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KEY A.

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D.C.

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RELATIVE LENGTE OF NOTES,

one another and the intervening note) are similarly placed. Read

EXEECISE 14. Copy the following into the old notation. You at sight the following.

may sing the first to the words “Hot cross buns! One a penny bucs! One a penny, two a penny,- Hot cross buns !” See it harmonized in Mr. Hickson's" First Class Tune Book.” Write it first with a crotchet to correspond with a beat, and then again with a minim for a beat.

KEY B flat. (Don on the third line). d:did:

-It..dir.t.Id:-m.d:d.df.r:r.r EXERCISE 12. Write the following in two different positions on the staff in the old notation,

:tild: Id:m/ s:ta?:1/f:rlti: silti:r|f:1/8: tild

KEY G. (Dou on the second line.) Take care thoroughly to master these rules and progressive la

la:

Ir

1-
exercises before you proceed. If you take each step firmly and
truly for yourself, the path will be easy and clear. If you "slur"

f
1

Is the work of self-teaching, then perplexities and discouragements

:s 11 : :s | f :f will multiply upon you.

Is :f 1 m jf

:m Irir im : You will remember that in our simple Initiatory Notation, the

The last tune should be sung very quickly to the words “Doh, relative length of notes is indicated pictorially. By the help of Ray, Me, Foh. regularly recurring accent marks we measure out to the eye that

If you music would be reading, proportion of the rhythm which each note occupies. The Old

Much attention 'twill be needing." Notation represents this relative length of notes symbolically as It is a round for four voices, from "Purday's Hundred Rounds.” -exbibited below.

Write it first with a crotchet to a beat, and then with a quaver A BREVE-(a note seldom used).

to a beat. A SEMIBREVE-half as long as the Breve.

It is generally understood that when a tune is written with a A MINIM-half as long as the Semibreve.

quaver to each beat, it should be sung much faster than if it were written with a crotchet or a minim to a beat. But it is not

necessarily so; for there is no absolute length (as so many parts A CROTCHET-half as long as the Minim,

of a minute) to crotchet, quaver, or minim. It is only relative

length they signify, Nor have these symbols any fixed relation More A QUAVER-half as long as the Crotchet.

to the beats of the measure. In one tune, a quaver is the ali

quot or beat; in another tune, the crotchet; in another, the A SEMIQUAVER-half as long as the Quaver.

minim ; and you will constantly find the same tune written in

different ways. The only thing that can fix the absolute length A DEMISEMIQUAVER--half as long as the Semiquaver. of notes is the Metronome." The following words are some

times put into the title of a tune to indicate vaguely the rate of

movement. Ist, Grare, which means very slow and solemn; A Dot after & note lepgthening it by half. А

2nd. Largo, meaning slow and majestic; 3rd, Adagio, leisurely; second dot would lengthen it three-fourths.

4th, Andante, easy, flowing; 5th, Allegro, very quick, EXERCISE 13. Read at sight and sing " in time" the following pieces. Write them also into the solta notation. The pen is a thorough teacher,

The following marks are used to indicate the pauses of the voice; KEY F. In the first space.

they are called RESTS. The "crotchet rest” requires the voice to pause just so long as it would take the voice to sing a crotchet of the same tune. The " quærer rest” requires you to pause the time of a quaver in that tune; and so with the rest. In the diam gram below, you will see the rests placed above the notes to

which they are related : Buy my soles. Buy my live soles. Fine spring wa-ter-cress-es. NOTE.--The mark over the word “buy” is called a slur, and shows that those tivo notes are sung to the same syllable.

theit KEY G. Dok on the second line. A round for three voices.

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ABSOLUTE LENGTH OF NOTES AND SPEED OF MOVEMENT.

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PAUSES OF THE VOICE,

KEY C.

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EXERCISE 15. Copy the following into the old notation, first with a crotchet, and afterwards with a quaver for the aliquot or beat. Take care to insert the proper “rests."

The first tune is a round for three voices. You may sing it to the words (from " Training School Song Book”), “ Come sing a round with me, let all united be; that we may now agree, to sing in pleasant harmony."

KEY F. (Dou in the first space.)
Id

Iridir im :r 1d :

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maç

ker

el

old

oid

ny

rage,

rags.

