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The Areometer of Baumé.--This areometer, which was invented The following diagram will assist you in learning the position by M. Baumé, of Paris, is one of those having a constant and the order of different formations, from the surface soil down to the crystalline and granite rocks, which are supposed to be bulb full of air having a graduated stem, with a smaller bulb
weight, and is very extensively used. It consists of a glass below the strata marked y in the diagram.
below it full of mercury to ballast the apparatus when foating
in a liquid, fig. 39. This instrument is differently graduated
D. The Pleiocene,
E. The Meiocene.
F. The Eocene.
G. The Chalk Formation.
H. The Quadersandstein.
I. The Neocomien.
J. The Wealden.
K. The Oolite.
L. The Lias.
1. The Keuper.
according as it is intended for liquids denser than water, or for
liquids lighter than water. In the former case the weight is
so regulated that in distilled water, at the maximum density, it
equilibrium at a point marked zero. 'In order to graduate the
stem, fill a vessel with a solution consisting of 85 parts of
water by weight, and 15 parts of sea salt. This solution being P. The Zechstein.
denser than pure water, the instrument will sink in it only as
far as the point B, which is then marked 15. Next, dividing Q. New Red Sandstone, or
the interval between the points A and B into fifteen equal Rothliegendes
parts, and continuing the divisions to the bottom of the stem,
the instrument is graduated. The divisions are marked on a R. The Coal Measures,
small slip of paper placed in the interior of the glass stem. s. The Mountain Limestone.
The areometer thus constructed can be employed only for
being both an acid-test and a salt-test. For liquids not so
of the instrument by its immersion in a solution of 90 parts of
water by weight with 10 parts of sea-salt, the point marked
water. Dividing then the interval between these two points
into 10 equal parts, and continuing the divisions to the top of
These areometers being graduated in a manner entirely An Ideal Secizon of the Stratifie Rocks,
arbitrary, indicate neither the densities of the liquids, nor the in thcir vertical order of position.
quantities of salt held in solution. Yet they are usefully
degree of strength. The graduation of these instruments ON PHYSICS OR NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.
assists much in the rapid formation of mixtures and solutions
in given proportions, not with very great precision, but with No. XII.
a sufficient approximation in a great number of practical cases.
For example, in the manufacture of common syrups, it has
been found that the salt-test of Baumś should stand at the Different kinds of Areometers. The areometers of Nicholson mark 35 on the scale as the point of level, in a syrup of and Fahrenheit, described in our last lesson, may be defined as proper strength when cool. Thus the manufacturer is furthose which have a constant volume and a variable weight, because nished with an instrument with which he can readily test they are always immersed to the same depth in the liquid, the degree of concentration in his syrups. In like manner, in and weights are placed on their scale or cup, according to the sea-water at the temperature of 820 F., the hydrometer of weight of the solid or the liquid whose specific weight is to be Baumé stands at the mark 3 on the scale, indicating that the determined. Areometers are also constructed having a water is of that degree of strength proper for saline baths variable volume and a constant weight; that is, having no fixed ordered to patients in certain diseases. The solutions of seapoint of immersion level on the stem, and preserving always salt and water, which physicians prescribe, are in general the same weight. These apparatus, known under the names much weaker than that indicated by the proper degree on the of hydrometers, scale-areometers, or liquor-tests, are not instrument; that is, the artificial saline baths have not that intended to ascertain the specific weights of liquids, but to egree of saltness which the natural sea-water has, and are not determine the strength of saline solutions, acids, and alcohols. I therefore sufficiently efficácious in producing a cure.
The alcohol-test or measure, invented by M. Gay-Lussac, is | If, therefore, we represent the volume v by 100, the volume go exactly similar in form to the areometer of Baumé; it differs will be 75. We then mark respectively at the points a and B only in the mode of graduation, this being such that the the numbers 100 and 75. The volume of A B being, according instrument indicates not only the strength of an alcoholic to the value of v', the fourth part of v, we divide the space A B mixture, but it also shows how much per cent. it contains of into 25 equal parts, and each of these parts is zs of a B or ido water, and how much per cent. of absolute alcohol, that is, of of v, that is, of the volume iminersed in pure water. We next alcohol at its maximum strength. It is graduated in the fol. continue the division to the lower part of the stem, on the lowing manner: The instrument is first immersed in alisolute supposition that it is constructed so as to be of exactly the alcohol, and the point or level at which it stands is marked same diameter throughout, that is, wherever a horizontal 100, care being taken to ballast it so that this point is always section may be taken. found near the top of the stem. Mixtures are then formed containing 100 parts in volume of 95, 90, 85, 80, &c., of absolute density of another liquid, say that of sulphuric acid, is required;
The instrument being now graduated, suppose that the alcohol, and 5, 10, 15, 20, &c., respectively of water. The immerse the instrument in the liquid, and if it'sinks to the instrun’ent is successively immersed in these mixtures, and level or point marked 54 on the stem, this indicates that the the poit ts or levels at which it stands are respectively marked volume of the liquid displaced is represented by 54, that of the 95, 90, 85, 80, &c., accordingly. graduation, it is necessary only to divide each interval into 5 volume of water v being represented by 100. Now, as every
floating body displaces a weight of the liquid in which it is equal parts.
