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Oh! be jusé. Ch: be true. Be kindandtender-hearted, andmer-ry NOTE.- Some of the quavers are “tied.” This is a round for two or four voices, from Mrs. Herschell’s “Fireside Harmony.”

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It is generally understood that when a tune is written with a quaver to each beat, it should be sung much faster than if it were written with a crotchet or a minim to a beat. But it is not necessarily so; for there is no absolute length o: So many parts of a minute) to crotchet, quaver, or minim. It is only relative length they signify. Nor have these symbols any fixed relation to the beats of the measure. In one tune, a quaver is the “aliquot” or beat; in another tune, the crotchet; in another, the minim ; and you will constantly find the same tune written in different ways. The only thing that can fix the absolute length of notes is the “Metronome.” The following words are sometimes put into the title of a tune to indicate vaguely the rate of movement. 1st, Grave, which means very slow and solemn; 2nd. Largo, meaning slow and majestic; 3rd, Adagio, leisurely; 4th, Andante, easy, flowing; 5th, Allegro, very quick.

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The examples hitherto given of the old notation all use the crotchet as the standard “aliquot.” You have, therefore, had no difficulty in finding what “measure '' (Binary, Trinary, Quaternary, or Senary) they should be written in. But the crotchet is not thus invariably used as the aliquot except in the books called “People's Service” and “School Music,” and some others. Certain marks are, therefore, necessary to show the nature of the measure. These marks are called “Time Signatures,” and are put at the beginning of a tune. By “time,” in this case, is meant “measure”—rhythm—the arrangement of accents. The letter G at the beginning of a staff sometimes indicates the Four-pulse (Quaternary) measure, and sometimes the Two-pulse (Binary) measure. It is occasionally found with a perpendicular line through it. The usage of this line or bar is equally dubious, though it appears to have originally implied a secondary accent in each “bar,” or the “quaternary” measure. You will often be obliged to listen to a few phrases of the music itself before you can tell what the rhythm really is. The other marks for measure are more definite. They are formed by placing two figures one over the other, on the commencement of the staff. The upper figure shows how many “aliquots,” or beats, there are in a measure. The lower figure shows what note is used for the aliquot. “Two,” when used as the lower figure, stands for the Minim, or that which divides the Semibreve into two parts. “Four’ represents the Crotchet, or that which divides it into four parts. “Eight” represents the Quaver, or that which divides it into eight parts. Thus “two " with “four” under it, indicates a “bar,” or measure of two beats, a crotchet to each beat. “Two,” with “two” under it, shows that the measure has two beats with a minion to each. They are different ways of writing the BINARY, OR Two-PULSE MEASURE. “Three, two,” “Three, four,” and “Three, eight,” represent different appearances of the TRINARY, or THREE-PULSE MEASURE. “Six, four,” and “Six, eight,” represent the SENARY, or Six PULSE MEASURE. “Nine, four " and “Nine, eight,” (nine erotchet, and nine quaver measure) represent a Trinary Measure in which the aliquots frequently have a triplet rhythm. “Twelve, four,” and “Twelve, eight,” represent two Senary Measures in one “bar.” We have noticed that “Four, two,” and “Four, four,” are coming into use for the QUATERNARY MEASURE, and that such doubtful marks as the plain and the barred c are “going out.”

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ExERCISE 18. Write the contra-alto and the tenor “parts” of Brailsford's Chant” given below, into the G CLEF. Although this mode of writing them is clearly inaccurate, it is that most commonly used at the present day. You will find that the. “contra-alto” can be written either on the upper or the lower part of the staff. We recommend you to write it on the lower part, lest it should have the misfortune to be sung above the air.

A mark like c turned backwards, followed by a dot on each. side of the line on which c bends, makes that line represent F below the “standard c.” It is generally placed on the fourth line, for the BAss Worce.

EXERCISE 19. Write three of the preceding rounds in the BASS CLEF, and copy the following into the solfa notation.

The four clefs which are most used are shown in the following example. It is “ Brailsford's Chant” arranged for four voices, and written in “the proper clefs.” The first line gives the first Treble or Soprano part, the second the Contralto, the third the Tenor, and the fourth the Bass. . The square note at the beginning of each staff is used, for the present, to show the place of the key note. They must not be sung. The other notes without stems are the untimed reciting notes of the chant. They may be sung as crotchet, minim, or semibreve, according to the number of words recited on them.

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of THE KEYS AND THEIR SIGNATURES. You are always to suppose that the staff is in the key of C,

unless some sign is placed at the beginning which points to another key note. Hence the G1 % #ey of G is called the natnral key (although it is % not really more natural to the ear or voice than # F1 any other), and the other keys in use are de- # El # veloped from this. The diagram at the side represents the key of c, with its “semitones” * D1 % between the third and fourth, and seventh and •eighth. If we take the fifth of that key (G), * C1 # and wish to raise another key upon it, the dia- P # gram w.ll show you that we shall require a new # note, instead of F, and a “chromatic semitone” * A # above it; in fact, the TU of “transition.” . In order, then, to adapt the staff to the key of G, a # G # mark like a double cross, called a “sharp,” is placed on F, at the beginning. It means that all # F the F’s on the staff are raised to suit the key of E {}.

If, again, we take the fifth of that key D, for a D key note, it will only cost you the drawing of another diagram to prove that we shall not only C

need the F sharp, but also another sharp upon c.

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ExERosse 23. Write from memory the signatures of the keys G, D, A, E, F, B flat, and E flat. These are the keys most used. To remember these signatures, notice the place of the first sharp and of the first flat. Then the sharps descend a fourth, ascend a fifth, and so on; while the flat signatures ascend a fourth, Jescend a fifth, and so on. Thus they necessarily fall into parallel rows. Verify these remarks, and they will greatly help your memory.

