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LESSONS IN ITALIAN GRAMMAR.-No. X.

Singular.

Plural.
BY CHARLES TAUSENAU, M.D.,

Un a-mi-co, a friend

Alcúni a-ni-ci, some friends

De un a-mi.co, of a friend D'al-cu-ni a-nać - ci, of some Of the University of Pavia, and Professor of the Italian and German Languages at the Kensington Proprietary Grammar School.

friends Ad un a-mi-co, to a friend Ad al--ni a-mi-ci, to some II. *

friends Singular.

Un a-mi-co, a friend

Al--ni a-mi-ci some friends Un fió-rent a flower U-no scu-do, a shield

Da un a-ini-co, from a friend Da al-cu-ni a-mi-ci, from some D'un fió-re, of a flower D'1-120 soi-do, of a shield

friends Ad un fió-re, to a flower

Ad 4-120 scú-do, to a shield In un a-mi-co, in a friend In al--ni a-mi-ci, in some Un fió-re, a flower U-10 scú-do, a shield

friends Da un fió-re, from a flower Da ú-no scu-do, from a shield Con un a--co, with a friend Con al--ni a-mi-ci, with some In un fió-re, in a flower In ú-no scú-ão, in a shield

friends Con un fió-re, with a flower Con u-no scia-do, with a shield Per un a-ma-co, for a friend Per al-cu-ni a-mi-ci, for some Per un fió-re, for a flower Per ú-no scu-do, for a shield

friends Plurala

Singular.
Al-cu-ni I fió-ri, some flowers

Àl--ni scu-di, some shields
D'al - - ni fió - ri, of some D'al - cu- ni scu-di, of some U-na gal-li-na, a hen

Un' ô-ca, a goose flowers

shields
D'ú-na gal-li-na, of a hen

D Aumo -ca, of a goose
Ad al--ni fió-ri, to some
to some Ad al-cu-ni scu-di, to some Ad ú-na gal-li-na, to a hen

Ad un' ô-ca, to a goose lowers

shields
U-na gal-li-ra, a hen

Un ô-ca, a goose
Al-cu-ni fió-rí, some flowers Al--ni scu-di, some shields

Da ú-na gal-li-na, from a hen Da un' ô-ca, from a goose Da al-cu-ni fió-ri, from some Da al-cu-ni scú-di, from some Im ú-na gal--na, in a hen In un' ô-ca, in a goose flowers

shields
Con u-na gal-li-nd, with a hen

Con un' ô-ca, with a goose In al--ni fió-ri, in some

in some In al--ni scú-di, in some Per ú-na gal-li-na, for a hen Per un' ô-ca, for a goose flowers

shields Con al--ni fió-ri, with some Con ai--ni scu-di, with some

Plural, flowers shields

Al--ne ô-che*, some geese Per al--ni fió-ri, for some Per, al-cú.ni scu-di, for some Al-cu-ne gal--ne, some hens

l shields

D' al-cu-ne gal-li-ne, of some flowers

D'al-- ne ô - che, of some hens

geese * There are, besides the article, many other words (numerals, Ad al-cu-ne gal--ne, to some Ad al--ne ô-che, to some pronouns, and adjectives) pointing out with more or less precision

hens

geese the definite character of a noun, and generally connected with it. Al--ne gal--ne, some hens Al-cu-nze ô-che, some geese Some of these are of such primary importance for the very begin. Da al-ci-ire gal-li-ne, from some Da al--ne ó-che, from some nings of reading and conversation, that I consider it useful to

hens

geese present at once their various changes. The declension of these words likewise requires that only the three case-signs di, a, and da, In al-cu-ne gal-li-ne, in some In al-cu-ne ô- che, in some

hens should be placed before them. I shall also lay down here, as a

geese general rule in Italian, that any numeral, pronoun, or adjective, Con al--negal-li-ne, with some Con al-cu-ne ô-che, with some which points out the definite character of a noun with a sufficient hens

geese or with a still greater precision than the article itself, renders the Per al-cu-ne gal-li-ne, for some Per al--ne ô-che, for some latter superfluous, and such words are on the other hand always hens

geese accompanied by the article when they do not precisely determine the noun before which they are placed.

Singular.

