Εικόνες σελίδας
PDF

they are rightly regarded as intransitives; for the verb and the pronoun under its government, are to be taken together as a single expression for intransitive action; thus, id freue mid), I rejoice myself, that is, I rejoice, or delight in. (4) In like manner, reflexives often become the equivalents of passives : as, ber ©djūsses flat sidy gesunben, the key has found itself, that is, the key is found or has been found, &c. (5) In some instances a verb is found to have, both in the simple and in the reflexive form, the same signification: as, irren and sid, irren, to err; to be mistaken. (6) It is worthy of remark, also, that some transitives, upon passing into the reflexive form, undergo some change of signitication: thus, from berufen, to call, comes sid, btrufen, to appeal to It is generally easy, however, in these cases, to account for such changes. The following are additional examples: Sebenfelt, to think upon; jić, Šetenfell, to pause to think. 38esdjeiben, to assign; sid} {es}citem, to be contented with. fid, sinbeit (in etbağ), to accommodate one's self to a thing fig, firótem, to be afraid of. fid (item, to beware. fić madjen (an etmuš), to set about a thing. fid, stessen, to feign, pretend. fid verantmorten, to defend one's self. fić scrgcácil, to commit a fault. jid, ocrlissen, to rely upon.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

©tcúcil, to place ; Serantmootten, to answer for ;

[ocr errors]

LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.-No. XI.

HAVING made yourself acquainted with the physical aspects and chemical relations of metallic antimony, I purpose now directing your attention to a solution of that metal, for which purpose we will select a soluble preparation of antimony: the tartrate of antimony and potash—commonly known as tartaremetic, under which name it is procurable at any druggist's shop. Tartrate of antimony and potash is a very convenient, preparation for our present wants, inasmuch as it is perfectly soluble in water; a remark which applies to very few antimony salts. A proper solution for our experiments will result from the mixture of about ten grains of tartar-emetic and two wine-glasses full of distilled water.

Certainly the most characteristic test for this substance, and I may say for antimony in solution generally (there are some exceptions), is hydrosulphuric acid or hydrosulphate of ammonia—which of the two is immaterial; either of these tests throws down an orange-red precipitate, which under some circumstances, such as particular states of dilution, &c., may appear yellow. The truth is, however, that the so-called yellow of the sulphuret of antimony, is yellow by courtesy thus to express oneself; however, by calling it yellow without qualification or circumlocution, one avoids the necessity of splitting up facts into detail. Once more let me call to your mind, that although we have not met hitherto with one metal that affects hydrosulphuric acid and hydrosulphate of ammonia black, nevertheless black is the normal colour of the precipitates yielded by these reagents on metals; hence, when all the precipitates which are not black shall have come under our notice, the remaining ones may be allowed to take care of themselves.

Having prepared this orange sulphuret of antimony, termed by chemists the sesquisulphuret, for areason that will be evident by and bye, observe well the general appearance of the substance in order that you may be sure of never confounding it with yellow sulphuret of arsenic. Generally speaking, the difference between the appearance of the two will be a sufficient guide, but the surest test consists in reducing it in a glass tube by means of heat and blackflux, or else a mixture of charcosl and carbonate of potassa or soda. To this end, mix a few grains of the orange or sesquisulphuret of antimony with twice its weight of the black flux, or for want of this, a mixture of charcoal and carbonate of soda (washing soda and charcoal). Put the mixture into a small glass tube closed at one end, with all the precautions as regards cleansing the sides of the tube, already men

tioned, and apply the heat of a spirit-lamp flame; you will soon find that there is a very manifest difference between the result and that which you noticed when sulphuret of arsenic was the subject of operation. 1 question very much whether you will succeed in obtaining any sublimate; so comparatively difficult is antimony of volatilization. Make yourself master of the appearances, because the question whether the arsenical crust as it is terined may possibly be mistaken for the antimonial crust, is still undetermined by writers on poisons. If by chance, hereafter, you should be engaged in settling the question of arsenical poisoning, the counsel for the prisoner would in all probability try to prove, that the appearance testified by you as resulting from arsenic resulted from antimony developed from tartar-emetic given to the patient as a remedy. Many disputes, which seem knotty enough in books, resolve themselves into exceedingly plain matters of demonstration when treated practically. Make yourself master, then, of the differences between the phenomena of antimony and arsenic.