The note TU is expressed in the old notation by a sharp before the note which would otherwise have been FAH, except in tunes with flat signatures, when a “natural” is used instead.

L E S S O N S IN G R EEK.—No. XVI. BY JoBN R. BEARD, D.D.

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The terminations 9sy, 9t, and 6s form adverbs by being added to nouns, pronouns, and verbs, to signify relations of place; thus 6sy denotes, from a place (whence), 64, at a place (where), and 3s, to a place (whither): e.g. ovgavo0sv, from heaven; ovpavo0u, in heaven ; ovpavovés, to heaven. With pronouns 6s becomes as, thus a\\oos, to some other place; so with sket, there, as skswas, thither. In the plural of the substantives in ag, a 3s passes into Če, as A6mvačs for A8mvagös; from A6 myat, ov, the city Athens.

Adverbs of place terminate in to, as ava), above; kara, below; sto, without ; sow, within. There are many adverbs which are obviously cases of nouns or pronouns, as séatrivng, (so in Latin, derepente) suddenly; trov, somewhere; 6trov, où, achere ; avrov, there; ovčaptov, nowhere; these adverbs are all genitives.

Accusatives are also common, as trpany, at the dawn ; piakpav, a long way; Trepav, beyond the river, whence the country along the east side of the river Jordan had the name of Peréa, that is, the other side : ÖwpSav, gratis, gratuitously; amplepov, to-day (Lat. Jodie); avptov, to-morrow (Lat. cras).

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Comparison of Adverbs.

Adverbs of manner have commonly no peculiar adverbial termination, but employ, in the comparative, the neuter singular, and, in the superlative, the neuter plural of the corresponding adjectives. The same fact may be stated thus, namely, that the neuter singular of comparatives may be used adverbially, that is, with an adverbial signification; and that the neuter plural of superlatives may be used with an adverbial

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| who have (them), that is, their possessors.

8. Trøg, how, somehow, some way, in a measure; the adverb restricts or qualifies the statement.

9. Aapstov kav IIapvg. These genitives depend on trauðsc; we should say, D. and P., have two sons.

10. pt.Nowev6mg, sc, fond of mourning ; rev6og, ovg, ro, grief, lamentation.

11. To ač. The infinitive mood with the article is often equivalent to a noun in English, to injure another is worse than to suffer an injury. f 12, Ó psy. BagiN. the great king, that is, the king of Persia, who was the great king to the Greeks; skewvog, he, that one. 13, Öptov, seeing, pres. part. from opaq, ; stru rq, &c., in consequence of having many disciples;, xopoc, our chorus, here class, audience ; avpupa)wog, ov, agreeing, harmontoots ; 6 epoc, move ; literally, the mine. 14. avöp. Travr. oospor. &c. The superlative governs a genitive; thus we say in English “the fairest of women.”

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Certes, j'ai eu souvent dépit de voir des juges attirer, par fraude et fausses espérances de fayeur ou pardon, le criminel à découvrir son fait, et y employer la piperie et l'impudence. Il servirait bien à la justice, et à Platon même qui favorise cet usage, de me fournir d'autres moyens plus selon moi: c’est une justice malicieuse ; et ne l’estime pas moins blessée par soi-même que par autrui.— Montaigne. On est quelquefois un sot avec de l'esprit, on ne l’est jamais avec du jugement.—La Rochefoucauld. D'où vient qu'un boiteux ne nous irrite pas, et qu'un esprit 'boiteux nous irrite 2 C'est à cause qu'un boiteux reconnait que nous allons droit, et qu'un esprit boiteux dit que c’est mous qui oboitons; sans cela nous en aurions plus de pitié que de colòre.— Pascal. Ceux qui jugent d’un ‘ouvrage par rêgle, sont, a l'égard des 'autres, comme ceux-qui ontoune montre, a l'égard de ceux qui n'en ont point. L'un dit: il y a deux heures que nous sommes ici. (L'autre dit: il n’y a que trois quarts d'heure. Je regards ma montre ; je dis a l’un : vous vous ennuyez; et à l'autre: le temps nevous dureguère, car il y a une heure et demie; et je me moque de ceux qui me disent que le temps me dure a moi, et que j'en juge par fantaisie : ils ne savent pas que j'en juge par ma mortre. Idem. Beaucoup de gens one donnent pas leur bien, maissemblent le jeter, Je n'appelle pas libéral un homme qui 'agit comme s'il était en colère contre son argent.—Sénégue, *

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| IMPERATIVE. INFINITIVE. PARTICIPLE. Persent Tense. Present Tonel Present. 2. foue (bu)bić, fić freuen, to fid, freitent rejoice thou rejoice. rejoicing 3. freue (er) fid, 1. freuen (mir) ! uné, ; 2. fteuet (tät) eud), 3. freuen (sie) fić, Perfect Tense. fidgefreutfiaben, to have rejoiced. | ExAMPLEs.

89.

(§§ itgett mid), it vexes me, i.e. I am vexed; eš friert titt, it chills him, i.e. he is chilled or frozen ; eš Šungert mid), it hungers me, i.e. I am hungry; e6 reist, there is a hoar frost; e3 jetfit, it is said; tä miet pies bqoom gerebet, it is much talked about; e3 persteşet sid), it understands itself, i.e. it is understood; &c. es fragt sid), it asks itself, i.e. it is asked, it is the question; c3 giebt obenstjen, it gives or yields men, i.e. there are men. CoMPOUND VERBs. (1) . Various derivative verbs in German are produced by the union of simple words with prefixes. Prefixes are here comprehended all those invariable words, (as

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