immersed equal to its own, it follows that the volume of water If the instrument thus graduated should sink, for example, v or 100, and the volume of sulphuric acid 54, have the same to 58 in an alcoholic mixture, this would indicate that in 100 weight; but the volumes of bodies of equal weights are in the parts of volume, it contains 58 parts of absolute alcohol and inverse ratio of their densities. Consequent'y, if we represent 42 parts of water. It is, moreover, necessary to take the tem- the density of sulphuric acid by %, that of water being unity, perature into account; for when this increases or diminishes, we have 2': 1:: 100 : 54; whence x= = 1.85, which is the the density of the alcohol conversely diminishes or increases density of sulphuric acid. accordingly, and the instrument consequently sinks more or less in the same alcoholic mixture. To meet this case, Gay
If the densimeter is intended to measure the density of liquids Lussac constructed for his alcohol-test-tables of correction, by lighter than water, the instrument must be ballasted so that means of which the indications of the instrument may be recti- the point marked 100, corresponding to pure water, may be fied, according to the temperature of the mixture as shown by then placed a weight equal to the fourth of that of the instru
At its upper extremity is Saline-tests or measures are also graduated, on the principle sented by 100, its weight will then be represented by 125.
ment. Now, the weight of the instrument alone being repreof the preceding instrument, to show the quantity of salt by This number 125
being marked on the stem, as another point weight contained in different solutions. The zero of these of level, we divide the interval between the points marked 100 instruments answers to pure water, and they are graduated by dissolving 5, 10, 15, 20, &c., equal parts by weight of a giren and 125 into 25 equal parts, and continue the divisions to the salt in 95, 90, 85, 80, &c., equal parts by weight respectively of top of the stem. pure water, taking care that in the different solutions the salt
The application of the densimeter of Gay-Lussac requires and the water are thoroughly mixed. Immersing the instru- a quantity of liquid sufficient to fill a vessel of considérable ment successively in these solutions, and marking tlze rumbers capacity. In certain cases, however, especially in physiology, 5, 10, 15, 20, &c., respectively at the points where the instru- when experimenting on animal liquids, it often happens that ment stands in equilibrium, and dividing the intervals into 5 we can only obtain a few grains of the animal matter. This led equal parts, the apparatus is completed. Such instruments to the invention of the densiineter of M. Rousseau, which achave this inconvenience, that every separate kind of salt requires complishes the object in view. This instrument is of the form a special saline-test. That, for instance, which has been gra- of the areometer of Baumé, fig. 40; but the top of the stem is duated for the nitrate of potassa, would give indications entirely wrong in a solution of carbonate of potassa.
Fig. 40, On the same principle are constructed milk-tests, winetests, and spirit-tests, all called by the general name of hydrometers (from the Greek, and signifying water-measures); these instruments are employed in determining the quantity of water which may have been introduced into these liquids for the purposes of fraud. But such instruments are not to be wholly depended upon, since the densities of milk and of wine, for example, are very variable, even when they are in a perfectly natural state; hence, fraud might be attributed to indications which were due rather to the naturally bad qualities of these liquids. Similar test instruments are used by medical men for the liquids found in the human body.