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KEY F.

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TIVE SIGNATURES.

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sure.

The second is a round for six voices, and may be sung to the from the cp tuning-fork, an octave below that which a worMax words, "God save the Queen ; Long live the Queen; Let the takes from the same fork. This clef is chiefly used on the fourtk Queen live; Let the Queen live for ever and ever, Amen.” line, for the tenor (higher man's) voice, –and on the third line,

for the contra-alto (lower woman's, or rarely high men's) voice. (Dow in the first space.

It is called the c clef.

EXERCISE 17. Write three of the preceding rounds in the pro1s ! s : -.fm 1 : m

m :- Im : -..

per clef for the tenor voice, putting a square note for dow in the

place proper to its pitch, but not on the lines or spaces before 1d ! d : -.did

:-r m

: mentioned. Write them also in the proper clef for the contra

alto voice. See questions in Curwen's “ Grammar of Vocal m :-. mm :-f 1s

si :S

Music,” p. 155.

A mark, which is said to have been originally made in the shape I a? :s 1 : 1 - :-10: I

of a capital G, makes the line on which its lower curve turns, to represent the G above the “standard c." It is called the G CLET. It is commonly used on the second line, in which posi

tion it adapts the staff to the TREBLE or soprano (high women's). The examples hitherto given of the old notation all use the voice. The preceding examples in the old notation are all. crotchet as the standard " aliquot.” You have, therefore, had no written as though they had the G CLEr before them. difficulty in finding what " weasure (Binary, Trinary, Quater.

EXERCISE 18. Write the contra-alto and the tenor "parts” of nary, or Senary) tạey should be written in. But the crotchet is Brailsford's Chant” given below, into the G CLEF: Although not thus invariably used as the aliquet except in the books called this mode of writing them is clearly inaccurate, it is that most “People's Service” and “School Music," and some others. Cer-commonly used at the present day. You will find that the. tain marks are, therefore, necessary to show the nature of the meaThese marks are called “ T'ime Siguatures,” and are put at of the staff. We recommend you to write it on the lower part,

“contra-alto" can be written either on the upper or the lower part the beginning of a tune. By“ time,” in this case, is meant mea- lest it should have the misfortune to be sung above the air. sure"-rhythm—the arrangement of accents. The letter (at the beginning of a staff sometimes indicates the four-pulse (Quater- A mark like c turned backwards, followed by a dot on each. nary) measure, and sometimes the Two pulse (Binary) measure. It side of the line on which c bends, makes that line represent F is occasionally found with a perpendicular line through it. The below the "standard c." It is generally placed on the fourth usage of this line or bar is equally dubious, though it appears to line, for the Bass Voice. have originally implied a secondary accent in each " bar," or the quaternary” measure. You will often be obliged to listen to a Bass CLEF, and copy the following into the solfa rotation.

EXERCISE 19. Write three of the preceding rounds in the few phrases of the music itself before you can tell what the rhythm really is. The other marks for measure are more definite. The four clefs which are most used are shown in the following Chey are formed by placing two figures one over the other, on the example. It is “ Brailsford's Chant” arranged for four voices, commencement of the staff. The upper figure shows how many and written in the proper clefs.” The first line gives the first “aliquots," or beats, there are in a mousure. The lower figure Treble or Soprano part, the second the Contralto, the third the shows what note is used for the aliquot. “ Two," when used as Tenor, and the fourth the Bass. . The square note at the beginthe lower figure, stands for the Minim, or that which divides the ning of each staff is used, for the present, to show the place of Semibreve into two parts. "Four” represents the Crotchet, or the key note.

the key note. They must not be sung.

