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inedical studies.

non is sum qui religionem nocere hominibus confirmam; quis est highest tribunal (by the name of) senate (the counsel of the elders); quin quanta in religione vis sit videat?

I should not have come unless the fates had given a place and an

abode ; I could remember the tune if possessed of the words; very Vol. III., p. 173.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

good men do what is right, what is honourable, although tbey see That power orercame all the blandishments of pleasure and that no emolument will follow; man does not admire what he sees. ease ; there is disturbance by sea and land ; Numa had imbued all frequently, although he knows not why it takes place; there are breasts with such piety that faith and oaths governed the state ; to those who, through the fear of hatred, dare not say what they repel force by force reason has prescribed to the taught, and neces- think, although it is excellent; in certain commendable men, sity to barbarians, and custom to nations, and nature itself to wild though their talents were not very great, yet was there praiseworthy beasts; the world is the begetter, and originator, and parent, and, industry ; although every virtue attracts us to itself, and makes us

love those in whom it appears to exist, yet justice and liberality membered both what was said against him) and what he himself does that pre-eminently, though Aristides excelled in self-consaid ; that can neither be kept unsaid nor be said as a regard to trol, yet was he punished with a ten years' exile; that which is dignity demands; no animal can be found which was never born base, though concealed, can yet in no way be honourable. and will always live; therefore, both promises are sometimes not to be made, and deposits are not always to be restored; Caesar possesses a certain splendid method of speaking, in voice, in gesture,

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. also in a magnificent and noble form; if right, justice also; the best man (must readily) confesses that he is ignorant of many things,

J. TWEEDALE (Manchester): The great labour attending the getting up and that he must learn [read discenda] many things again and of the numbers of the French Dictionary is the cause of the occasional again ; the fruit of leisure is not effort but relaxation of mind; be in the second part of the French Dictionary is a great advantage, for by

irregularity in the issue.-C. FOSTER (Nottingham): The choice of words is on the side not of enemies but of friends; I have gained this, turning to the first part you can see the different shades of meaning in the that not only thy whole house but all the city may know me to be different words, and thus select the most suitable for your purpose. very friendly; I am persuaded that a man ought not to admire, or THOMAS R. (Sutton in Ashfield) wants some young subscriber to the P. E. wish for, or desire anything except what is honourable; nothing is to solve him the following question taken fron "Poor Richard's Almanac": so correspondent to nature, whether for prosperity or adversity, as three boys as follows: to the Ist boy, he gave half the whole number and

for 1817: "A man had a certain number of apples which he divided among friendship; distinguished men, whether they do well or ill, excel half an apple; to the 2nd boy, he gave half of what remained and half an in both; the laws of the Cretans, which, whether Jupiter or Minos apple; and to the 3rd boy, half of the residue and half an apple. What enacted them, instruct youth in labours.

number of apples had he to make this division without cutting any apple

and without having any apple remaining." Vol. III., p. 173.- ENGLISH-LATIN.

E. EDWARDS (Paris): We regret our inability to give him directions in

We would advise him to procure programmes of the Haud operantur ; idcirco quum erit opus, nihil habebunt; id different medical lectures delivered in Paris, as these would answer his quod dicis vix credibile videtur; sed sic est; deos onnes etiam purpose better than any directions we could give; the lecturers theinselves atque etiam, invocavit Cicero; nullum nisi homo inveniri potest generally publish books on their own subjects, which may be easily bad by animal quod rationis sit compos ; illud et bonum est et malum; 1 personal inquiry on the spot.-AVILDA (Knottingly): See our French and hoc neque

bonum neque malum; patri et filii civitas decrevit straight lines placed in a circle bisect each other, it may be inferred either statuan; filiaeque datum est praemium; divitiae non modo com- from the 4th or the 9th of the 3rd Book of Euclid, that the point of bisecparandae sunt sed etiam fruendae ; aut disce aut discede; quaetion is the centre. As to the the studies for Holy Orders, we recommend dicis aut vera aut falsa sunt.

him to apply to the rector or curate of his parish. The study of Latin

and French might go together.-L, F. G. (Sheffield): His proposal for a Vol. III., p. 192.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

People's College in London is a very good one; we think that the authorities

of the University of London should allow such colleges to be affiliated to It happened very conveniently for me that you came to hear the university, in order to encourage the working classes to aiın at its Antony; they aim at appearing good inen; I admonish you daily honours, and thus to raise the standard of morality and intelligence; for to reflect that anger should be resisted ; if the good put down when men are studying the languages and philosophy in the evoning, tyrants, as often happens, the state is created anew; in pro- of temptation.-W.11. (Norwood)? Hymnie à l'Angleterre received.

instead of lounging in the beer shop, they are surely more out of the way portion as the disease is difficult, the most notable physician is