Antimoniuretted Hydrogen.—The fact has already been stated that antimony is one of those metals which combine with hydrogen gas, and is evolved in an invisible form. In other words, antimony is a metal which, in this respect, strongly resembles arsenic, and might possibly be confounded with it. Let us proceed, therefore, to perform some experiments with antimoniuretted hydrogen. For this purpose we shall again require the bottle with perforated cork and tobacco-pipe stem; by no means, however, employ the one already used in the experiments with arsenic ; the delicacy of this kind of test is such, that it is dangerous to rely on mere cleansing of the apparatus; far better is the plan of using a new bottle, new cork, and new tobacco-pipe stem; and here, as in many similar cases, you will not fail to recognise the advantage of working with apparatus that is sufficiently cheap to admit of being manufactured ad libitum. In addition to the previous apparatus we shall require others. One is frequently employed in the operation of testing for arsenic, and the reason of my omitting to mention it under that head was, that I avoided directing your attention to a multiplicity of subjects all at Oil Ces

[merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][graphic][graphic][graphic][graphic][graphic][graphic][graphic][graphic]
[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors]

It may here be observed, in connexion with the development of hydrogen gas, an operation of constant recurrence, that although a mixture of zinc, oil of vitriol, and water is that which yields the purest and most satisfactory result, yet if the zinc cannot be procured in sufficient quantity iron may be substituted.

Having by means of the preceding simple arrangement satisfied yourself as to the general nature of antimoniuretted hydrogen gas, proceed to employ the more complex arrangement which I will now explain in detail.

The bottle or generator part of No. 1 scarcely demands a word of explanation. It is so fitted up, as the student will observe, that a fluid may be poured into it through the funnel tube f without involving the necessity of removing the cork. As regards the horizontal tube B, this, as I have already remarked, admits of the application of a spirit-lamp flame underneath, by which treatment the antimoniuretted hydrogen, as it passes invisibly along the tube, is decomposed partially or entirely, and a metallic crust results.

| tartar-emetic solution in C.

Hydrogen {

i

Jèeduction of Sulphure: of Antimony to the Metallic State.—You will remember that we had not the slightest difficulty in effecting the reduction of arsenic to the metallic state by heating it in a tube along with charcoal and carbonated alkali; you will remember, moreover, that, practically speaking, we could not succeed in obtaining by this means metallic antimony. I will nGY show you a very elegant method of getting this result by means of hydrogen gas under the influence of heat; for this

| purpose we shall avail ourselves of apparatus No. 2, which

differs from No. 1 in having a piece of glass tube about four

inches long secured at either end by means of two perforated

corks to the tubes l and ''. Reverting to a former experiment, collect the orange sul

| phuret of antimony already prepared either by filtration or | decantation, remembering that it has been thoroughly washed | and dried ; place it carefully in the tube B, dip the tube. 7 in a

solution of tartar-emetic C, and generate hydrogen gas in the

| vessel A by pouring through the funnel tube a mixture of oil

of vitriol and water in due proportion on metallic iron or zinc. All this being done, it follows that the hydrogen gas,

| so soon as developed, passes over the sulphuret in the tube B

without affecting it, and finally escapes in bubbles through the In point of fact, no chemical change is perceptible, nor indeed does any take place. If, however, a spirit-lamp flame be applied to the tube B, some extremely interesting results are developed. The most evident phenomenon, though not the first in order of occurrence, is the change of colour in the tartar-emetic solution; from being totally colourless it becomes orange-red, owing to the generation of a powder which soon falls as a precipitate ; and now if you look at the tubep just where the spirit-lamp flame impinges upon it, in place of the original red substance (sulphuret of antimony) you will observe a black powder, which is metallic antimony in a finely divided state. The change which has ensued is this: the sulphuret of antimony, being a compound of sulphur and antimony, yields up its sulphur to the passing hydrogen, and forms sulphuretted hydrogen gas, otherwise called, as I presume you recollect by this time, hydrosulphuric acid. The reason why our solution of tartar-emetic becomes coloured orange-red is now evident enough. Our old friend, sulphuretted hydrogen, has been making his appearance under a new aspect. See how easily this decomposition and recomposition is represented by means of a diagram :