The other notes without that which divides it into four parts. “Eight” represents the stems are the untime. reciting notes of the chant. They may be Quaver, or that which divides it into eight parts. Thus "two sung as crotchet, minim, or semibreve, according to the number with “ four" under it, indicates a "bar," or measure of two beats, of words recited on them. a crotchet to each beat. " Two," with "two" under it, shows that the measure has two beats with a minim to each. They are

Metronome, Crotchet=66. different ways of writing the BINARY, OR TWO-PULSE MEASURE. “ Three, two," "Three, four,” and “Three, eight,” represent different appearances of the TRINARY, or THREE-PULSE MEASURE. “Six, four," and "Six, eight,” represent the Senary, or Six PULSE MEASURE. “Nine, four and Nine, eight,” (aine crotchet, and nine quaver measure) represent a Trinary Measure in which the aliquots frequently have a triplet rhythm. "Twelve,

SIA four," and "Twelve, eight,” represent two Senary Measures in one “bar.” We have noticed that “Four, two,” and “Four,

Hei four,'' are coming into use for the QUATERNARY MEASURE, and

HA that such doubtful marks as the plain and the barred c are going out.” The following are a few examples of " Time Signatures." de 2 2 2 3

f g g e 4 2 2 4 4 8

The G Clef on the second line, called the Treble Clef, and the

F Clef on the fourth line, called the Bass Clef, are used almost EXERCISE 16. Put the proper “ time signatures” to all the exclusively in popular music books. The position of the “stanpreceding examples from the old notation.

dard scale" in connection with these clefs should therefore be carefully studied. Let it be noticed that the standard C” is

expressed by the first ledger line below the staff of the Treble The old notation seeks to represent the notes not oniy in their Clef, and by the first ledger line above the staff of the Bass Clef. relative pitch (that is, as compared with the key note), but also in The c' which the tuning fork gives is in the fourth space of th their absolute pitch in the scale of sound. But as the staff of Treble Clef. five lines is not large enough for this,

certain marks called CLEFS, are placed at the beginning of each staff, which decide the absolute pitch of the line on which they stand, and adapt the compass of the staff to that of the voice or instrument for which it is used. A mark, like an H with two strokes joining its upright bars,

ID: makes the line which passes between those two strokes to represent " the standard co' The same sound which a man takes

-y.

THE G. CLEF.

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OF THE KEYS AND THEIR SIGNATURES.

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tas, all

παντων

Taxus, swift

LESSONS IN GREEK.--No. XVI. You are always to suppose that the staff is in the key of C, unless some sign is placed at the beginning

By John R. BEARD, D.D. which points to another key note. Hence the

Gi * key of ĉ is called the natnral key (although it is

EXERCISES.-GREEK-ENGLISH. not really more natural to the ear or voice than * FI any other), and the other keys in use are de- * E * UNDER the name of adverbs we indicate those indeclinable veloped from this. The diagram at the side

words which denote the relations of time and place, or the represents the key of c, with its "semitones"

* D1 *

relations of way and manner ; as Erel, there; vuv, now; kalws, between the third and fourth, and seventh and

well. eighth. If we take the fifth of that key (6), * Ci * Adverbs of manner are formed from adjectives, by affixing and wish to raise another key upon it, the dia

Bahan wg to the pure stem of the adjective. As a practical rule you gram w.ll show you that we shall require a new

may take this note, instead of r, and a "chromatic semitone " * A * above it; in fact, the tu of “transition.". In

The Genitive Plural of the Adjective is changed into ws, e.y. order, then, to adapt the staff to the key of G, a mark' like a double cross, called a “sharp,” is

Adj.
Gen. Plurai.

Adverb. placed on F, at the beginning. It means that all

* F the f's on the staff are raised to suit the key of

φιλος, Ioving φιλων φιλως, lovingly
E
καλος, beautiful καλων

καλως, beautifully
απλούς, simple

απλών If, again, we take the fifth of that key D, for a

απλώς, simply

D key note, it will only cost you the drawing of

παντως, altogether another diagram to prove that we shall not only C

σωφρων, wise

σωφρονων σωφρονως, wisely need the F sharp, but also another sharp upon c.

ταχεων ταχεως, Swiftly EXERCISE 20. Develop by diagrams four other keys ascending

μεγας, great

μεγαλων μεγαλως, greatly by fifths. Remember that in reekoning musical intervals you

αληθης, true

αληθων αληθως, truly include the two extreme notes.