Plural. + The word úno, for the masculine, and ú-na, for the feminine, is considered by many grammarians to be the indefinite article T'út-to il -po-lo,t all the na- Tùt-ti i -po-li, all nations corresponding to a or an in English. It, however, seems to me tion illogical to call a word so which serves so many purposes, and has Di tút-to il -po-lo, of all the Di tút-ti i -po-li, of all na. so many meanings. It is a word expressing indefinite unity; e.g. nation

tions unlí-bro, a book, and ú-na -sa, a house, express the general A tit-to il -930-lo, to all the A tút-ti i -po-li, to all naidea of any book and any house. It is, moreover, a word expressing

nation

tions definite unity, i.e. a numeral; e. g. un'uomo e cin-que dôn-ne, one

Tut-to -po-Zo, all the na- Tut-ti --la, all nations man and five wonien; ú-na líb-bra, e tre on-ce, one pound and three

tion It is also frequently a pronoun, having the definite articles lo and la before it signifying the one (masculine and femi- Da tút-to il -po-lo, from all Da tut-ti i -po-li, from all

nations nine); e. g. V' 4-no di-ce di , ál-tro di no, the one says yes, the

the nation other no; l'ú-na è bêl-la, l' altra é brút-ta, the one (ivoman) is In tút-to il po-po-lo, in all the In tút-ti i pôrpo-li, in all na. pretty, the other is ugly. These examples, I think, will be suffi- nation

tions cient to show that it would only tend to mislead to call it an Con tút-to il .

Con tút-to il -po-lo, with all Con tút-ti i -po-li, with all article.

the nation

nations When u-no comes before a consonant, which is not the s impure, Per tút-to il -po-lo, for all Per tút-ti i -po-li, for all we only say and write un; e. g. un li-bro, a book; un ca-vál-lo, a

the nation

nations horse ; un vêc-chio, an old man. When it comes before the s impure, ú - no must be always employed; e. g. úno spá - ri - to, a spirit; ú-no stre.go-ne, a sorcerer. When it comes before a noun

* The auxiliary letter, h, has been interposed between cand e to of the masculine gender commencing with a vowel, the final o of zi-no is not pronounced, and in writing an apostrophe is not preserve in the plural 8.che (8-kai) the sound of c in the singular necessarily used instead; e. g. un ar-co, a bow, arch; un ec-cés-so, nounced 6-tchai. This will be more fully explained hereafter.

), proan excess; un in-gt-gno, a genius; un or-80, a bear; un uomo, a man. The feminine, i-na, generally loses the a, and an apostrophe + The words tút-to (masc.), tút-ta (fem.), all, entire, whole, and must be substituted before nouns commencing with a vowel; e. g. am-be-dúe, both, have this peculiarity, that the article is placed after un' d-ni-ma, a soul; un'êg-ba, an herb; un' o-ra, an hour; un' im- them whenever they come before a noun; as, tút-to il mondo, all the pré-ra, an undertaking; un' ún-ghia, a nail, hoof. In all other world ; am-be-dúe i fra-têl-li, both the brothers. Am-be-dúe is used cases, ú-na is written and pronounced in full.

for the masculine as well as for the feminine, and it is obvious from It is obvious that when u-no and únna signify definite or in- its signification, that it can have no singular. The singular tút-to definite unity, they can have no plural. The words almou-ni, some, and trút-ta signifies the whole of, ALL THE; the plural tút-ti and pl. (for the masculine), and al--ne, some, pl. (for the feminine), tút-te merely signifies ALL. For example: tút-to il clê-ro, the whole may be, however, considered as substitutions for the plural of d-no clergy; in pre-sên-za di tút-ti i cor-ti-gia-ni, in the presence of all. and d-na in such a case. Alců-ni and al--ne are, strictly speaking, courtiers; tút-ta la cit-tà, the whole town; tút-te le not-ti, all nights ; the plurals of the pronouns al--no (masc.), and al--na (fem.), tút-ti gli uo-mi-ni, all men; di tút-ta la têr-ra, of the whole earth; somebody.

di tút-te le don-ne, of all ladies.

Ounces.

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garu en

Occhio, ege.

Singular.

Tu-scêl-lo. Nei pol-mó-ni. Con da-na-ro. Col faz-zo-léto Quel I giar-di-no, that garden Quesť uo-cel-to, this bird

Coi cap-pêl-li. Per pia-cé-re. Pel man-têl-lo. Pei gióDi quel giar-di-no, of that gar- Di quest' u-cél-lo, of this bird va-ni. Sul pón-te. Sui quá-dri

. Su qué-sta têr-ra. "Lo

staf-fiê-re. Del-lospô-so. Al-lo stra-nie-re. Dal-lo stram den A quel grar-~no, to that gar- A questo uc-cêl-lo, to this bird

máz-zo. Gli spíê-di. Dé-gli sme-rál-di. A-gli scrit-tó-ri.

Dá-gli stam-pa-tó-ri. In i-stá-to. Nél-lo spêc-chio. Né-gli den Quel giar-di-no, that garden Quesť uc-cél-lo, this bird

sti-vá-li. Con i-stú-dio. Cól-lo spi-ri-to. Co-gli scul-to-ri. Da, quel giar-di-no, from that Da quest' uc-cém-lo, from this Per i-stru-men-ti. Per lo spac-ca-lé-gna. Per lo spa-da-jo.