Sulphuretted

Hydrogen

Sulphuret | Sulphur of

Antimony ) Antimony

What can be more simple than these changes 2 . What more easy than the process of determining them? It is in vain for elements to play at hide and seek with the chemist. They may change their position, they may assume more different forms than Proteus ever dreamed of, may present themselves under the aspect of solid, liquid, or gas—it is all in vain, they cannot escape; the chemist sets his trap for them, and they are caught at last. By this time you will, I trust, have acquired a more just idea of the nature of chemistry, especially that part of it termed analysis, than you originally entertained. Most chemical beginners imagine analysis involves a sort of mechanical picking out of the different elements of which a body is composed; a little progress in the way of the science soon demonstrates how incorrect is this view, Suppose, for instance, a piece of sulphuret of iron were given to you—that substance which you employ in the manufacture of sulphuretted hydrogen—with the request that you would extract its sulphur bodily; perhaps you would have thought a delicate process of sifting would have accomplished this result. Not so; the best, the most direct, the shortest way to accomplish this, consists in first collecting all the sulphuretted hydrogen gas out of the substance, and then taking away the hydrogen from the sulphuretted hydrogen ; for does it not follow, that if sulphu

|retted hydrogen be =Hydrogen +Sulphur, that Sulphur is +

(Hydrogen +Sulphur)—Hydrogen or more shortly, H SEH-- S ... s = H S H.

This separation of sulphur from sulphuretted hydrogen is readily effected by the action of chlorine, as we shall discover S K E T C H E S F O R. Y O U N G T HIN K E R S. (Continued from page 143.)

hereafter.

[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]

BRITISH biography next claims our attention; and we rejoice to know that it contains ample illustrations of both the principles, that mental and moral excellence are quite compatible, and that goodness is better than greatness. On turning up the pages of history, we are at a loss where to begin. There are so many, and such great men, that selection is difficult. We come, however, to Lord Bacon, who was born in 1561, and who became Lord High Chancellor of England. Preferring to hear him spoken of in the language of another, we make room for Addison, who, in one pas age, speaks as follows:—

“Sir Francis Bacon was a man who, for greatness of genius and compass of knowledge, did honour to his age and country; I could almost say, to human nature itself. He possessed, at once, all those extraordinary talents which were divided amongst the greatest authors of antiquity. He had the sound, distinct, comprehensive knowledge of Aristotle, with all the beautiful lights, graces, and embellishments of Cicero. One does not know which to admire most in his writings, the strength of reason, force of style, or brightness of imagination.” Bacon has been called the “Father of Experimental Philosophy, and the Prophet of the Arts.” He was a firm believer in the verities of Christianity. He has one beautiful passage in opposition to the atheistic theory, which we cannot withhold:—“I had rather believe all the fables in the Legend, and the Talmud, and the Alcoran, than that this universal frame is without a mind. While the mind of man looketh at second causes scattered, it may sometimes rest in them, and go no further; but when it beholdeth the chain of them confederate and linked together, it must needs fly to Providence and Deity.” Here, again, is the combined force of goodness and greatness. While he was great in philosophy, he was ardent in his attachment to God and truth; and while his name is pronounced, it will ever be with associations of a most pleasing nature. From Bacon we naturally turn to Locke, who was born 71 years later. He was one of the most celebrated of English philosophers. To native talents of a lofty order he added a liberal education. His works are giant monuments of a profound judgment, critical acumen, and noble execution. So far, he is merely an intellectualist, but history does not leave him here. He rises far above all philosophy, and reposes his eternal interests in Christ's redemption. The manner in which he speaks of the Holy Scriptures is truly excellent: “The New Testament has God for its author, Salvation for its end, and truth, without any mixture of error, for its matter.” Lady Masham, in a beautiful letter which she wrote concerning him, closes the communication in the following words: -“Time, I think, can never produce a more eminent example of reason and religion than he was, both living and dying.” Such were two of England's greatest sons! Combining in themselves all that learning could furnish, and all that religion could produce. Their memories are sacred and refreshing to many a weary pilgrim ; they hang out, as great beacon lights, over the ocean of humanity, and will, doubtless, shed an undiminished lustre until time itself shall die.