Instruments called densimeters (a Latin-Greek compound, signifying density ineasure) have been invented for the purpose of showing the relative density of a liquid according to the degree to which they sink therein. The densimeter of GayLussac is exactly similar to the areometer of Baumé, represented in fig. 39. It only differs from it in the principle of its graluation, which varies according as it is intended to be used for liquids more or less dense than water. In the former of these cases, the instrument is ballasted, when immersed in pure water, so that it shall sink to the point A at the top of furnished with a small cup for the reception of the liquid the stem. Taking a liquid of which the density is known, whose density is required. We shall here show how the and greater than that of water, say in the ratio of 4 to 3, we inventor graduated his instrument, according to the French immerse the instrument in it, and find that it stands at the system of weights. On the sides of the cup is placed a mark
Now, if we represent by indicating a capacity a c, equal to that of a cubic centimetre (or and v' the volumes of the parts of the instrument respectively •06103 of a cubic inch, which is rather less than the of a cubic immersed in water and in the given liquid, these volumes are inch). In order to graduate the instrument,it is ballasted in to one another in the inverse ratio of the densities of these such a manner that in distilled water at the maximum density liquids, according to a former lesson: we have therefore
it sinks to the point B at the bottom of the stem, and this is ♡:0 :: 4:3; whence, v=v.
the zero point of the instrument. The cup is then filled with
distilled water of the maximum density up to the point A, that
Adjectives of Irregular Comparison. is, to the capacity of a cubic centimetre, or, which is the same thing, equal to the weight of a gramme (or 15.440 troy grains). 1, αγαθος good αμεινων. Ν. αμεινον αριστος, η, ον At the point to which the instrument now sinks the number
βελτιστος 20 is marked. The interval from 0 to 20 is then divided into
κράτιστος 20 equal parts, and the divisions are continued to the top of
λφων the stem. The stem being exactly of the same diameter
bad throughout, each division now corresponds to zo or .05 of a
χειριστος gramme (i.e., 772 of a troy grain). This graduation being
ήττων (ήσσων) inferior ήκιστα (adv.), made, if we wish to find the density of a liquid, say bile, we
3. καλος beautiful καλλιων
καλλιστος fill the cup A c with it, up to the mark formerly mentioned, and if the instrument sinks to the division marked 203, we 4. αλγεινος painful αλγεινοτερος
αλγεινοτατος » find that the weight of the bile in the cup is equal to .05
αλγιστος gramme + 20:5, or 1:025 gramme; that is, the weight of water
δ. μακρος long
μακροτατος being 1, the weight of bile is 1.025, a number which represents
μηκιστος the density of bile, that of water being unity; for the weights of bodies of the same yolume are in the same ratio as their
ελάττων ελασσων) densities.
μέγιστος LESSONS IN GREEK.No. XV.
9. πολυς mueh πλειων (πλεων) πλειστος
πιοτατος THESE forms are taken by növs, sweet, and Taxus, swift, the
Several adjectives which express the idea of order or suc. termination vs being removed; Taxus, however, has in the cession appear in the comparative and superlative only, since comparative θαττων (θασσων is another form of the same word) | from their import they cannot denote an absolute quality, and thus :
may be used only in comparison. Their root will be found
in a preposition, or adverb of place; e. g. Ρ. ήδους. C. ήδ-ιων. Ν. ήδ-ιον. 8. ήδ-ιστος. ταχ-υς. θαττων. θαττον.
Adjectives without a Positive. ταχ-ιστος.
(from πρo, before) προτερος, prior, The other adjectives in us, as Bapus, heavy, Balus, deep. (from avw, up) ανωτερος, upper, ανωτατος, upmost. βραχυς, short, δασυς, thick, ευρυς, broad, οξυς, sharp, πρεσβυς. (from υπερ, over) υπερτερος, higher, υπερτατος, highest. Θld, ωκυς, Swift, take the forms in τερος, τατος, thus :
(from υπο? under) υστερος, posterior, ύστατος, most behind. (from εξ, from)
εσχατος, last, most from, P. βαθυς. N, βαθυ. C. βαθυ-τερος. S. βαθυ-τατος.
most remote. The forms ιων and ιστος are taken also by two adjectives (from πλησιον, near, in Homer πλησιος) πλησιαιτερος, nearer.
πλησιαιτατος, nearest,ending in pos, namely aloxpos, hateful, shameful, and ex0006, hostile ; the termination os being cut off; as
(from προσω, forwards) προσωτερος, further, more in advance,
προσωτατος, furthest. Ρ. αισχρος. 6. αισχ-ιων. Ν αισχ-ιον. S. αισχ-ιστος.
Αναγκη, ης, ή, necessity. Ελευθερος, α, ον, free. ,
Αναγκαιος, α, ον, necessary. Μαλακος, η, ον, soft. Οσμη, ης, ή, smell.