Sal-lo scô-glio. Sú-gli scán-ni. L'ôc-chio. Dell' uc-cêl-lo. garden

bird

All a-mi-co. Dall' Ô6-80.
In quel giar-di-no, in that gar. In questo uc-cél-lo, in this bird

Gli er-ró-ri. Degl' in-ci-só-ri.

Agl' in-grá-ti. Dá-gli ál-be-ri. In o-no-re. den

Nell' án-no.

Coll' á-bi-to. Cógl' i-níCon quel giar-di-na, with that con quesť uc-cêl-Lo, with this Né-gli o-réc-chj. Con a-mó-re. garden

bird

qui. Per in-gán-no. Per l'o-pe-rá-jo. Per gli a-du-la-tó-ri.
Per quel giar-di-no, for that Per quest' uc-cêl-lo, for this Sull'e-di-fi-zio. Sugl' in-fe-di-ci.
bird

VOCABULARY.
Plural.

Panno, cloth.

the vowel i is, for the sake Quci giar-di-ni, those gar- Que-str uc-cel-li, these birds dens

Coltello, knife.

of harmony, prefixed to any Tondo, plate.

word commencing with the Di quei giar-di-ni, of those gar-Di qué-sti uc-cel-lt, of these

Sale, salt,
dens
birds

simpure, unless it be a proper

noun; e. g., Sté-fa-no, SciA quei giar-di-si, to those gar- A qué-sti uc-cêl-li, to these Cibo, article of food, aliment.

birds

Cortile, court-yard. dens

pio-ne, for it is not allowable Quei giar-di-ni, those gardens

Croco, cook (the plural of this
Qué-sti uc-cél-li, these birds

to say corr Istefano, con Iscia Da quei giar-di-ni, from those Da qué-sti uc-cêl-li, from these

noun requires the auxiliary pione, &c.)

letter h between cand i, in specchio, looking-glass.
gardens
birds

order to preserve the sound Stivale, boot.
In quei giar-di-ni, in those gar- In que-sti uc-cel-li, in these

of c like k.).
dens
birds

Studio, study.
Sogno, dream.

Spirito, spirit.
Con quci giar-di-ni, with those Con qué-sti uc-cêl-li, with these

birds

Teatro, theatre gardens

Scultore, sculptor.

Ruscello, brook.
Per quei giar-di-ni, for those Per qué-sti uc-cél-li, for these

Strumento, instrument, tool.

Polmone, lung,
gardens
birds

Spaccalegna, wood-cleaver.
Danaro, money.

Spadajo, sword-cutler.
Singular.

Plural.

Fazzoletto, poeket-handker- Scoglio, rock,
chief.

Scanno, bench.
0-gnill sol--to, each soldier Cin-que sol-du-ti, five soldiers
D' ó-gni sol--to, of each sol. Di cín-que sol-dd-ti, of five sol-

Cappello, hat.
Piacere, pleasure.

Uccello, bird.
dier

diers
Mantello, cloak.

Anico, friend.
Adió-gni sol-da-to, to each sol- | A cin-que sol-du-ti, to five sol.

Giovane, young man, youth.
dier
diers

Osso, bone,
Ponte, bridge.

Errore, error, fault.
Ongni sol-dd-to, each soldier Cin-que sol-do-ti, five soldiers
Da ó-gni sol--to, from each Da cin-que sol--ti, from five

Quadro, picture.

Incisore, engraver. soldiers

Terra, earth.
soldier

Ingrato, ungratefui.
In ó-gni sol--to, in each sol- ! In cin-que sol--ti, in five sol-

Staffiere, footman,

Albero, free.
dier

diers
Sposo, bridegroom.

Onore, honour.
Straniere, stranger.

Anno, year.
Con ó-gni sol-dd-to, with each Con cir-que soldá-ti, with five

Stramazzo, mattress.

Orecchio (pl. orecchj ), ear.
soldier
soldiers

Amore, love,
Per ongni sol-dd-to, for each per cin-que sol--ti, for five Spiede, spiedo, spit, broach.
soldier

soldiers
Smeraldo, emerald.

Abito, dress, coat.

Scrittore, author, writer. Iniquo, wicked.
EXERCISES. ITALIAN-ENGLISH.

Stampatore, printer.