συνηθης, accustomed συνηθων συνηθως, according to If now we take the fourth of the c key (or F) for a new key

custom, note, the diagram will show you that we shall want a new note instead of B, a chromatic semitone lower, in fact the FI of “tran

The terminations Dev, O., and cɛ form adverbs by being sition.” In order then to adapt the staff to the key of F, a mark added to nouns, pronouns, and verbs, to signify relations called a flat is placed upon B at the beginning. It makes all of place; thus bev denotes, from a place (whence), Oi, at a the B's on the staff « flat."

place (where), and de, to a place (whither): e.g. oupavodev,

from heaven; ovpavool, in heaven; ovpavovde, to heaven. With EXERCISE 21. Develop by diagrams four other "filat keys" | pronouns òe becomes ge, thus alloce, to some other place; so ascending by fourths.

with ekel, there, as EKELGE, thither. In the plural of the substantives in ας, σδε passes into ζε, as Αθηναζε for Αθηναστε; from Αθηναι, ων,

, ,

the city Athens. Adverbs of place terminate in w, as avw, above; karw, below; eğw, without; sow, within. There are many adverbs which are obviously cases of nouns or pronouns, as &čanLNS, (so in Latin, derepente) suddenly; TOV, somewhere; Órov, où, uchcre ; avtov, there ; ovdauov, nowhere; these adverbs are all genitives.

Accusatives are also common, as zowny, at the dawn ; jakpav,

a long way ; Tepav, beyond the river, whence the country along Bb Eb ab Db

the east side of the river Jordan had the name of Perea, that

is, the other side: dwpeav, gratis, gratuitously; onuepov, to-day -b 25

(Lat. hodie); avplov, to-morrow' (Lat. Cras).

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Comparison of Adverbs.

These “ flats" " or sharps "at the beginning of the staff are Adverbs of manner hare commonly no peculiar adverbial called the “signature" of the tune. Their only use to the termination, but employ, in the comparative, the neuter sinsinger is to point out the key note.

gular, and, in the superlative, the neuter plural of the corresTO FIND THE KEY NOTE, therefore, remember that the last sharp ponding adjectives. The same fact may be stated thus, namely, towards the right hand stands upon TE (TE, the piercing note," ially, that , with an adverbial signification ; and that the

that the neuter singular of comparatives may be used adverbwill easily associate in the memory with sharps), and that DOH is consequently the next above. Remember also that the last neuter plural of superlatives may be used with an adverbial filat towards the right hand stands upon FAI (associate "flat" signification ; e. g. with “ desolate note") and that Doh is the fourth below.

from

C.

S. EXERCISE 22. Put the proper key signatures to all the preced- ooows (σοφος), wisely σοφώτερον σοφωτατα ing exercises.

σαφως (oaons), clearly σαφεστερον σαφεστατα EXERCISE 23. Write from memory the signatures of the keys xaplevTWS (xapters),charmingly xapleorepov G, D, A, E, F, B flat, and E flat. These are the keys most used. To Evdaluovus (evdaluwv), happily evdaluoveotepov evda(poveotata remember these signatures, notice the place of the first sharp acoxpws (αισχρος),shamefullyαισχιον and of the first flat. Then the sharps descend a fourth, ascend dews (jous), pleasantly ýdlov

ήδιστα a fifth, and so on; while the flat signatures ascend a fourth,

θάττον

(tagus), swiftly descend a fifth, and so on.

ταχιστα Thus they necessarily fall into Taxews parallel rows. Verify these remarks, and they will greatly help

Adverbs of place in w retain that termination in the comyour memory.

parative and superlative. The note to is expressed in the old notation by a sharp before the note which would otherwise have been FAH, except in ,

C. ανωτέρω

S. ανω-κατω tunes with flat signatures, when a "natural" is used instead.

κατω, below

κατωτέρω

χαριέστατα

αισχιστα

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KAT-TATU

1

περα, beyond

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ποτέ,

τοτε, then

πως,

τως, SO

2. Ο ουρανος

The comparative and superlative of most other adverbs of gods; 7epita@ns, es, suffering greatly, acutely sensible to sefer. place end in w, as

της και θηριωδης, ες, ike the animals, lou, douncast.
C. περαιτέρω
S. (none)

5. αχαριστος, η, ον, - angrateful και αμελης, ες, neglectful και

πλεονεκτης, απανιcious ; απιστος, εfaithful. τηλου, at a distance

τηλοτερω

τηλοτατω έκας, at a distance

έκαστερω
έκαστατω

6. εκτος, adν. without ; τα εκτ, αγ. external goods, αλυαntages ;