J. HOLLAND: The best English Gramınar is of course the Lessons in sought for; how did he beạr those evils ! how did he despise them! English in the P. E.-W.L. XI. (Islington): A letter of recommendation how did he account them nothing! I have taken pains before old to Sir Henry Ellis from a well known character, is the best mode of obtain age, so that I may then (in old age) live happily; the sun makes ing a ticket to the Readiug-room of the British Museum.-A. BROWN: all things flourish ; I advise you carefully to read not only my edition of the P'. E. sells at 45. 6d. per vol. The cases for binding them in, orations, but also these books on philosophy; we are impelled by

are is.3d. per vol. best edition, and Is. per vol. common edition. A binder Dature to wish to benefit as many persons as possible; it happened can scarcely charge less than od. for pulling the book in the case in a very inconveniently that you never saw him; besides he is de- proper manner.-EARNest had better apply to "Messrs. Cocks and Co., New lighted with superior minds; this is a common thought in great Burlingtou-street, on the subject of inusical iustruments and instruction and free states (namely), that envy is the companion of glory; ) books: --G. WILLIAMS (Bristol) : The double Webster is surely better than hence it is proved, not that pleasure is not pleasure, bui that the single one.-J. F.C. is perfectly right; the correction has escaped the

printer's notice.-J. COPE (Manchester) is right; they have been corrected. pleasure is not the highest good; I cannot help sending a letter to you every day; do not hesitate to trust all these things to this one man; since I have spoken of the nature of the war, now I will say a few things respecting its magnitude; since neither the authority of

LITERARY NOTICES. the senate nor my age avails with thee; speak, since we have sat down on the soft herb; who neglect all right and honourable things JOHN CASSELL'S DICTIONARIES; while they pursue power ; the sick man is said to have hope while there is life; I have stopped longer than was allowed; as long as

IN NUMBERS, AT 3d. ; PARTS, AT Is. there was war with the citizens, he was quiet at home; from the angry, those are to be remored on whoin they try to make an attack, until they have recovered themselves; I have considered

NOTICE. everything secondary, provided I could obey the commands of my

THE FRENCH DICTIONARY. father; diligent preparation is to be employed in all business before you take it in hand; since you have hope not even on the part of the Romans, I bring you peace; since nothing was written in consequence of the serious illness of the principal Editor of the FRENOE to me of your arrival, I fear lest that may so happen; as soon as I DICTIONARX; che regular weekly issuc of this work has unfortunately been

No. 21 is now ready, and every effort will be made to reached Rome, I considered I ought to do nothing before I con- continue it weekly until coinpleted. gratulated thee while absent on our return; when the army had been drawn up, the spear-bearers first of all went into battle ; because nature cannot be changed, iherefore frieridships are ever

THE GERMAN DICTIONARY. lasting; you should eat to live, not live to eat; nothing is wanting

The Third Part of this Dictionary is now ready, as also the first Thirteen to make me most miserable; he almost slew Varus; they may so

es withstand as to prevent external things from being effected; if all Numbers, and it will be regularly issued fortnightly, or oftener if possible,

till conpleted. things take place by fate, nothing can admonish us to be mure cautious; if you wisely bear troubled circunstances, you will bear the more tranquil joyfully; the day would fail me if I wished to

THE LATIN DICTIONARY. defend the cause of poverty; if we could always keep the best, we should certainly not need counsel; had not counsel, reason, judg. The First Number of this Work, edited by J. E. BEARD, D.D. price 3d., ment, been in old men our aricestors would not have called the I will be reads Jan. 7, and will appear weekly.

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TURKEY IN EUROPE.

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BOUNDARIES

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NORTH : Austria and Russia,
SOUTH: Gr-ece, and the Archipelago.
EAST:

The Black Sea, and the Sea of Marmcra.
West: Gulf of Venice and the Ionian Sea.

DIVISIONS. (PROVINCES N. OF THE DANUBE.) Provinces.

Chief Towns Moldavia,

Jassy. Wallachia,

Bukharest. (PROVINCES S. OF THE DANUBE.) Bulgaria,

Sophia. Servia,

Belgrade. Bosnia,

Bosna-serai. Croatia,

Bania-louka. Herzgovinia,

Mostar (SOUTHERN PROVINCES.) Roumelia,

CONSTAXTISOPLE Albania,

Scutari. Thessaly,

Yenisheh:. Epirus,

Janina.

ISLANDS.
Names.

Chief Truens.
Caudia (Crete),

Candia. Thaso (Thasos),

Volgaro.
Semendrek (Samothracé), Nubi.
Stalimene or Lemno (Lemnos), Lemno.