Inganno, deceit.
Il pán-no. Del col-têl-lo. Al tón-do. Dal sá-le. I ci-bi. Stato, state, condition (after Operajo, day-labourer.
Dei cor-tí-li. Ai cuô-chi. Dai sú-gni. In tea-tro.

the four particles con, in, Adulatore, ílatterer,
Nel

non, and per, and, generally | Edifisio, building, edifice. | Afuil explanation of the two important pronouns quél-Lo (masc.),

speaking, after every word Infelize, unhappy.
quél-la (fem.), that, and qué-sto (masc.), qué-sta (fem.), this, will be

ending with a consonant,
given hereafter. It will be sufficient for the present to remark,
that whenever these two pronouns come before nouns, qué-sto points

COLLOQUIAL EXERCISES.
out an object near to him who speaks (or writes), or an object just
| mentioned, while quel-lo points out an object at a smaller or greater Il pa-dre, the father

U-no (mn.), á-na (f:), 2, an distance from him. iho speaks (or writes), as well as from him who. La -dre, the mother -o (in.), -a (1), thy is spoken to; e g. da-te-mi quelle-bro, give me that (yonder) book; | Il fra-tel-lo, the brother Ha, has pren--te-vi que-sto-It-bro, take this book. Before words commenc- La so-rel-la, the sister

An-che, also, likewise ing with the simpure, quél-lo is used. Before words commencing Buô-no (m.), buô-na (f.), good; I li-bro, the book with vowels, the final o's and a's of quél-lo, quél-la, and qus-sto,

E, ed. (before a vowel), and; | La pén-na, the pen qué-sta, are generally not pronounced, and in writing an apos.

E, is trophe is placed instead; e.g. quello sbírsyo, that bumbailiff;

Gran-de, great, large quéllo scel-le--to, that wretch ; quell' uo-mo, that man; quell

M-o, il-mi-o (m.),

Pic-co-lo, little, sman. ap-pa-rên-za; that appearance ; quest' al-16-ro, this laurel; questa

Mína, lania (f.), úl-ti-ma im-pré-sa, this last enterprise. Before all other words of the masculine gender, quel must be used; e. g. quel -bro, that book ; guel bel poê-ma, that fine poem ; quel pro-de guer-riênro, that brave

* This is the first of the anticipatory exercises mentioned and warrior.

conimented on in my introductory remarks on the Grammar proper.

In order to attain the object proposed of familiarising the reader § The masculine plural quei (also pronounced quêi) or que', is a with conversational language by a more practical and quicker contraction of quél-li. Before vowels, or the s impure, quengli is method, than the theoretical explanations of grammar would allow, used in the place of the plurals quél-li, quoi, or ques; e. g. qué-gli it will be necessary to read these exercises aloud, to translate them oc-chi, chose eyes; qué-gli spa-ri-ti, those spirits. The feminine into English, and to re-translate them into Italian, that the words plurals quél-le and qué-ste can not be marked with the apostrophe, land phrases for this purpose constantly reourring may be firmly but must always be pronounced and written in full.

impressed on the memory. The ingenious will, moreover, not fail || O-gni has no plural number, and can only be used before themselves to trace out important rules of grammar by a careful

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I'study of these exercises.

nouns

Il pá

man »

Il pá-dre e la má-dre. Il fra-têl-lo e la 80-rel-la.

EXCELSIUR (Birmingham); Every one knows that Walker's Dictiona ry! dre è buô-no, la má-dre è buô-na. Il buôn pá-dre, la buô-na the standard for pronunciation; as improved by Şinart, it is no doulic má-dre. Il fra-têl-lo è buô-no, la so-rel-la è buô-na. Il thing that breathes; gurely, therefore, man is an animal !- Yound buôn fra-têl-lo, la buô-na so-rel-la. Mí-ó pá-dre; il mí-0 CAMBRIAN (Bethesda) is mistaken; he must look again. Iwond (Lowe rby): buôn pá-dre. Mi-a má-dre; la mi-a buô-na má-dre. Mi-o We don't know.-G. BARTON (Lincolu): The Latin monia means both a pá-dre è buô-no, mi-a ma-dre è buô-na. Mi-o fra-têl-lo e

wall and ralls.-MATHITES (Farnley): To obtain more particular informa

tion relating to the knowledge of chemistry required for Matriculat ion at mi-a so-rel-la. Il iní-o buôn fra-têl-lo e la mi-a buô-na so. the University of London, the best way is to write to the Secreta y, H. rêl-la. Mi-o fra-têl-lo è buô-no, mi-a so-rel-la è buô-na. Un Moore, Esq-E. H. (Rothly): We would advise him to attend that college pí-dre, ú-na ma-dre, un fra-têl-lo, ú-na so-rel-la. Un buôn which is nearest to his home; Spring Hul College, Birmingham, seem s to be pá-dre, ú-na buô-na má-dre, un buôn fra-têl-lo, ú-na buô-na London.-H, M. (Herts): With every desire to please, he must really excuse

tho nearest of the affiliated colleges which constitute the Univere ity of so-rêl-la. Mi-o pá-dre è un buôn pá-dre, mía má-dre è u-na ug for some time; our hands are so full, and some questions are still buô-na má-dre. Mi-o fra-têl-lo è un buôn fra-têl-lo, mí-a 80- unanswered, which must be solved irst. G. E. (Binfeld): Yes.-A. (L eeds): rel-la è ú-na buô-na so-rel-la. Sú-o pá-dre è buô-no, mí-o and more danger in it, and really must decline it. Nothing of any value is

