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each half an inch long, marked 1, 2, 3, Etc., to 10, from right to units; or of units, tenths, and hundredths of units. Hence, the left is the smaller (iivisions tro:n E to F, are each a quarter nunbers 478 47.8, and 478 mas all be expressed by the same of an inch long, markea 1, 2, 3, &c., to 19, from left to right. extent of the compasses upon the Diagonal Scale; thus, setting The mode of constructing this scale is the following: Draw one foot of the compasses on the line marked 4 of the larger eleven equidistant and parallel lines, such as those between divisions, at its intersection with the 8th parallel below c D, CD and er inclusive; divide the upper of these lines CD, into and extending the other foot till it reaches the diagonal marked as many equal parts as the scale is intended to contain, with or understood to be) the 7th at the top, viz., on cd, that disone additional part of the same, size is the rest; from each of stance in the compasses will be the length of the line which is these divisions draw perpendicular lines across the eleven 478 equal parts, 47.8 equal parts, or 4.78 equal parts, accordparallel lines, that is, from CD 10 E I"; subdivide the additional ing as the unit is considered to be une-hundredth of half an part on cd ad er into 10 equal parts, and draw a line from inch, one-tenth of half an inch, or one-half of an inch ; for if. the left extremity of the additional part on CD, to the first divi- ! the four larger divisions be taken for 400, seven of the first subsion of the additional part on EF to the left; a line from the divisions will be 70, and this, taken upon the 8th parallel first division on the left of the same part on CD, to the second below CD, which takes in 8 of the second subdivisions for division on the left of the same part on EF; a line from the units, gives the whole number 478; or, if the four larger second division on the left of the same part on CD, to the third divisions be taken for 40, seven of the first subdivisions will be division on the left of the same part on E F, and so on, until 7 units, and the 8 subdivisions of the second kind upon the the rectangle be filled up with oblique or diagonal lines, and Sth parallel will be 8 tenths of a unit; or, lastly, if the four presents the appearance of an oblique chequer, the last oblique larger divisions be reckoned as only 4 units, then will the îrst line being drawn from the ninth division of the additional part subdivisions be 7 tenths, and the S second subdivisions 8 on CD, to the right tütremity of the same part on Ef. In hundredths of a unit. regard to these oblique lines, it is to be very particularly Finally, in reference to fig. 1, in order to construct the remarked that each of them in passing from the additional Diagonal Scale, with the larger divisions equal to only a quarter part on cd to that on EF, crosses the parallel lines between of an inch, we have only to bisect each of the larger divisions co and Ef at a point which is onetenth more of each of the of the former scale, on E F, and from the points of bisection to subdivisions of that part, in proportion as it descends from the raise perpendiculars to CD; we shall then, omitting the line CD, viz., at the points where they intersect each succeeding additional part of the former scale, have 20 equal parts along parallel; and as each of the subdivisions of the additional part EF. Now, keeping for the additional part of this scale the is one-tenth of each of the larger divisions, so the intersection first division on the left, and marking 1, 2, 3, &c., to 19, we of each of the succeeding parallels with each of the diagonal have the larger divisions of the quarter-inch scale; then, sublines gires an aciditional one-tenth of each of the preceding dividing as before the additional part on 'EF and cp into 10 tenihs, or an additional one hundredth of each of the larger equal parts, we have the first subdivisions of this scale; and divisions of the scale. If, therefore, the larger divisions of the drawing diagonal lines as before in the additional part between scale be reckoned units, the first subdivisions of the additional EF and CD, but reckoning them upwards, instead of downwards part will be tenths of these inits, and the second subdivisions, as in the former scale, we have the second subdivisions of this marked by the intersections of the diagonals and the parallels, scale; these second subdivisions are marked at the side runhundredth parts of the same units. Again, if the larger divi- ning upwards from E toc, at every second point, viz., 2, 4, 6, 8; sions of the scale be reckoned tens, the first subdivisions of the where the second subdivisions of the former scale are marked additional part will be inits, and the second tenths; or if the at the side running downwards from D to F, in the same manner. larger divisions of the scale be reckoned hundreds, then will the The reason why all the subdivisions, both first and second, first subdivisions be tens, and the second units, and so on, the from 1 to 10, are not marked on the former scale, is simply value of the subdivisionis always depending on that of the because there is not room to mark all the figures distinctly; larger divisions of the scale.