SEAS, GULFS, STRAITS, &c.
Gulf of Venice (Adriatic), W. of Turkey.
Archipelago (Ægean), S. of Turkey.
Sea of Marmora (Propontis), S.E. of Turkey.
Black Sea (Euxine), E. of Turkey.
Ionian Sea, S. of the Adriatic.
Gulf of Saloniki, Archipelago.
Gulf of Cassandria, Archipelago.
Gulf of Monte Santo, Archipelago.
Strait of the Dardanelles, Hellespont.
Strait of Constantinople, Bosphorus.
Besika Bay, S. W. of thé Dardanelles.

GREECE.
NORTH: Turkey in Europe.
SOUTH: The Mediterranean.
EAST: The Ionian Sea.
West: The Archipelago.

DIVISIONS.
Natural Divisions.

Chief Towns.
Hellas, or Northern Greece, ATHENS.
The Morea, or

Napoli di Romania
Peninsular Greece,

(Vauplia). Insular Greece,

Syra. The Ionian Republic,

Corfu.

ISLANDS.
Names.

Chies Towns.
Corfu (Corcyra),

Corta. Zante (Zacynthus),

Zante.
Theaki (Ithaca),

Bathi.
Santa Maura (Leucadia), Sta. Maura.
Cephalonia (Cephallenia), Samos.
Cerigo (Cythera),

Modari.
Boluri (Salamis),

Salamis. Engia (Egina),

Egira. Hydra (Hydrea),

Hydra. Spezzia,

Spezzia. Skyro (Scyros),

Skyro. Scopelo (Scopelos),

Scopelo. Ipsara (Ipsera),

Ipsara, Negropont (Eubea),

Egripo, ro (Andros),

Andro. (Ceos),

Zea. Thermia (Sythenus),

Thermia, Syra (Syros),

Syra. Tino (Tenos),

Borgo. Miconi (Myconos),

Miconi. Siphanto (Siphnos),

Kastron. Paro (Paros),

Paro. Naxia (Naxos),

Naxia. Amorgo (Amorgos),

Amorgo. Milo (Melos),

Milo. Argentiera (Cimolus),

Agentiera, Nio (Ios),

Nio. Sikino (Šicinus)

Sikino, Santorini (Thera),

Pyrgos.

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, however, to the pressures which act vertically on the horizonON PHYSICS OR NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.

tal sides A and R, it is evident that the downward pressure on No. X.

A is equal to that of the weight of a column of water having

the side A for its base, and A D for its height; also, that the BODIES IMMERSED IN LIQUIDS.

upward pressure on B, is equal to that of the weight of a Pressure on Boslões immersed in Liquids. When a solid body column of water having the side B for its base, and BD for its is wholly immersed in a liquid, pressures take place at every height. The cube, therefore, tends to rise under the pressure point of its surface, perpendicularly to that surface, and evidently equal to the weight of a column of water having the

of a force equal to the difference of these pressures, which is increasing with the depth. If we suppose these pressures to

same base, and the same height as the cube; consequently be divided into herizontal and vertical pressures, then the for

this pressure is equivalent to the weight of the water dismer act on each horizontal layer of the solid, with intensities which are equal and contrary to each other, and therefore placed by the body immersed ; and such is the force which destroy each other's effects; but the vertical pressures are

tends to push a body upwards when it is immersed in a liquid. unequal, and tend to make the body move upwards. Thus, Principle of Archimedes. From the previous considerations, suppose that a cube is immersed in a vessel of water, fig. 34, it is now evident that every body immersed in a liquid, is

acted on by two opposite forces ; 1st, that of gravity, which Fig. 34

tends to make it descend ; and 2nd, that of the upward pressure of the liquid, which tends to make it ascend with a force equal to that of the weight of the liquid which is displaced by the body. The weight of the body itself, therefore, is either partially or wholly destroyed or counteracted by this upward pressure; whence, we conclude, that a body immersed in : liquid loses a part of its weight equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by the body. This principle, which constitutes the foundation of the theory relating to immersed and floating

bodies, is known by the name of the Principle of Archimedes; 7B

because it was discovered by that celebrated geometrician at Syracuse, about 220 B.C.

This principle is experimentally proved by means of the Hydrostatic Balance. This apparatus is only a common balance having the scales furnished with hooks, and the beam so udjusted that it can be raised or lowered at pleasure by meare of a rack, moved by a pinion at c, fig. 35. À catch D holds the rack when it is raised. When the beam is raised, a hollow

copper cylinder A is hung under one of the scales, and below and that, for the sake of simplification, four of its sides are that a solid cylinder B, whose volume is exactly the same as arranged vertically. The vertical sides presenting the same the interior of the former; in the other scale, are then placed surface to the liquid and being immersed to the same depth, / weights sufficient to balance the whole. If now the cylinder

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experience equal pressures; and the sides being opposite to each | A be filled with water, the equilibrium is destroyed; ether, two and two, it is plain that these pressures are equal the beam be lowered at the same time, so that the cyiinder B and contrary; hence, they are in equilibrium. With regard | is entirely immersed in a vessel of water placed below it, the

88

YOL. IV.

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