Robert Boyle, who ought, in the order of time, to have come before Bacon and Locke, next appears as a further instance in which are united mentalexcellence and profound piety. He was edu

cated at Eton, and was not long in manifesting powers of a superior

order. So immense were his mental acquisitions, that Dr. Boerhaave has paid him the following compliment:—“Boyle was the ornament of his age and country. Which of his writings shall I commend ? All of them. To him we owe the secrets of fire, air, Water, animals, fossils, so that from his works may be deduced the whole system of natural knowledge.” Another writer, to whom we have been already indebted, gives the following testimony:-‘‘The great object of his philosophical pursuits was to promote the cause of religion, and to discountenance atheism and infidelity.” His intimate friend, Bishop Burnet, makes the following observations on this point:-"It appeared to those who conversed With him, on his inquiries into nature, that his main design (on which, as, he had his own eye constantly fixed, so he took care to put others often in mind of it) was to raise in him. self and others more exalted sentiments of the greatness and glory, the wisdom and goodness of God.” This design was so despi; impressed on his mind, that he concludes the article of his wis,

which relates to the Royal Society, in these words:—“I wish them a happy success in their attempts to discover the true nature of the works of God; and I pray that they, and all other searchers into physical truths, may cordially refer their attainments to the glory of the great Author of nature, and to the comfort of mankind.” So could an eminent philosopher write. Let no one henceforward say that religion is only taken up by weak, fanatical, enthusiastic minds. Had we no other examples to produce, the point is established beyond successful denial. But there remains a whole “cloud of witnesses,” all bearing emphatic testimony. The ages of the past, as well as the present generation, concur in one confession—that the men who have conferred the most lasting obligations upon the world, and whose names will be held in affectionate and reverential remembrance, have been eminent for all the adornments of mental and moral greatness. Those men have moulded opinion, attacked and confronted error in its thouSand chameleon hues and protean forms, and confirmed their words by blameless and honourable lives. In them the truth has been embodied; they regarded it as something more than theoretical and speculative; they looked upon it as demanding their practical support, and as worthy of the loftiest homage they could render. They loved learning with an almost idolatrous affection, but were mindful that goodness had claims upon them of an infinitely higher and holier nature. Herein their wisdom was displayed, for they combined the greater with the less in harmonious unity.

Early in the eighteenth century we meet with the name of Lord Lyttleton. He, like Boyle and many other individuals of eminence, was an Eton pupil. He won a proud position both at school and college, and was looked upon by his fellow-students as a superior scholar. As a writer, he was eloquent, logical, and powerful. Here was intellectual excellence. So far, he has shown the triumph of mind. The following anecdote of himself and West will show that he became as distinguished for his Christianity as he formerly was for his infidelity:-‘‘The effect which was wrought on the mind of the celebrated Gilbert West, by that particular evidence of our Lord's resurrection which was afforded to his apostles, was very remarkable. He and his friend Lord Lyttleton, both men of acknowledged talents, had imbibed the principles of infidelity from a superficial view of the Scriptures: fully persuaded that the Bible was an imposture, they were determined to expose the cheat. Mr. West chose the resurrection of Christ, and Lord Lyttleton the conversion of St. Paul, for the subject of hostile criticism. Both sat down to their respective tasks, full of prejudice and a contempt for Christianity. The result of their separate attempts was truly extraordinary. They were both converted by their endeavours to overthrow the truth of Christianity. They came together, not as they expected, to exult over an imposture exposed to ridicule, but to lament their own folly, and to congratulate each other on their joint conviction, that the Bible was the Word of God. Their able inquiries have furnished two most valuable treatisesin favour of revelation; one entitled ‘Observations on the Conversion of St. Paul; and the other, “Observations on the Resurrection of Christ.’” This is a remarkable evidence of the Divine authenticity of the sacred canon, and shows the power of the truth in subduing the proudest minds to its sovereign sway. The man was now complete. His lordly birth and liberal education were not sufficient to complete him. There was a void which nothing could fill but the truth of God; and a rebellion, which nothing could subside but the voice of Omnipotence. We need no further evidence of the majesty of Divine truth ; sach a case as this speaks in language which will only admit of one interpretation. His death-bed experience is truly refreshing, and breathes a spirit of penitence and lové towards God. “At evening time it was light.” His sea wers; down, not in “a fearful and troubled glory,” but with a cala brilliant, and softened splendour; and now, from his tomb, ther streams a glory of mingled moral and mentsl worth. Lord Lys. tleton stands out as a tall, colossal figure, uniting all that is exalted in mind, and attractive in disposition. Here he does not dignify his moral excellence, but is the rather ennobled by it yet, when such men exhibit such sterling virtues, and defend the truth with such overwhelming power, it becomes those wit fewer acquisitions and less ability to pause and consider, befo they deny and oppose the truth. Joseph Addison is a name deserving the most honourabl mention in this series of illustrations. He was one of ti lights of the eighteenth century. He was not indeed a bl