and the reason why the first subdivisions are not marked at all The reason why each of the subdivisions of the additional on the second-scale is, that there is no room to place them part on CD, which are marked at every second division 2, 4, 6, with any degree of distinctness on this scale; but the 8, from left to right, is one-tenth of each of the larger divisions second subdivisions of this scale are marked similarly to those anarked 1, 2, 3, 4, &c., to 10, from right to left, is plainly this, of the former scale, but in a reverse order, as they must be that one-tenth of any part is also one-tenth of each of the parts reckoned from the bottom upwards, while the first subdivisions, that are equal to that part; but the reason that each of the though not marked, must be numbered from right to left, and diagonal lines intersects every successive parallel

, at one-tenth the larger divisions, as before observed, from left to right. part more of one of these tenth parts, according as it des- The explanation of fig. 2, which contains the Trigonometrical cends from cd, must be sought for in Prop. IŤ. Book VI. and other Lines of the Plane Scale, being its obverse side, Cassell's Euclid. Thus let ABC, fiy. 3, be a

must be deferred for want of room till our next Lesson in Fig. 3.

Instrumental Arithmetic. triangle, such as is formed by ihe perpendicular drawn through the right hand extremity of the larger division of the scule marked

LESSONS IN ENGLISH.--No. LXVIII. 1, the diagonal line drawn from the same.ex

D tremity to the first subdivision on the left of

By JOHN R. BEARD, D.D. the additional part on EF, and the first equal

ADVERBS. part on the left of the same EF, where AB represents the first of these lines, AC the

SYNTAX OF THE PREDICATE COMPLETED, second, and BC the third ; then supposing

The sick man drinks copiously. that DE is that part or the first line below CD which is intercepted by the perpendicular and the diagonal above mentioned,

Copiously is the adverb of the proposition.

Instead of an (scarcely perceptible on the scale, fig. 1) we have by the pro- adverb we may have in the proposition an adverbial phrase; as, position of Euclid referred to, this proportion, AB: BC:: AB: ED, and alternately A Bi AE :::BD :-ED; but A E-is by construction

The sick man drinks with freedom. one-tenth of A B; therefore Edis, by Prop. D. Book V. Cassell's

Whatever affects the affirmation of a sentence performs the office, Buclid, one-tenth of Bc. Whence, it follows, chat if the point and may be said to hold the place, of an adverb. Phrases which c be one-tenth of a certain clistance from the point B, the in some way affect the affirmation are numerous, as they vary with point n will be one-tenth of that one-tenthi, or one-hundredth the variations of time, place, and manner : e.goy of that riistance from the point E.

This shows 'why at every successive parallel lower than cd, the distance of each diago

Syesterday drank

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on falling sick drank Jial is in additional hundredth part of the unit or of each larger division, farther remote from the perpendicular drawn through the left.extremnity of the addicional part. By'this deciinal dia

drank with eagerness gonal scale, therefore, we can lay down or measure lines whose

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drank at one draught lengths ure given in numbers consisting of hundreds, tens, and

Time : The sick man

Place: The sick man

drank in his chamber drank in his bed

Manner: The sick man

15

e. g.,

as

In most sentences having an adverbial phrase, there may also be one) ; cvery one includes all, not orcry ore excludes only a part; tbe an adverb; e. g.,

opposite of ercry oile is no one or none; e. g., The sick man drank in his chamber copiously.

"Not eseri one ihat sail!: 111113 ne Loru, Lord, shall enter into

the kingdom."-(Matt. viii. 21.) Instead of an adverb and an adverbial phrase, you may have two

"Tone of those men adverbs, or even more; e. g.,

who were invited shall iaste of my

supper."-Luke xir. 24.) The sick man drank water eageriy add copiously.