His scheme has been frequently proposed by others; we see some difi culty pu-stre è án-che buô-no. Sú-a madre è buô-na, mi-a ma-dre omitted in the French sectious; they are published separately. The conlà ân-che buô-na. Sú-o padre ha ú-na buô-na 80-rêl-la, tú-a traction br, is for brochure, and is best Englished by stitched. ma-dre ha un buôn fra-tèl-lo. Mi-o fra-têl-lo è tú-o pá-dre. R. CRAIG (Cheapside): Dialling will be kept in view.-J. BENSON: The Mi-o pé-dre è án-che tú-o pá-dre, e mi-a ma-dre è an-che article on the "Useless Knowledge, Society” is only a quiz.-EVAN JO NBS tú-a ma-dre. Il lí-bro è buô-no, la pén-na è buô-na. Il mi-o (Bala); A new Magazine is scarcely wanted for the benefit of Literary lí-bro è píc-co-lo, la mi-a pén-na è grán-de. Sú-o pá-dre ha monthly and quarterly !-W. H. B. H. (Exeter): Many teachers and un buôn lí-bro, tú-a so-rel-la ha ú-na buô-na pén-na. Mi-o schoolmasters have adopted our lessons as text-books in their classes, were fra-tel-lo è grán-de, mi-a so-rêl-la è píc-co-la. Il tú-o píc-co- (Dundee): The insertion of the notice would be too late; besides our lo fra-têl-lo e la tú-a pic-co-la so-rêl-la. Sú-a so-rel-la ha la journal is not a Nervspaper, and we cannot afford room for notices of society mí-a pén-na, e tu-o fra-têl-lo ha il mi-o lí-bro. Il tú-o píc-co-meetings.-G. N. CONRADI (Dover), G. T. W. (Battersea), D. M. Key lo lí-bro è un buôn libro.

(Newington), G. J. (Oxford), ALEXANDER SWINDON (High Wycombe), G.
ARCHBOLD (St. Peters), P. Hay (Shoreswood), Thomas R. (Sutton in
Ashfield), E. MAYALL (West Strand), M. B.(Burnly), Q. PRINGLE Glasgow),
D. R, D. (Dundee) and others, all right on the boy and apple question.-

A YOUTH OF 17 (Liverpool) is wiser than we are, for his Trial Balance and
ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.

ours considerably differ.-A STUDENT (Portsmouth) must be content with

the Lessons on the pronunciation of Greek given in the P, E.-A SUBSCRIW. KAYMOND (Harborne): Barnes' Commentary on the Gospels should be BBR (Shrewsbury), who wishes to become a reporter in one of the houses of the best, being the latest, the author having had the advantage of consulting Parliament, must

first learn to spell English words.-A. (Hackey) : Wrong. the labours of all his predecessors. The question on John vi. 9, appears -ANNA PRINGLE (age 13) (Durham): Right; we are glad that'she beats useless, and we do not see how any difficulty can be made of it.-J. H. C. some of the boys.-QU.BSITOR (Lincoln): The subjects in Mathematics and will not have gone far enough for the next Matriculation at the University Modern Languages for matriculation, are never particularly announced till of London, unless he studies other books than the P. E.; see our articles the day of examination. For the subjects in Classics for 1851, see vol. ii.

р. on the subject. Professor de Lolme's "Complete Manual," and " Andrews 215, col. 2. line 31. and Stoddard's Grammar," are by no means the same as those in the P.E., CHEMISTRY.-WILLIAN Fox FORWARD (Plymouth) : (1) A misprint in and we humbly think those in the P. E. are the best, and that the French No. 81, p. 39. col. 1, line 26 froin bottom, read " but obtain either metal as a can be learned quickest.