Οι ακρατεις, the intemperate. Αναρχια, ας, ή, absence of | Εμφυτος, ον, inborn. . Καιρος, ου, ο, season, time ] Λοιπος, η, ον, the remainder, government, anarchy. Ευτυχης, ες, fortunate. . generally. .
Μετρον, ου, τo, measure, no- Ισχυω, I am strong. Ζωον, τo, a living being, an | Μεταφερω, Ibear away, change. deration.
Κελευω, I order. animal. . Παρεχω, I afford, communi- Ιβηρια, ας, ή, Spain.
Σκωπτω, I jeer. Οφις, εως, o and ή, a serpent. cate; (middle voice), yield, | Κολακεια, ας, ή, fattery. Στεργω, I love, I am satisfied Αλλοι, αι, α, others.
Σωφροσυνη, ης, ή, sound-mind- with, I put up with.
Συμβουλος, ου, o, an adviser. m, n, either, or.
Γειτων, ονος, o, a neighbour. “ο βαθυτατος ύπνος ήδιστος εστιν. Πολλά ανθη ήδιστην οσμην παρεχεται. Ουδεν θαττον εστι της ήβης. Την αισχιστης | e.g., ως ταχιστος, quam celerrimus, as swift as possible.
'S25, with a superlative, adds strength to it, as quam in Latin, δουλειαν οι ακρατεις δουλευουσιν. Παντων ήδιστον εστιν ή φ λια. Ουδεν αισχιον εστιν η αλλα μεν εν να εχειν, αλλα δε
EXERCISES.-GREEK-ENGLISH, λεγειν (to think one thing and say another»). Οι οφεις τους λοιπους ζωοις εχθιστοι εισιν. Ουδεν την ανθρωπω εχθιον εστιν η ο
Ουχ ο μακροτατος βιος αριστος εστιν, αλλα και σπουδαιοτατος. ανθρωπος. Ταχιστα ο καιρος μεταφέρει τα πραγματα.
Μετρον επι πασιν αριστον (sc. εστιν). Γνωμαι των γεραιτερων αμεινους εισιν.
Συμβουλος ουδεις εστι βελτιων χρονου. Η ENGLISH-GREEK.
λεγε σιγης κρειττονα, η σιγην εχε. Αει κρατιστον εστι το Nothing is sweeter than deep sleep. Sleep is very sweet. ασφαλεστατον. Σκωπτεις, ωλωστε. Βελτιονων κακιους ενιοτε Nothing is more disgraceful than slavery. Slavery is a very
Ουκ εστι λυπης χειρον ανθρωπω κακοι .
ευτυχέστεροι εισιν. bitter thing. Horses are very swift. Nothing is more hostile | Κολακεια των αλλων απαντων κακων χειριστον εστιν. Ανης (unfriendly) than bad advice. It is shameful to think one ualaros tnv Yuxov (as to his soul, mind) käe (even) xpquatwv thing and say another. Bad men think one thing and say norwv. Ταις γυναιξιν η σωφροσυνη καλλιστη αρετη εστιν. another. Nothing is sweeter than a faithful friend.
Ουκ εστι κτημα καλλιον φιλου. Η δουλεια των ελευθερω αλγιστη
“Η οδος μηκιστη εστιν. “Ο κροκοδειλος εξ ελαχιστου A number of adjectives not being reducible to either of γιγνεται μεγιστος. Η γη ελαττων εστι του ήλιου. Στεργε και these forms, are called irregular. I subjoin a list of
τα μειω. Ολιγιστοι ανθρωποι ευδαιμονες εισιν. Ουδεις νομος.
ισχυει μειζον της αναγκης. Μικρα κερδη πολλακις μειζονας
Ν. μελιτο-εις, μελιτο-εσσα, μεβλαβας φερει. Αναρχιας μειζον συκ εστι κακον. “Ο πολεμος
λιτο-εν honeyish πλειστα κακα φερει. Εμφυτος εστι, τοις ανθρωπους ή του
μελιτούς, μελιτούσσα, μελι
τούν πλειονος επιθυμια. Γυνη εσθλη πλειστα αγαθα το οικω φερει.
G. μελιτούντος, μελιτoυσσης, μελιτούντος. Τα αναγκαια του βιου φερε ως ραστα (ας easily as you can). Το
5. εις, εισα, εν, Ν. λειφθεις, λειφθεισα, λειφθεν, left κελευειν ραον εστι του πραττειν. Oι της σοφης καρποι πεπαιτα
G. λειφθεντος, λειφθεισης, λειφθεντος Εν τω του πατρος κηπο οι της αμπελου βοτρυες
Ν. τιθείς, τιθεισα, τιθεν, placing πεπαιτεροι εισιν, η εν τω του γειτονος. Ιβηρια τρεφει πιοτατα
G. τιθεντος, τιθεισης, τιθεντος. προβατα.
6. ας, αινα, αν, Ν. μελας, μελαινα, μελαν, black ENGLISH-GREEK.
G. μελανος, μελαινης, μελανος.
7. ας, ασα, αν, Ν. πας, πασα, παν, all, every There is nothing better than a very diligent life. The
G. παντος, πασης, παντος opinion of the ancients is very good. Time is the best
Ν.Ρ. παντες, πασαι, παντα advisei The safest is the best. Grief is a very great evil.
G. παντων, πασων, παντων. Nothing is worse than flattery. The intemperate man is the
8. ας, ασα, αν, slave of pleasures. Women have nothing more beautiful than
Ν. λειψάς, λειψάσα, λειψαν, having left wisdom. To a free man nothing is worse than slavery. The
G. λειψαντος, λειψασης, λειψαντος. crocodile is very long. The son is less than the father. The 9 ην, εινα, εν, Ν. τερην, τερεινα, τερεν bad often have more property than the good. War brings
G. τερενος, τερεινης, τερενος. very great evils. It is easy to command, it is hard to obey. 10. ους, ούσα, ον, Ν. διδους, διδούσα, διδον, giving We enjoy most (superlative neut. of nous) the ripest fruits.
G. διδοντος, διδουσης, διδοντος. My father's sheep are fatter than those of the article τα)]11. ων, ούσα, ον, Ν. εκων, εκούσα, εκον, willing his neighbour.
G. εκοντος, εκουσης, εκόντος
12. ων, ουσά, ον, Ν. λειπων, λειπουσα, λειπον, leaving In order to assist you in mastering the subject, I here put
G. λειποντος, λειπουσης, λειποντος together the different terminations of adjectives. I add those Contracted, Ν. τιμών, τιμώσα, τιμών, honouring of the participles, because the participle and the adjective are
G, τιμώντος, τιμωσης, τιμώντος declined alike; remember that both adjective and participle
Ν. φιλών, φιλούσα, φιλούν, loving are also declined like nouns of the same terminations. You
G. φιλουντος, φιλουσης, φιλουντος. will also call to mind that adjectives are divided into three 13. ws, via, os, Ν. τετυφως, τετυφυΐα, τετυφος, having struck classes : 1, those of three terminations ; 2, those of two ter
G. τετυφοτος, τετυφυιας, τετυφοτος. minations ; 3, those of one termination.
2. Adjectives of Two Terminations.. GENERAL VIEW OF THE TERMINATIONS OF ADJECTIVES.
M. and F.
Ν. 1. Adjectives of Three Terminations.
1. ος, ον,
αλογον unreasonable αλογου
αλογου 1. ος, η, ον, Ν. αγαθος, αγαθη, αγαθον, good 2. ους, ουν, Ν.
well-disposed G. αγαθου, αγαθης, αγαθου
3. ως, ων,
λεω Ν. ογδοος, ογδοη, ογδοον, eight
4. ων, ον,
sound-minded Ν. γραφομενος, γραφομενη, γραφομενον,
G. αληθούς αληθους
N. ος, α, ον,
6. ην, εν, Ν. δικαιος, δικαια, δικαιον, just
αρρεν G. δικαιου, δικαιας, δικαιου
αρρενος G.P. δικαιων, δικαιων, δικαιων
7. ωρ, ορ,
fatherless Ν. εχθρος, εχθρα, εχθρον, hostile
expert Ν. αθροος, αθροα, αθροον, crowded, dense
ιδριος G. αθροου, αθροας, αθροου
tearless G.P, αθροων, αθροων, αθροων.
αδακρυος αδακρυος Contracted in
10. ους, ον, Ν. μονοδους
having one ευς, εά, εoν, Ν. χρυσεος, χρυσεά, χρυσεον
G. μονοδοντος golden
μονοδοντος tooth. . χρυσούς, χρυσή, χρυσούν G. χρυσού, χρυσής, χρυσού
3. Adjectives of One Termination. Ν.Ρ. χρυσοί, χρυσαι, χρυσά
1. ας, G. ου, Ν. ερεεος, ερεεά, ερεεον woolly
G. μονιου, Ionely ερεούς, ερεά, ερεούν και
2. ας, G. αντος, Ν. ο, ή, ακαμας, G. ακαμαντος, μη wearied G. ερεού, ερεάς, ερεού. 3. ας, α. αδος, Ν'. ο, ή, φυγας, G. φυγαδος, leeing, an
exile. 2. in υς, εια, υ, Ν. γλυκυς, γλυκεια, γλυκυ, sweet
4. αρ, G. apos, Ν. ο, ή, μακαρ, also ή μακαιρα, blessed G. γλυκεος, γλυκειας, γλυκεος
5. ης, G. ου, Ν. 6, εθελοντης, G. εθελοντου, willing, , G.P. γλυκεων, γλυκειων, γλυκεων.
6. ης, G. ητος, Ν. ο, ή, αργης, G. αργητος, white 3. in υς, υσα, υν, Ν. δεικνυς, δεικνυσα, δεικνυν, showing
G. ήνος, Ν'. ο, ή, απτην, G. απτηνος, unfeathered G, δεικνυντος, δεικνυσης, δεικνυντος
8. ως, , ώτος, Ν. ο, ή, αγνως, G. αγνώτος, unknown Ν. φυς, φυσα, φυν, born, arisen
G. ιδος, Ν. ο, ή, αναλκις, G. αναλκιδος, powerless G. φυντος, φυσης, φυντος.
10. υς, ύ. υδος, Ν'. ο, ή, νεηλυς, α. νεηλίδες, recently 4. in εις, εσσα, εν, Ν. χαριεις, χαριεσσα, χαριεν, graceful G. χαριεντος, χαριεσσης, χαριεντος
11. & G. γος
Ν. ο, ή άρπαξ, G. αρπάγος, plundering Contracted Ν. τιμηεις, τιμηεσσα, τιμηεν
Ν. ο, , ήλιξ, G. ηλικος, «f the same age τιμής, τιμήσσα, τιμήν
Ν. ο, ή, μωνυξ, G. μονάχος, having one
hoof, G. τιμήντος, τιμησσης, τιμώντος
8. ις, ι,
9. υς, υ,
Ν. ο, μονιας,
1 lich werte
ich werte I may be
er verhe 1 wir werten,
wir werden 2 ihr werbet,
you are ihr werdet 3 sie werden they are sie werden Imperfect Tense.
Imperfect Tense. i ich wurde
ich vvürte I might be 2 dil wurbest thou wast du würdest
praised, &c. 3 cr wurde
er würde 1 wir wurden we were
wir würden 2 ihr wurbet
you were ihr würdet
I may have
id, wäre I might have
sie waren they have sic wiren
First Future Tense.
First Future. rilin werde
I shall be
ich werte (if) I shall be ich würte
ihr würtet 3 l sie werden
Second Future Tense. Second Future Tense. Second Future. ich werde I shall have ich hierbe
(if) I shall ch wirte 2 du wirst been praised, du werbest
have been tu wvürtest
praised, &c. er würte 1 wir werben
vir würden 2 | ihr wertet
ihr würdet 3 'fie werben
S 86. REFLEXIVE VERBS. (1) A verb is said to be reflexive, when it represents the Sidy anmaßen, to presume; Sich ansdiden, to prepare. subject as acting upon itself. We have several such in English:
usurp he deports himself well; he bethought himself; they betook Sid, ausbedingen, to make a cor. Sich außern, to intimate. themselves to the woods; where the subject and the object, in
dition. each case, being identical, the verb is made reflexive. It is sic einbilten, to imagine. Sich bedanken, to be thankful for manifest, that any active transitive verb may thus become a Sich getrauen, to be confident. Sich bedenken, to pause, to think. reflexive verb.
self. (2) Strictly speaking, however, those only are accounted
happen. reflexives that cannot otherwise be used. The number of these sich vornehmcu, to propose to sich behelfen, to put up with; to
one's self. in German is much larger than in English Some of them
make do. require the reciprocal pronoun to be in the Dative, but most of Sich verstellen, to represent to Sich freuen, to rejoice.
one's self. them govern the Accusative: thus, (with the Dative), it bilte
Sich witersetzen, to resist. mir nicht ein, I do not imagine; (with the Accuşative,) ich schäme Sich witersprechen, to contradict. michy, I am ashamed. Further examples are the following:
(3) Since the action of these verbs is confined to the agent,