ανωφελης, ες, useless και χωρις, αραrt from και τους εχουσι, το έλoad εγγυς, near

εγγυτέρω

εγγυτατω who have (them), that is, their possessors. Some adverbs have a reciprocal relation to each other. The 8. ws, how, somehow, some way, in a measure; the adverb simple forms stand as relatives. By prefixing or to the restricts or qualifies the statement. relatives, you make direct interrogatives. Put • before the 7, and you convert the direct into indirect interrogatives, and we should say, D. and P., have two sons.

9. Δαρειου και Παρυς. These genitives depend on παιδες και indirect relatives. Prefix , instead of a, and then you obtain demonstratives ; as

10. φιλοπενθης, ες, fond of mourning και πενθος, ους, τo, grief,

lamentation. Simple Rel. . Direct Interrog. Indirect I. & R. Demonstrat. . 11. το αδ. The infinitive mood with the article is often

equivalent to a noun in English, to injure another is worse ή, whither πη, whither ?

οπη
τη, there, thither

than to suffer an injury.
ηνικα, when
πηνικα, at what

οπηνικα τηνικα, at that time!

time 12, ο μεγ. βασιλ. the great King, that is, the king of Persia,

who was the great king to the Greeks και εκεινος, he, that one. όθεν, whence ποθεν, whence ? οποθεν τοθεν, thence oi, whither

ποι, whither
? όποι

13. όρων, εeeing, pres. part. from :οραω; επι τω, &c., η conse

quence of having many disciples ; xopos, our chorus, here class, οτε, when

when
οποτε

ανάience και συμφωνος, ον, agreeing, harmonious ; ο εμος, όne ; ού, where που, where : όπου

literally, the mine. ως, as

how ?
όπως

14. ανδρ. παντ. σοφωτ. &c. The superlative governs & Of these forms oι, τη, τοθεν, and τως, are found only in the genitive; thus we say in English « the fairest of women. poets, and consequently are not to be ordinarily used in prose 15. φυσικως, naturally, by natural impulse; λειος, α, ον, soft, . composition.

mild, sweet και χρηστικος, η, ον, useful.

18. εποιησας (from ποιειν) thou hast done ; προειπων, η fores EXERCISES FROM THE CLASSICS.-GREEK-ENGLISH.

telling (that). 1. Παν το σκληρον χαλεπως μαλαττεται.

19. τους αλισκ. the captives ; αλισκειν, to take, capture ; χαλκους εστι τα εξω. 3. Ελεγεν ο Βιας, ατυχη ειναι τον ατυχιαν κλεπτειν, το νού, τιμωρεομαι, I punish. μη φεροντα, 4. Η φιλοσοφια διδασκει, ότι δει μητ' εν ταις 20. εσται, it will be, future of ειναι. ευπραγιαις περιχαρείς υπαρχειν, μητ' εν ταις οργαις περι

21. τιμφη, could be honoun: ? τιμαω, I honour». παθεις και θηριωδεις. 5. Πώς η αχαριστοι, η αμελεις, η πλεονεκται, η απιστοι, η ακρατεις ανθρωποι δυνανται φιλοι

22. μειρακιον, α young man και ανδραποδον, ου, το, α slave. γίγνεσθαι ; 6. Ο πλουτος και τα εκτος αγαθα χωρις αρετης

ENGLISH-GREEK. . ανωφελη εισι τοις εχουσι. 7. Τίς ορνις ευφωνoτερα εστιν αηδονος ; 8. Α1 δευτεραι πως φροντιδες σοφώτεραι. 9. Δαρειου

Wise men-seek not external advantages. Women suífer και Παρυσατιδος γιγνονται παιδες δυο πρεσβύτερος μεν Αρταξ- Tery much in adversity. An intemperate man cannot become

a faithful friend. The nightingale is the sweetest (in voice) ερξης, νεωτερος δε Κυρος. 10. Γυναικες ανδρων φιλοπενθεστεροι of birds. Girls are more given to sorrow than women. The 11. Το αδικειν κακιον εστι του αδικεισθαι.