sulphuret, (2) in the same col. line 29 froin top, for "ammonia” read J. ELAND (Morpeth): Good poetical ideas, but not sufficiently measured ganese;" (3) a “saturated solution” means a liquid fully charged with the as to feet and rhyme,--VERB FÓSMR (Brighton): Thanks for his attention, inaterial to be dissolved, and is usually prepared by adding more of any but we have not seen the decision of which he speaks.-H.C. XXV.: The material than the liquid can dissolve. Thus, suppose a saturated aqueous Latin phrases are idioms and not errors. The errors have been corrected. solution of common salt be required, it may be prepared by pouring some The numerical value to which he refers should be, that is minus infinity.water into a bottle and adding inore salt than it can liquify. The resulting LAMBDA(Princes-street, and J.J.STILES (Greenwich): Right--WARIN (East solution is necessarily saturated.- A SUBSCRIBER (Leeds): The machine of Dereham) : Right.-S. G. HUTCHINSON : Received, and under considera- Thilorier is very expensive, from 400 to £50, we believe, according 'o size. tion.-F. A. SPILLER (Brede): Received, and will be attended to.-- Ve know of no cheap substitute. Our correspondent should address a GBORGIUS (Newcastle-on-Tyne) : The Lossons in Geography will be con- letter to Newman, of Regent-street, Watkins and Hill, of Charing Cross, or tinued under the head of Chorography, beginning with England. - Bland and Long, of Fleet-street. OREGOMAI should write to the Secretary of the University of Dublin for

JANE B SHADRAKE (Barnet): Although the spirit lamp is a very conveinformation, or buy the Almanack of the said University. As to the Univer- nient and elegant source of heat, it may frequently be dispensed with ; a sity of London, see 'the indexes to pols. ii. and iii. of the P. E.-ALPHA S.: X. Our maps are far superior to Chapman's penny maps, or to those pub- theless, we can scarcely recommend our correspondent to be without it.

flame or a few pieces of well ignited charcoal taking its place. Neverlished anywhere else. You cannot have them cheaper and better than in the spirit employed should be either alcohol (rectified spirit of wine), or the P. E. An Atlas will most likely be published in time.-ADOLPHE, and pyroacetic spirit (known in the shops as wood naphtha). The latter is C. RUBENS (Guyzon): We do not know.-D. R. B. (Dundee) : We cannot | Cheaper, measure for measure, but consumes with greater rapidity than insert letters, though they were ever so good, relating to matters of fact, alcohol. We prefer the latter. A laboratory for 163.cannot be recommended. without knowing the name and address of the authors.-R. READ ABOUT Each student should procure the specific articles which he may require. IT (Pelton Grange) requests H. ULIDIA to fulfil his promise; and so do we.

Messrs. Bland and Long of Newgate-street, supply all the tests and apparatus ---BUYAN DALB (Western College Plymouth ): A key will be given.-UN mentioned in our chemical lessons. AMANT DES LIVRES, can have the P. E. bound at the office as cheaply as anywhere.-W. H. F. (Manchester): Rose's Analytical Chemistrs, by water, and of conducting distillation generally, will be described hereafter,

THOMAS OSBONNE (Camden Town): The method of obtaining distilled A STUDENT (Lincoln): Do you ask of what practical use is Geometry? At present we shall confine ourselves to the remark that, so far as distilled

water is concerned, any contrivance enabling the operator to convey steam Alas! look all round you, and see. God laid the foundation of the earth in into a cool vessel, causes the partial condensation of the steam, and yields number, weight and measure; and man has been busy with these ever

distilled water. A tea-kettle supplied with water not quite up to the spout, since; that is, with Arithmetic, Algebra, and Geometry !!-T. EDENBR : and the cover of which fits closely, will serve the purpose, provided a tube Apply to some member of the Geological Society --E. BBENARD (Green- (say of glass or pewter, not lead) be annexed to the spout and caused to wich) : English workmen are well appreciated on the Continent. -TYRO terminate in a large jar, which latter must not be closed.-MAZEPPA (Bosion): The demonstration of the exercise in Cassell's Euclid will come in due course. HIPPOCRATES (Okehampton) : Will be published in numbers (London), wishes us to inform him how he can avoid the trouble of piercing commencing. Jan. 1, 1854. Cassell's Classical Library will contain all such corks, adapting tobacco-pipe shanks to them, and making the other forms of books, both in Latin and Greek, as are useful to students: See our Literary the study of chemistry, which he will never learu if he considers these

See our Literary apparatus mentioned in our lessons. He can avoid all this by relinquishing Notices.-M. B. (Wigan): There is no sound in English like the French u; get some Scotchman to pronounce the Greek upsilon to you, and you will

necessary operations a trouble. hear the nearest sound to it. Learn Bell's systein in the P. E.-H. CLIVER H.JGUY (Moorsley) : evlaßeopat means to act cautiously, or like those that (Wallace Mill): You can be supplied with all Mr. Cassell's publications by take care; TavTcAMS all.complete, all-perfect, the whole. The contractions applying to Mr. Menzies, Princes-strect, Edinburgh; the books you mention

are not printed in the modern books; in the order he has written them, have been published for some time, and ought to be readily had. As to they mean gáp, s, dė, es, Cb, This, TNU, TWv, tv.-NIL DESPERANDUM (Queenothers, you should regularly read our Literary Notices and Advertisements. square); In process of time, of course, there will be an Italian Dictionary. J. PHILLIPS (St. Katherine Docks): His request will be attended to as to the

A PRÁCTICAL MINER will find simple and yet accurate rules or methods cheap balance. Covers for the P. E. may be had at our office, see adver- of taking the variation of the magnetic needle, in "Norie's Navigation" pp. tisements on the cover of the monthly parts.-GUS (Birmingham) : 206, et seq. The nature of Voltaic batteries will sooner or later bs explained. " Norie's Navigation" contains “only the necessary directions for navigat- The best work on business and trade is Macculloch's Commercial Dicing a ship,” with rules and tables of various kinds, but no particulars of a tionary; but we certainly have more important work to do than to draw up ship, and no explanation of nautical terms connected therewith. In some rules for a Circulating Library !! 01 books on Navigation, which may be got at a book-stall for a shilling or J. L. JUNR. (Stirling): Keightley's " Elements of History" are most in tin, you will find an engraving of a ship with the names of all the parts, use.-J. PERRY (Erdington): Her translation is under consideracion; her an explanation of nautical terms, &c. We have seen some old editions of inquiries will be answered. GURMAN (Manchester): The German Hainilton Moore's Navigation, containing these requisites. There is a work Lessons began in No. II., p. 161, vol. i. We wish that correspondents cntitled “ Seamanship in Theory and Practice, sold at Wilson's, late putting questions of this kind would save us and themselves trouble by cone Morie's, Nautical Warehouse, Leadenhall-street, price 85. 6d., which will most sulting the indexes to the volumes of the P. E., which may be had of the agents likels ansrer your purpose.

Urho sell the work.

Griffin.

Le GNS IN MUSIC.-No. XX.

On this plan you perceive, that although the semitones of

the scale are not shown pictorially, yet each note of the scale (Continued from page 185, Vol. III.)

holds always the same place, so that you cannot look at a note

without knowing its key relationship. In the old rotation, it We have hitherto concerned ourselves not with the way in is not so. But there is not the slightest hope of improving it

a

It contains, moreover, all the stores effects it produces on the ear.

We must master it as it is. This we shall We began at the beginning of classical music. Ience it is that our former lessons have presented an appearance do the better for seeing, thus clearly, its real difficulty to the 80 different from that which is commonly seen in elementary vocalist. Our first efforts must be directed to overcoming this music books,—where the sign is given before the thing signi- difficulty. We must gain the power of seeing at once, by the aid fied, the name before the idea. Those, however, who have of certain rules of relative position, the key relationship of each patiently followed us in those lessons, will now be well re- note we have to sing. To aid the pupil at first we shall use a warded by discovering that they possess a facility and power square note to represent the key note. The upright “ bar of inte, preting the mere notation of music, quite surprising across the staff shows that the stronger accent follows it. to themselves. We now conclude our course of lessons on There are no marks in the old notation for the soft or the vocal music by an introduction to “the old notation."

medium accents. Observe, and sing the following. That way of " noting or writing music, called the old notation," was invented by Guido, a monk of Arezzo, in the twelfth century, but it has undergone very many modifications since his time. It uses a ladder of five lines and four spaces, which is called THE STAFF. On this, certain marks are placed which represent the notes. These marks are placed higher or d r m f S f m r a lower on the lines and spaces as the notes are higher or lower in pitch. The Staff.

Notes on the Staff.

KEY G.

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KEY E.

KEY A.

EXERCISE 1. Write the same phrase, putting the key note The difficulty of the old notation to the singer arises from on the middle line of the staff. Write it again, putting the its not showing him plainly and promptly which is the key key note in the second space reckoning from the lowest. note” (DOH), which is the third of the scale (ME), which is

EXERCISE 2. Write the solfa names under each note in the the fourth (rah), &c.; for on this perception of key relationship the power of the singer depends. When once a

following phrases. pupil, who has passed through our course of vocal exercises, has heard the key note, and knows what place the note before him holds in the key, he can sing it. His knowledge of its proper mental effect gives him confidence and decision. It would be difficult for him to sing wrongly. But until he sees the key relationship of a note, he is at a loss. No information as to its absolute pitch, nor its distance in pitch from the last note sung, apart from key relationship, can supply to him that clear and accurate preconception of the note to be struck, to which he has been accustomed.