ing July sun, or a dazzling meteor, but a bright and cheerful light. He was a refined scholar, and extremely urbane to all who were favoured with his friendship. The most superior and learned of his contemporaries, were anxious to testify their high sense of his intrinsic merits. He was not “one of the lower orders.” At the age of forty-five he was appointed to the office of State-secretary. As a writer he is well known and justly celebrated. Dr. Johnson, who in many respects was the very antipodes of Addison, speaks of him in the following complimentary terms: “He employed wit on the side of virtue and religion. He not only made the proper use of wit himself, but taught it to others ; and from his time it has been generally subservient to the cause of reason and truth. He has dissipated the prejudice that had long connected cheerfulness with vice, and easiness of manners with laxity of principles. He restored virtue to its dignity, and taught innocence not to be ashamed. This is an elevation of literary character beyond all Greek, above all Roman fame. As a teacher of wisdom he may be confidently followed. His religion has nothing in it enthusiastic or superstitious ; he appears neither weakly, credulous, nor wantonly sceptical : his morality is neither dangerously lax, nor impracticably rigid. All the enchantments of fancy, and all the cogency of argument, are employed to recommend to the reader his real interests, the care of pleasing the Author of his being.” Such a testimony, from such a man, is not to be misunderstood. Dr. Johnson was not the man to flatter any one, through fear or favour. We cannot, however, dismiss Addison without subjecting him to the same death-bed scrutiny as those already mentioned. After his busy pen had written what was intensely admired and loudly applauded, he came, as other men come, to the river of death; before plunging into it, there occured one most interesting and impressive circumstance, which we will narrate in the language of a writer already quoted: “The virtue of this excellent man shone brightest at the point of death. After a long and manly, but vain struggle with his distempers, he dismissed his physicians, and with them all hopes of life; but with his hopes of life he dismissed not his concern for the living. He sent for Lord Warwick, a youth nearly related to him and finely accomplished, but irregular in conduct and principle, on whom his pious instructions and example had not produced the desired effect. Lord Warwick came : but life now glimmering in the socket, the dying friend was silent. After a decent and proper pause, the youth said, “Dear sir, you sent for me: I believe and hope you have some commands; I shall hold them most dear.” Forcibly grasping the youth's hand, Addison softly said; “See in what peace a Christian can die.’ He spoke with difficulty, and soon expired.” The reader will no longer doubt, that moral excellence is compatible with mental refinement and cultivation, and that this alone will bear a man in the misfortunes of life, and support him in the agonies of death. What further evidence need we require in support of Christianity? If men refuse these testimonies, conjoined with the Word of God. “ one: would they be persuaded though one rose from the dead.”

L'ouvrier sujet au vin ne deviendra jamais riche, et celui qui néglige les petites choses tombe peu a peu.—Ecclésiastique.