No one, when employed thus in separation, may be considered an Position of the Adverb.

indefinite pronoun (not one) of the singular number, and of course

When combined, as in The ordinary place for the adverb is immediately before or after requiring the verb to be in the singular. the verb. Euphony, as well as idiom, has an influence in determin- none, the pronoun implies plurality, and bas its verb in the plural; ing the position of the adverb. Sometimes an adverb is placed before the verb in order to allow the verb and its object to stand

“How many are come?"

- None are come." is What, not one?” together ; e. g.,

No, not one is come.
The sick man copiously drank water.

The word cinen may seem to be independent. But it is a The position of the adverb has much to do with the sense. There Hebrew term, siguifying so let it be, and forms a part of the preceding is a great difference between these two statements :

sentence or paragraph, and indeed is in itself a sentence expressiye

of a wish or a prayer. Only the man went out.

There are cases in which the adverb seems to qualify a preThe man only went out. The first states that the man went out and no one else ; the second position; e. g., states that the man did nothing but go out.

" This mode of pronunciation runs considerably beyond ordinary

discourse."-Plair, Agreement of Adverbs.

But the verb consists of the two words ruds beyond, beyond being Adverbs, though so called because they are put to verbs, qualify

an uncombined or free affix, here appended to the verbrun, so that the adjectives as well as verbs; e. g.,

adverb really qualifies the affirmation, which is that this mode of proAny passion that habitually discomposes our temper, cr unfits iunciation ruis beyord, &c. us for properly discharging the duties of life, has most certainly gained a very dangerous ascendancy."Blair

When we say “ not all that glitters is gold,” the negative is Adjectives may also be said to qualify participles, but as the par- applied to all, and applied with such effect as to give the idea that ticiple is only a part of the verb, a separate statement of the fact something that glitters is gold. is hardly necessary.

Yo has sometimes the force of an adjective; e. g., There are elliptical forms which seem to make some adverbs in- “There is no ilging hence nor tarrying here."-Shakspeare. . dependent of any verb. . But the independence is only apparent.

In their directions for the use of ever and never in such phrases In reality every adverb on examination will be found to qualify an

never so rich," grammarians hare varied and blundered. The affirmation.

The words yes and no are exceptions. When I ask a child only way to determine whether you should use erer or never is to "Do you love me?" and the child answers “ Yes,” the adverb former employ erer, if the latter employ never. Dr. Blair has been

consider whether the proposition is affirmative or negative; if the yes is only an abbreviated form of the sentence I do love you,

No and not are often misused. Vo is the answer to a question blamed for saying " seldom or never can be expect," and yet is he when no other answer is given; not is pressed to the verb em- tain thing in fer instances, nay, perhaps in no instance, that is not

completely correct. The proposition is that we can expect a cerployed in giving the answer; e. g.,

at all, or sener. Are you ill? No.

Exception has been taken to sentences constructed like the followAre you ill? I am not ill.

ing, and erer has been substituted for never :Hence in all sentences not should be used; consequently 6. Which will not hearken to the voice of charmers, charming 66 whether or no is wrong ; it should be whether or not.

never so wisely." When not is prefixed to the verb, and so affects or negatives the whole affirmation, if a negative is required with a succeeding mem

Vever is right; the proposition in the second member is “ though ber, or should be used; but if the not (or neither) negatives only he (the charmer) charm so wisely as none ever before charmed;" one word or one phrase, then with the succeeding or corresponding the proposition is therefore

negative, and requires never. word or phrase employ nor; e. g. ,

Some adverbs perform the office of adjectives. When adverbs

perform the office of adjectives, they may be accounted adjectives ; For two months I could not think or speak. He allowed me not to speak nor to write.

"To the above remarks.”- Campbell. He gave ine neither money nor elothes,

“In his then situation."-Johnson. Observe that neither is properly used of two only, meaning not either, that is not one of two. Hence it takes in the second clause describe ebore, thens, &c., as adverbs employed adjectively.