12. 'O wisest (man) is greatest. I am admired for having much Αγησιλαος περι του μεγαλου βασιλεως ειπεν.

Τί γαρ εμου

wealth. How can men admire me for having much wealth? μειζων εκεινος, ει μη και δικαιοτερος; 13. Ζηνων όρων τον | My brother is wise, my father is wiser, the philosopher is

Children naturally love their parents. Fight, O θεοφραστον επι τω πολλους εχειν μαθητας θαυμαζομενον, ο

citizens, well and bravely for (περι) your (the) city. εκεινου μεν χορος, εφη, μειζων, ο εμος δε συμφωνοτερος. 14. Σοφος Σοφοκλης, Ευριπίδης σοφώτερος, ανδρων δε Σωκράτης σοφωτατος. 15. Η μελιττα φυσικως εν

Certes, j'ai eu souvent dépit de voir des juges attirer, par fraude ανθεσι εξανευρισκει το λειοτατον μελι και χρηστικωτατον. 16. et fausses esperances de favour ou pardon, le criminella découvrir Παντες, ά επιστανται, ραστα τε και ταχιστα και καλλιστα και son fait, et y employer la piperie et l'impudence. Il servirait bien ήδιστα εργαζονται. 17. Καλως και ανδρειως έκαστα ποιει. 18.

à la justice, et à Platon même qui favorise cet usage, de me fournir

d'autres moyens plus selon moi: c'est une justice malicieuse ; et Ω Αστυάγης, καλως, εφη, εποιησας, προειπων.

19. Τους αλισ

ne l'estime pas moins blessée par soi-même que par autrui.κομενους, ως κακως κλεπτοντας τιμωρουνται. 20. Αδηλον εστι Montaigne. ειτε βελτιον είτε κάκιον εσται. 21. Πώς καλλίον η ευσεβεστερον On est quelquefois un sot avec de l'esprit, on ne l'est jamais avec τιμωη θεους ; 22. Σωκρατης ιδων μειρακιον πλουσιον και du jugement.---La Rochefoucaula. απαιδευτον, ιδου, εφη, χρυσουν' ανδραπαδον.

D'où vient qu'un boiteux ne nous irrite pas, et qu'un esprit boiteux nous irrite ? C'est à cause qu'un boiteux reconnaît que

nous allons droit, et qu'un esprit boiteux dit que c'est nous qui VOCABULARY.

boitons; sans cela nous en aurions plus de pitié que de colère.

. 1. σκληρος, α, ον, dry, hard; παν τo. The article is frequently used in Greek when it must be omitted in English, as Ceux qui jugent d'un ouvrage par régle, sont, à l'égard des in general propositions και μαλαττομαι, I am softened.

autres, comme ceux qui ont une montre, à l'égard de ceux qui n'en

ont point. L'un dit: il :y a deux heures que nous sommes ici. 2. ta etw, in regard to the things without, that is, on its L'autre dit : il n'y a que trois quarts d'heure. Je regards ma exterior.

montre ; je dis a fun : vous vous ennuyez; et à l'autre : le tenips 3. Tov un pep. that he who could not bear misfortune.

ne vous dure guère, car il y a une heure et demie; et je me moque

de ceux qui me disent que le temps me dure à moi, et que j'en 4. Evtpayla, as, ń prosperity, literally well-doing, from ev juge par fantaisie : ils ne savent pas que j'en juge par ma mortre. and mpaTTELV, I do, I am in a certain condition, as in our Iden. phrase “How do you do?" περιχαρης, υery jouful, περι gives

Beaucoup de gens 'ne donnent pas leur bien, mais semblent le the idea of much or excess ; opyn, ns, ý, anger, here used for jeter. Je n'appelle pas livéral un homme qui 'agit .comme s'il adversity, considered as a consequence of the anger of the l était en colère contre son argent.Sénéque.

εισι.

wisest. .

παντων

τοις

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INFIXTTIVE. PARTICIPLE.

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rejoice.

Persent Tense. Present Tense. Present, 2. freue (vu) vichy, fich freuen, to fich freuend rejoice thou

rejoice. rejoicing
3. freue (er) rich
1. Freuen (wit)

uns,
2. freuet (thr)

euch,
3. freuen (sie)
fios

PLUR, SING.