Mr. Hickson illustrates this point by showing that for the old rotation to exhibit key relationship correctly, it would require a staff of eight lines, the third and fourth, and serenth and eighth, being closer together than the others, and the lines alone being used to carry the notes. Such a staff would, of course, be too cumbersome. Mr. Arthur Wallbridge Lunn has thrown out the most practical suggestion we have seen for an improved pictorial notation. But as long as instruments are constructed on the principles of " temperament,' we despair of seeing any perfectly successful attempt in this direction.

The most valuable point of Mr. Lunn's invention (called the Sequential Notation) is this: he uses a staff of three lines and four spaces, and places the key note always on the space below the bottom line. He allows another staff or part

EXERCISE 3. Write each of the pieces in the last exercise, of a staff to be added either above or below if wanted, with putting the key note on the line or space next above that on this understanding, that between the two there is no line, but which it now

stands. Our pupils must not shrink from the that the bottom space of one staff and the top space of the other trouble of writing. It is writing that will most quickly, give are in juxtaposition. This secures the same position for the them familiarity with any notation, and perfect familiarity is key note in every octave. It will be a useful exercise for the what they must gain. pupil to try the following phrase. We use the old notes upon Mr. Lunn's staff. Notice that the highest note in the little

EXERCISE 4. Write the following phrases into the old

notation. tune that which occurs five times, is the octave of the key note, or the upper Doh'. It occupies the lowest space of a KEY B. (Put the square note on the middle line.) new staff, of which only a fragment needs to be given in this instance. With these explanations, solfa the piece.

:d)r:mlf:flm:rid:dt:11|81: sill:tid KEY D, A round for four voices.

KEY F. (Don in the lowest space,)

: dit, :1 lt, :d 1 :m if :s 11 :t Morning bells I love to hear, ring-ing mor- ri - ly, loud and clear.

Id :t 11 :1,s:
drm if im Ir :r id

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Thus far the notes have been all consecutive, except where you rose or fell to the key note. But in the exercises which follow other intervals occur, and the pupil will begin to learn How to recognise a note at sight, without having to repeat the notes between it and the last.

EXERCISE 5. To recognise on the staff ME and son, notice and remember, that DOH, ME, and son are similarly placed. If Doh is on a line, the ME and son above are on the adjacent lines. If dou is in a space, the two spaces above will be occupied by Me and son. Keeping this in mind, you will be able to “read” and sing without a moment's hesitation the following pieces. Carefully notice, at the beginning, the places on the staff, of DOH, ME, and soy, and keep them in your eye throughout the tune. No intervals are introduced but'those which rise or fall upon DOH, ME, or sok

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KEY G.

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EXERCISE (1. Translate the following into the old notation.

EXERCISE 9. To recognise Fan on the staff, notice, first, that it is the next above ME,--and the places of DOH, ME, and 30H "are kept in your eye” throughout the tune. Next observe that FAH holds the same relative position to DOH, which that note holds to the son below it, as you have just learnt. Lower FAH, is similarly placed to DOH. If on lines, they have one line between them; if in spaces, they have one space between them. When you have verified for yourself these assertions, name at sight the following notes.

KET A.. (Don in the second space.) : s 1 m :d lr • S 11 : S. 1 d :d Iti :m lr :d ltı : 11 /si :d ltı :li im :m

KEY B.

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KEY B

KEY D.

EXERCISE 7. To recognise on the staff lower SOH, and upper :d lf:mlr:flm:d/tı:f/s:f|m:d 111:8,10 Dorf, first notice (and verify the assertion) that replicate (or octave) notes are DISSIMILARLY placed. If one is on a line, the

(Dox on the middle line.) other is in a space; if one is in a space, the other is on a line. Next, notice the relative position of lower sou and Doh, and

:d/tiis,'d: mf:mid:film: sild: mf:sid that of sou and upper box. You will observe that they are dissimilarly placed. If dom is on a line, the son below it is in a space-not the next space, but the next to the one that DOE

(Don 0:the space below the staff.) touches. If don is in a space, the son below it will be found on a line,--the next line but one. Be careful to verify all this

dls:dilt:f/m:slal:dlr?:d'It:1:f:d by your own observation; and, without allowing yourself, in any case, to count from note to note, or to receive the prompting of a

EXERCISE 11. To recognise the other notes (RAY, LAH, and friend, but always recurring to your rule, learn to name at sight Te) on the staff at sight, you have, first, to perfect yourself in the the notes of the following pieces. The lines occasionally ready application of the foregoing

rules, and then to add to them added to the staff are called jedger lines.

this obvious one :--that Thirds (or notes making a third with ::

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