In parsing sentences of this kind it would be the better way to

Take care not to mistake an adjective for an adverb. In the Double negatives in English make a positive, when they are

phrase, applied to the same affirmation ; e. g.,

"The arroirs of calumny fall harmless at the feet of virtue," He is not unlearned ; that is, he is learned.

an ignorant purism has proposed harmlessly as a correction. The positive thus made is not a mere positive; thus,

Harmless is right, for the word qualifies not fall but arrows, and

the statement is that they are “ harmless,” that they do no injury to He is not unlearned means that he is somewhat learned,

virtue, A negative may, however, be repeated so as to give force to the

Participle. negation; e. g., “ There is none righteous, no, not one."--(Rom. iii. 10.)

Of the predicate in the sentence, It is essential that the two negatives should be in the same pro

The man drinks a beverage made of wine and water, position, if they are to calicel each other. In the last case the pro- the word made, the word of, and the word and remain to be positions are different, the first being equivalent to "there is none studied. righteous, there is not one righteous.

These words might have stood in the subject. Their position in When it is meant that a proposition should be negative, care either the subject or the predicate is of no importance. The only must be taken lest you make it affirmative, as in the phrase “nor thing of importance is to show that a simple sentence may embrace I neither" (for which read either) in this sentence :

all the parts of speech; for thus you learn that, when you have “He will never consent, not he, no nerer, nor I neither."

mastered the syntax of a simple sentence, you have mastered the Bolingbroke,

essential doctrines of English grammar. . Care must be taken to weigh the force of the negative. There is, The past participle inade offers an instance of agreement and or instance, a great difference between not every one, and none (notl government united in one word ; for maile agrees with bererage, and

e. E.,

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together with beverage is governed by drinks. In general it may Participles in general have the government of the verbs from which be stated that participles admit of concord and dependence.

they come ; consequently the question whether or not a preposition Participles perform other offices besides that which is strictly should be appended to a participle depends on the usage of the their own.

verb; often of is inserted where it is not needed, especially by the The present participle is used as a noun sometimes without, untaught in conversation ; e. go, sometines with a pronoun, also somctines with and sometimes Incorrect. “They left beating of Paul.”-(Acts xxi. 32.) without an object; e. g., Describing a past event as present has a fine effect in lan- infinitive; e. g.,

Some verbs take a present participle after them instead of an guage.'-kames.

Verbs of desisting. They have done speasing."'-Harris. 1. My being here, it is, that holds thee hencc."-Shizkspeare. .

Verbs of omiiting. “ He omits giving an account of them.". The present participle may have the force of an infinitive; e. g., Avoid being osteutarious ard affected."-Blair.

Verbs of preventing. Our ses are prevented from engaging in.

these turbulent scenes. ."-Vest.
The present participle has the force of an infinitive also when com-
bined with the past participle; e. g.,

Verbs of avoiding. “He might hare avoided treating of the origin

of ideas."-Tooke.
“Habits are soon assium'd; but when we strive
To strip them off, 'tis being flay'd alive.”-Cowper.

After verbs expressive of the operations of the senses the particiThe present participle unites with a verb to complete its signifi- ple or the infinitive may be used, but with a slight difference in. cation; e.g.,

the meaning ; the participle describing the act as at the moment
To be left pausing on a word of no meaning is disagreeable.”- actually proceeding; e. gi,
Murray.

I saw the bird fly.
The present participle is used in the way of explanation :-

I saw the biru flying.
“ But ever to do ill our sole delight,

I have spoken of a participle as being used absolutely or indeAs being the contrary to his high will."--Milton. pendently. A word is said to be used absolutely or independently.

when it stands disconnected in construction from what precedes, The present participle refers to the subject of the sentence:

and sometims from what follows as well. Instead of one word the " Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools." .

absolute construction may contain two words or more. (Rom. i. 22.)

examples of this construction, The present participle may agree with the object; e. g.,

He failing, who shall meet success? They stoned Stephen, calling upon God and saying."-(Acts

Your fatherswhere are they?-(Zech. i.ö.) vii. 59.)