Lajalousie est le plus grand des maux, et celui qui faitle moins de pitié aux personnes qui le causent.—La Rochefoucauld.

La différence entre la jalousie et l'envie, c'est que par l'envie nous désirons pour nous ce que arrive d'heureux aux autres; par ia jalousie, nous craignons qu'ils ne participent a notre bonheur. Charron. Le jeu est le dissipateur du bien, la perte du temps, le gouffre des richesses, l'écueil de l'innocence, la destruction des sciences, l’ennemi des muses, le père des querelles.—J.-J. Rousseau. Le joge est une loi parlante, et la loi un juge muet.— Montesquieu. Les hommes se croient supérieurs aux défauts qui'ils peuvent sentir; coest ce qui fait qu'on juge dans le monde si sévèrement des actions, des discours et des écrits d'autruis-Vauvénargues. On ne peut 8tre juste, si on n'est humain.—Idem.

Dans une société oil il y a des lois, la liberté ne peut consister §: pouvoir faire ce que l’on doit wouloir, et a n'étre pas contraint de faire ce qu'on ne doit pas vouloir.—Montesquieu.

L ES SONS IN BO () K K E E PIN G.-N 0. X. (Continued from page 153.)

COTTON BOOK.

IN the Day-Book, which was given in our last lesson, all the transactions relating to the purchase and sale of the different kinds of Cottom, have been entered as a primary record of these transactions; but if the Merchant be desirous of keeping a distinct and separate account of his dealings in Cotton, in order to be able to tell, at a glance, what is actually in his Warehouse, or in Stock, as the phrase is, he will have a book similar to the following, specially made for the purpose. In this book, the transactions can be more clearly and distinctly arranged; for he can have a separate account of each kind of Cotton, with columns for the number of the bags, the net weight in pounds, the rate per pound, the prime cost, and the selling price ; and he can appropriate the one side of the folio for the purchases, and the other side of the folio for the sales ; so that the difference between them can be found in a moment, if necessary. If any particular kind of Cotton be all sold, then this book will show at once what has been gained or lost by the transactions in this kind ; and as the same principle is applicable to all kinds, it follows, that if all the Cotton of every kind has been sold, this book will show, both individually and collectively, the gain or loss on each, and the gain or loss on the whole. This is a great advantage where a Merchant deals chiefly or wholly in any particular kinds of goods ; as he can form an idea of his gain or loss on the principal part or the whole of his business accordingly, without consulting his Ledger, or striking a general balance.

It is evident that in any trade, business, or mercantile profession, such a book as this for every separate species of goods bought and sold would be of immense advantage, and would certainly be preferable to one book, such as the Day-Book, where all kinds of goods are indiscriminately classed together according to the dates of the different transactions; for the order of dates, though highly important, is not so useful to a Merchant as the classification of his transactions; whilst even in that classification this order can be preserved. Hence a Merchant may have his Sugar-Book, his Indigo-Book, his Tea-Book, his Coffee-Book, &c., according to the nature of his business; and in keeping books by Single Entry, which many persons yet mistakenly follow, such books as these are indispensably necessary, inasmuch as the Ledger kept by Single Entry gives them no information whatever, as to the actual state of their Assets and Liabilities. If the book, such as the preceding, be devoted to one or more classes of goods, and each be kept separate and distinct, so that no confusion be introduced into the different transactions, it may be called legitimately the Stock or Warehouse Book, as the Merchant can always tell his Stock of Goods by consulting it, without actually going to the Warehouse and turning over the goods in order to see what he has got in hand.

The following is the state of the Profit and Loss account, or the account of clear gain made by the purchase and sale of Cotton of different kinds from January till June, as per Cotton-Bool: :—

Gain. on Berbice to 6 e ... $60 5 8 ,, Grenada to e e ... 33 0 4 , Maranham ... ... 85 14 8 ,, West India ... ... 123 16 8 ,, Madras to 0 (0. ... 355 4 10 ,, Demerara & a e ... 111 16 5

Whole Gain ... f.769 18 7

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

* * ****

[ocr errors]
[graphic]
« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »