R C I SES IN THE
LAT IN LE S S ON S. By John R. BEARD, D.D. (Continued from page 120, Vol. IV.)
Vol. III., p. 130.—ENGLISH-LATIN.
Athenis vixit soror mea; Athenas frater tuus ivit; ab Athenis ivit Consul : a Gallia in Angliam veniet legatus ; domine est mater? quantá horá domi erit; Corinthum proficisitur regina ; apud Reginam multum est argenti et auri ; eo rus; rur- est pater ; rure quando veniet soror 2 belli domique fortes sunt Angli; plectitur negligentiá; voluptatis causā juvenes officia, deserent; tribuni plebis inela atque irá creati sunt; esne sorte to a laetus * beneficiis Sunt on usti: instructi Sunt pueri libris; linguistutantur se feminae; mille libris donavit me pater; juvenes ludo delectantur; Deum pură înente venerati sunt; est homo excelsá staturä; singulari pulchritudine est soror tua ; prisci Britanni horrido dicuntur fuisse aspectu ; erat Caesar dux summâ virtute; flumen difficile est transitu ; haec domus auro non est venalis ; Homeri poemata gemmis lion mercantur ; aestate cantant aves, ludunt pueri; interfecto duce, fugerunt milites; sole oriente, nox abit; non semper sapiunt sapientes.
Vol. III., p. 147.—LATIN-ENGLISH.
I have nothing to write respecting the commonwealth; these are the things which I have to say; O Hannibal, thou knowest how to conquer, but how to plofit by a conquest thou dost not know ; Pelopidas did not hesitate to join battle as soon as he beheld the enemy; they proceed to go to Saguntum ; all who desire to perform great things are wont to reflect long; Miltiades compelled the islands to return to their duty; the office of seeing that the commonwealth received no damage was assigned to Posthumius; Domitian took means for restoring the libraries destroyed (absumptas) by fire; they have begun to contend in arms; I prefer being well to being rich; for poets to be unpolished is a sign of negligence; I have the power to be happy; I forbid thee to be at rest; I allow thee to hold thy peace; they may be timid and cowardly; I have not time to be ill; men do not allow poets to be of ordinary merit; to a learned mind thought is life; the faith
ful learning of the liberal arts softens the character; but we consider to trip, to err, to be ignorant, to be deceived, both an evil and a disgrace; do not wish that which cannot be [dele the comma after fieri]; do not forget that you are Cicero ; arrange so as to postpone (the matter) to another day; I will let you know if anything new takes place; I wish I could avoid not only the blame but also the suspicion; I wish I could find the true as easily as I can confute the false; I wish the occasion had not offered in which you might ascertain how much I value Pompey, how much Brutus; would that you would pardon me; I wish you to write whatever comes into your mind; the senate voted that the consuls should. take care that the republic received no injury; you should love me, not mine; man must die; your diction should flower forth from a familiarity with your matter; I pass the fact that he chose this abode as his home ; it is the time for making greater efforts; he formed the plan of thoroughly destroying the fortunes of his neighbours; I am ready to sail; they are prepared to endure all things; they say that Demosthenes-was accustomed to declaim before the sounding billows; we shall be in a better moral condition when we have learnt what mature requires; Plato, if only I can interpret him, uses pretty nearly these words; I will be as thou wishest me to be ; he took steps for having very many houses built.
Vol. III., p. 148.-ENGLISH-LATIN.
De fratre tuo nihil habeo quod scribam; Deum esse cognovimus, plurima protulisse verba constat Demosthenem; quid dicas scio; quid dicturus sis scio; quid dicas Sciam ; id quod dixit pirata rex damnavit; ea quae dixisti damnavit pater meus; esse quam videri bonus malim ; illis pecuniana colligere non vacat ; wideri docta vult soror tua ; eloquentem esse Tullionem scio; abisse patrem sciunt; quando rediturae sint sorores ignorant; quando rediturae essent sorores ignorabant; quid agas vident; nemo tam caecus erat quin quid ageres videret.
Vol. III., p. 155.-LATIN-ENGLISH.
No one knows what the late evening may bring; go, create consuls from the common people; the patricians raging say that they were going and creating consuls from the people; he will know this when he breathes his last; he said that he would know this when he breathed his last; I will do what the consul commanded; he says that he will do what the consul commaands; he said that he would do what the consul commanded (he said) that you ought not to deal with him as with a citizen who had formed the hope of gaining a crown; it is announced to Caesar that the Sulmonenses are desirous to do what he wished; the soldiers send ambassadors to Caesar (saying) that they are ready to open the gates, and to do whatever he commands; that he might punish the guilty, that he would pardon those who had erred, and that he would lead them against the enemy; while I was absent, as often as I thought of my country, all these things occurred to me—the hills, the plains, and the Tiber, and these skies under which I was born and brought up ; it is a custom at Athens to eulogise in a public sssembly such as have been slain in battle; Themistocles walked abroad by night, because he was unable to sleep; no character appears more suitable to speak of old age; no human sight has power to penetrate into heaven; innocence is that affection which injures no one; we must take care to use that liberality which may benefit friends and injure no one; no race of men is so brutish as not to have some idea of God; the Campanians committed faults too great for pardon; I am the person to hold that it is better to yield to Caesar what he demands than to join battle; it is more easy to find those who of their own accord offer themselves to death than those who bear pain patiently.; there is no one who does not prefer having all the integral parts of his body uninjured; who is there but discerns how great is the power in the senses; there is nothing which may not be injured by being badly: told ; there is nothing that does not perish; acquit him who confesses that he took possession of the greatest sums of money to the very great injury of our allies; that kind of utterance is to be chosen which may chiefly hold the attention of the auditors; who art thou? I know not who I am ; there will be many to whom you may properly give a letter; there is no living being except man which has any notion of God; the shining of the . Sun is more brilliant than (that) of any fire, since it shines so far and so wide in the measureless universe.