"Or I only and Barnabas, have not we power ?"-(1 Cor. ix. 6.) It must be regarded as an inaccuracy when a present participle Nay but, man, who art thou that repliest against God?". beginning a sentence is not followed by a subject ; e. g.,

(Rom. ix. 20.) “ By, admitring such violations of established grammatical

"O rare te!"-Cowper. distinctions, confusion would be avoided."-Murray.

“ liiserable they!"--Thomson. Better 66 you (or they) would avoid confusion,” for then the The construction in full involves two subjects; e. g., participle admitting has a subject, namely you, and the sentence is

The sun rising, the darkness fleeth away. regularly formed.

William being dead, Victoria succeeded. Usage, however, has sanctioned the use of the present participle in an independent manner, or absolutely, that is, as disjoined in A question has been raised as to what is the absolute case in eonstruction, and expressive of a cause or reason :

English. With the view we have taken of cases, the question has

little meaning or importance. For the sake of a name you “I then quit the society; to withdraw, and leave them to them- may call the construction in question the absolute construction, selves appearing to me a duty.”

and when pronouns are employed in that construction you will A present participle way at the same time have the force and generally find them in the nonrinative. Yet Milton says construction of a participle and a noun:

miserable!" Mr. Dryrlen makes a very handsome observation on Ovil's The construction is elliptical, and whether the noun (or pronoun) writing a letter from Didi to Eneas,"_Spectator.

employed should be subject or object depends on the way in which The construction in this last example deserves study; the pre- the ellipsis is supplied. positio: on governs writing as a noun; writing as a noun yoverns Ori:l's, and writing as a participle governs litter. When a present participle performs the twofold function of a

SKETCHES FOR YOUNG THINK ERS. noun and a participle, being alike governd and governing, it is said to have a gerundial force, that is the force and construction of

(Continued from page 269, vol. III:) the Latin gerund, or of the participle ending in dus. With the present participle used gerundially à past participle Two or three observations will suffice our second instance.

We refer to John Milton. Much as this illustrious individual may be united; e. g.,

accomplished as an author and a politician, his name will "Some of these irregularities, arise from our having received the always be most prominently associated with “ Paradise Lost.” words through a French medium."-Allen,

He was not a wealthy student. His path was an asccnt, unThe present participle used as a noun may have a preposition or an even, steen, and rugged. The poet's soul was not daunted adverb in combination with it; e. g.,

with difficulty, and although he feelingly laments that wisdoni Their hope shall be as the giving-up of the ghost.”—(Job si. 20.) in light, and that light streamed from him, as

was “at one entrance quite shut out," yet his soul was bathed

the rays froin The two constructions of the participle with a participial force, the neridian sun. IIe finished his poem. It was ready for and as a noun, must not be placed together in the same sentence, as the press, and although he had drunk deeply at in this,

" Siloa's brook that flor'd • Poverty turns our thoughts too much upon the supplying of our wanıs; and riches, upon enjoying our superfluities." --Addison.

Fast by the oracle of God," “No mistake can arise from using either form and “ soared above the Avnian nivunt,” vet “the bard of im

mortal subjecis, and inmortal fame" offered the copyright of

“ Paradise Lost” for five pounds! The book over which a → Cuinp)--wrat I have said on the participle as forming the subj.ct of a

world has poured its pluudiis anú which has secured its author preposition.

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z volty niche in the ten-ple of fame, offered for this paltry sun: I. IXTELLECTUAL EXCELLENCE brings with it is vecuilar ne the one of three conclusions must be come to. Either the pleasure. It is self rewarding, and makes à 181«n more a author had no adequate conception of the value of his book, more self-dependent. The unléttered and uncultivated raind or literature was less prized then than now, or his circum- must go out of itself, and feed on excitement. Solitude to suci stances rendered it imperatively necessary that the money an one is misery. Study is an unmeaning term. In early days should be obtained. Suffice it to know that the last was the case. the mind was allowed to develop without discipline; the shrub Such men as Milton do not appear often. A Milton in a cen- having been neglected, the tree refuses to be trained. The tury is more probable than a Milton in less. The Creator does man of cultured intellect is not dependent on contingencies at intervals suspend, as it were, those lamps from the sky, and for his happiness. He has a fountain within him, supplying men gaze in wonder at their brightness. Far be it from us to what is necessary in the hour of need. He who knows the declare, that all young men or amateur poets may become pleasure of retiring within himself, and depending on his own Miltons, or that all young mathematicians may become ven- resources, would not readily forego the enjoyment. Here a tons. Variety would thus become lost in one lofty, though distinction must be made between absence of mind, and the monotonous uniformity. One sun in the sky is sufficient. pleasure of which we are now speaking. We have not much We love to see the moon and stars, no less because there is a faith in "absence of mind.” In a large proportion of instances,

Let all those stars blaze with equal intensity as the sun, we have reason to believe it a studied eccentricity. We know and men would be dazzled to blindness, or scorched to death. that some profound thinkers have been so deeply engrossed in Let the orb of day maintain its sphere, the moon shed her soít thought, as to be oblivious of what was proceeding in their effulgence, and the stars sparkle in the lofty dome, and there presence, but we protest against those instances being quoted will be beauty, sublimity, and usefulness; but if the arrange as apologies for all the rude, boorish, and offensive stupidity in ment be disturbed, there will be disorder and confusion. Tre the world. We can sympathise with Newton when buried in like the stars in the firmament, and the flowers only and the music in the air; we admire the order, and adore its Johnson when pondering on his ethics, without being comauthor; so must it ever be in the mental creation. There will pelled to subscribe to all the ridiculous tales which are told be sun, moon, and stars there. Let them all shine. Light is regarding the mental absence of many distinguished men. If useful wherever it may arise. Every man should be a centre men are to be absent-minded, let it be real; bona fide, not of light, illuminating every circle, and dispelling the shades of assumed and fictitious. ignorance, error, and vice.

To the intellectual man, all nature is a teacher. He finds It will be observed that it has formed no part of the writer's enjoyment in everything. He discovers design to furnish the biography of the individuals to whom reference has been made. Mere illustration was required,

“ Tongues in trees, books in the running brooks, and this is all which will be found. It were easy to fill

Sermons in stones, and good in everything." volume with extracts from the lives of the eminent already published, but the design in the present case, was to work in the The whole world to him is an immense library. It is a living examples simply as illustrations of the sentiments which are here advanced. This will account for the brevity of the will be full of types and symbols concerning the spiritual and

source of enjoyment. If his spirit be what it ought, the world notices, and the abruptness and rapidity of some of the transi

Every star that twinkles will teach him lessons tions. We have by no means exhausted the all-but bound- every flower will be suggestive of thought. The planet will less stores of instances illustrative of the theme. Time would remind him of “the bright and morning star;" the flower fail us to tell of Cellini, Matsys, Ibbetson, Kent, Towne, will bring to his remembrance " the rose of Sharon.” This Kirby, Ichiavoni, and Caslon, among the artists; of Descartes, may be called fanaticism, or sentimentalism, or rhapsody. To Jonson, Buchanan and Cervantes, nong soldiers ; of Dam- call names, however, is not to disprove; if it were so, we should pier, Davis, Drury, Falconer, Giordani, Fransham, Oswald, hare every principle in the world overturned at once. Columbus, Cook, Vancouver, and Collingwood, among sailors; of Homer, Milton, Salinas, Stanly, Scapinelli and Huber, We envy not the man who can walk through the world, and among blind men; and of Lithgow, Niebuhr, Ledyard and see no cause for thankfulness; who regards all things as the Belzoni, among travellers. Biography will unfold this, and to result of accident, and as at the mercy of a blind and capricious the written memoirs of these distinguished men the reader chance. This must necessarily cast a gloom over the world. must be referred. This Essay is intended rather to whet than the thought insults our common sense, and fills our spirits to satiate the appetite. It is a finger-post pointing along the with revulsion. If there be no God, the world in itself is the road leading to intellectual excellence; or, changing the figure, most mysterious, confounding, and insoluble of problems. it is a guide pointing to the footprints of previous travellers, The intellectual man enjoys the world; it is filled with objects and saying as it points, “this is the way, walk ye in it.” of attraction and instructive interest to him. We have no The temple is at the further end of this road, no tax will be sympathy with the rant that is always bickering against the required, but labour and patience. These will clear and world. Neither have we esteem for the man who can look smooth the way. Longfellow in his admirable " Psalm of upon it without thankfulness, and as devoid of design. Apart, Life," has well sung, -- " Learn to labour and to wait.This however, from the physical world, the intellectual man has counsel is the secret of success. Some men have learned to sources of enjoyment.

to sources of enjoyment. He converses with the illustrious dead. "labours" but have not learned to " wait." Their impatience He luxuriates amid the sumptuous provisions of literature. has been so overmastering, as to render them disquieted and Though the authors have returned to their kindred dust, their miserable. They have cast in the seed and watered it, but the works remain behind. Their spirits are in their writings; harvest tarries and they murmur. Desert does not always they thus speak from the grave, and shed light from the sepulmeet with immediate often lies long in the “deep unfathomed caves of ocean,

deep unfathomed caves of ocean," and We go at once thousands of years back, and listen to Moses, as the flower” often“blushes unseen,” for a lengthened period, in strains of sublime simplicity he relates the history of the or perhaps it may “waste its sweetness on the desert air." world's creation. We sit by Homer as he writes his imperishDesert moreover is not always to be measured by success. able lines, and we look with prophets into the events of unMany succeed who are undeserving, but such success is not born time. While the body remains in one place, the mind always to be envied. The clown may assume the manners of traverses the world, and drinks knowledge from fountains a philosopher, but he is a clown after all. The jackdaw may which were opened centuries before its own existence. We be arrayed in the feathers of the peacock, but well will it be have here a velocity which defies the lightning. For the sake for him if a righteous indignation does not strip off the assumed of happiness, then, we urge the acquisition of knowledge. We covering, and expose the delinquent in his native insignifi- cannot see that “ignorance is bliss.” If this were the rule,

then the brute creation would enjoy more bliss than man. The There are some general principles deducible from this train mind would be the greatest obstacle to the attainment of hapof illustration. A brief review of these may be of service, as piness. We would have to attend to the necessities of our phytending to impress the facts more strongly, and bring the sub- sical nature, cultivate sensual desires, despise knowledge, burn Joct to a more practical and successful conclusions.

very look, close every reading-room, proscribe the press, and

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desert the pen, as the best possible means of ushering in the weight, but the cirilised and enlightened European, with his Inillenium of bestiality, stupidity, and vice ! A little learning lever, pully, or screw, attains the object with the most perfect is not " a dangerous thing"; it is a ray, and brings light into easa. How so? Because mind has devised the means. Those the mind, and if the student does not remain content with a instruments are so many embodied thoughts. They were in the single beam, he will diligently seek for more light, and his mind first, and the skilful hand wrought out the idea into mind will shine more and more unto the "perfect day.” One mechanical form and its intended adaptations. What is acquisition prepares the way for another; knowledge is conta- machinery in all its multiformities, but a development of gious and self-multiplying, and if well selected will invariably thought, a convincing proof that "knowledge is power. prove a blessing, wherever it is cultivated and prized. Know- Every steam engine that rushes along the rail, or darts the ledge is not merely a pleasure, it is a power ; so Lord Bacon boat through the wave, seems to exclaim in' its rapidity, has weightily observed. Perhaps it would not be exaggerative " knowledge is power." To the pleasures of intellectual purto assert, that it is the greatest power which man can exercise. suit there is no end. Especially does this appear to the By this he is enabled to invent and wield such instruments as believer in the soul's immortality. He believes that when a. barbarous mind could not possibly have devised. Nature is the soul is.freed from its physical companion, it will continue made tributary to man's purposes.

Science assists him in to think, and multiply in knowledge. The grossness of nature understanding the elements, and harnessing them for the will be thrown off, and the soul left at liberty to explore the accomplishment of his designs, Science teaches man how to amplitudes of the immeasurable universe ! husband physical strength, and to make the most of its power. The barbarian, by dint of brute force, may remove a giren

(To be continued.)

LESSONS IN GERMAN.-No. LXVIII.

Irregular Verbs, continued from p. 381.

[graphic]

IMP. INDIC. IMP. SUBJ. IMPERAT.İ PARTICIP.

REMARKS.

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ich nennete

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ich pfiffe ich pflöge ich priese

it quelle, du qutust, ex quillt ici quoll ich quölle
ich räche, 24.

idrächte(rodi) ich rächte,

(röche) ich vathe, du rätýft, er rath ich rieth ich riethe ich reibe, 26.

ich riebe ich reiße, 2.

ict, riß ich riffe ich reite, 26.

pfeife (Pfeif) gepfiffen.
pflege

gepflogen. 2) When it signifies, to wait
preife gepriesen. upon; or to be uccustomed, it

is regular.
quelle gequollen. y) Quellen, to swell, is regular
riche gerächt (geros 2). The irregular form is no

chen). longer used. Where it oc-
rathe gerathen. curs in former-writers it must
reibe gericben. not be confounded with the
reife gerissen. same forms from riechen.
reite geritten. a)Bereiten, to ride to, like all

the compounds of reiten, is
irregular; but bereiten, to make
ready, from bereit, ready, is

regular, like all derivatives.
gerannt or 6) Rennte and gerennt not often
gerennt.

used,
rieche, ried, gerochen.
ringe gerungen.
rinne geronnen.

ich ritte

ich rannte or ich rennete

tennte
ich roch ich: roche
ich rang

ich range
ich rann ich ränne

(rönne) ich rief ich riefe

ich.salzete

ich föffe

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gerufen. c) Regular in some writers,

but improperly. so.
gesalzen. d) Irregular only in the par-

ticiple, and in that when
gesoffen used adjectively; as, gesals

zene Fischo; er yat sie gesalzt. gesogen. e). Säuglt and fâugt are not

supported by good usages but

faugen; to suckle, is,regular.
geschaffen. f) In the signification of to

procure, to.get, it is regur
lar, as also anschaffen, to pur-
chase, to buy; abschaffen, to

part with; to dismiss.
geschieden. 19) The active verb: scheiden, to
geschienen. part, to disjoin, to divide, is
gescholten. regular.

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ich schüfe

Scheiden g), to separate,
Scheinen, to appear,
Schelten, to scold,

Scheren, to shear,
Schieben, to shove,
Schießen, to shoot,
Schinden, to ffay,
Schlafen, to sleep,
Schlagen h) to beat,
Smleichen, to sneak,

idt fcheibe, 2c.

ich schieb ich fchiede ich scheine, 2c.

id fchien ich Tchierte ich fahelte, du sdiltft er schilt ich schalt (sholt sich schälte

(fdjölte) id schere, 26.

ich fajor id schöre idy chiebe, 26.

idy schob ich schöbe ich Echieße, 3c.

ich fchoß ich schöffe ich schinde, 26.

ich fchund idy münde
ich schlafe, du schläfft, er schläft ich schlief ich schliefe

ich schlage, du fohlägst, er schlägt ich schlug ich schlüge
ich schleiche, 26.

ich schlich ich schliche

schere, fchier geschoren.
schiebe geschoben.
ichieße geschossen.
fchinde geschunden.
schlafe geschlafen.
fchlage geschlagen. h) Rathschlagen and berathschla.
fchleiche gefchlichen gen, to consult, are regular

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