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may have

PLUR. SING.

gefreut,

gefreut,

Present Tense.

Present Tense.
ich freue mich I rejoice.

ich freue mich, I may
du freuest dich, thou rejoicest, du freuest dich, thou mayst
er freuet fich, he rejoices. er freuet sich, he may

wir freuen uns, we rejoice. wir freuen uns, we may
2

ifr freuet euch, you rejoice. ihr freuet euch, you may
sie freuen sich, they rejoice. sie freuen sich, they may
Imperfect Tense.

Imperfect Tense.
icty freuete mich, I rejoiced. ich freuete mic, I might re-
2

nu freueteft dich, thou didst rej. ou freueteft dich, joice, &c.
3

er freuete fich, he rejoiced. er freuete fich,
wir freueten uns,we rejoiced. wir freueten uns,
ihr freuetet euch, you rejoiced. ihr freueret euch,
3
fie freueten sich, they rejoiced. te freueten fich,
Perfect Tense.

Perfect Tense.
ich habe mich I have re-ich ħabe mich
2

du haft sich joiced, &c. du Habest eich Irejoiced,
3
er hat sich

ex habe fich

&c. wir haben uns

wir haben uns
iljr Habet euch

ihr habet euch
3
sie haben sich

fie unben sich J
Pluperfect Tense.

Pluperfect Tense.
ich hatte mich I had re- idy Hätte mic

I might
2 du hattest dich
joiced, &c. du hättest rich

have re-
3
er hatte sich

er bitte fich joiced, &c.
1 wir hatten uns

wir Hitten uns 2 ihr Hattet euch

ihr hättet euch sie hatten sich

fie Hätten richi First Future Tense.

First Future Teuse.

First Future.
llich werde mich I shall re- ich werde mig (if) I shall sich würde mich
2 bu wirst dicky joice, &c. du werrejt tich rejoice, &c. du würdest dich
3 er wird sich

er werte sich

er tiirde sich 1 wir werden uns

wir werden iins

wir würden uns 2 yr werbet euch

ihr wertet euch

ilir huirdet euch 3 sie werden sich

fie dverten fick

sie würten fich
Second Future Tense.
Second Future Tense.

Second Future.
ich werde mich I shall ich werde mich (if) I shall ich würde mich
2) du wirst dich

have re- tu wer est dich have re- du würdest dich
3/er wird sich joiced, &c. er werde fich joiced, &c. er würde sich
1 wir wpcr denuns

wir werden uns

mir würden uns 2 ihr werdet euch

ilyr werbet cudy

lihr würdet eua 3 sie werden fich

sie werden sich

lsie würden sich

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gefreut,

gefreut,

3

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Freiten,
I should re-
joice, &c.

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gefreut haben
I should have
rejoiced, &c.

& 88. IMPERSONAL VERBS, .
(1) The impersonal verb, properly so called, is one destitute
of the first and second persons: being confined to the third
person singular, and having for its grammatical subject the
pronoun es, without definite reference to any antecedent, as,
es regnet, it rains ;

es blißt, it lightens;
es schneit, it snows;

es friert, it freezes; es bonnert, it thunders;

es thaut, it thaws; es hagelt, it hails;

es tagt, it dawns. 1

(2) It must immediately appear, that a verb may be impersonal, and yet belong to any of the classes of verbs described in preceding sections. Thus some are transitive: some are 'intransitive; some are passive; some are reflexive; &c.

EXAMPLES &s argert mich, it vexes me, i.e. I am vexed; es friert ihn, it chills him, i.e. he is chilled or frozen ; es hungert mic, it hungers me, i.e. I am hungry; es reift, there is a hoar frost; es heißt, it is said ; es wird viel davon gerebet, it is much talked about; €8 verstehet fich, it understands itself, i.e. it is understood; &c. es fragt sich, it asks itself, i.e. it is asked, it is the question; es giebt Mensdsen, it gives or yields men, i.e. there are men.

$ 89. COMPOUND VERBS. (1) Various derivative verbs in German are produced by the union of simple words with prefixes. Under the name of Prefixes are here comprehended all those invariable words, (as

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