Εικόνες σελίδας

betedt (not begebedt) covered, from Bebeifen, to cover. Neither is 3u (when used) allowed to come between the prefix and the Infinitive; but stands before the two combined into one word: as, jit empfangen, (not emp}ufangen), to receive : except in case of compound prefixes, wherein the first component is a separable and the second an inseparable particle; ; it being then inserted between the two particles; as, anguerfemmen, (from anetfemitem). The inseparable prefixes are always unaccented.


“][fter, after, behind Q[fterreben, to talk behind (one’s back); to slander.

38e, near, by, over, to make ; 8cfommelt, to come by, i. e. to get, to obtain.

&mp, in, within; (gmpfütten, to find or feel within, to perceive.

(śnt, apart, away, to deprive of; Gutgegen, to go away or off; to escape.

€r, forth, for, on behalf of ; (§rfsäten, to make clear for (one); to explain.

• (§c, (mainly, intensive or eupho- (octenfen, (same as benfen)

nic) ; to think of.

ois, wrong, erroneously; ŞRißbeaten, to misinterpret.

§ct, away, at a loss; 98ersösafen, to sleep away, i.e. lose by sleeping.

oßiter against; §ibersteljen, to stand against; to resist.

8cc, apart, asunder; 8ctsjneiben, to cut apart, or in pleces.


‘QInfe (an-Høe, to—near); QInbetteffem, to hit or touch near to; to concern.

2Inct, (an-Her, to —for); 2Inctfennen, to acknowledge; to own.

QIufer, (aus-Her, up—for); Qiuserbauen, to build up for; to erect.

Quáct (aus-Her, out—for); Quécrivăş(cm, to choose out for; to elect.

onver, (aw-Frer, to — away); QInvertrauen, to give away in trust; to confide to.

Beauf (6t--auf near—on or up); Beauftragen, to bring (duty) upon, i.e. to commission.

oifiver, (mij-i-Sct, wrong—away); stifiversteffen, to understand wrong, i.e. to mistake.

*Spröe (wor-Hic, before — near); 30the%asten, to hold or keep

ahead, i.e. to put off; to reServe.

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in some instances, moreover, et and 9 et are only euphonic or intensive.

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1. Describe the chemical properties of the atmosphere, referring particularly to the nature and proportion of its constituent gases and the uses of each in the economy of nature. 2. What are the products of the combustion of metals, of hydrogen, and of ordinary carbonaceous fuel, in atmospheric air Éxplain the momenclature of oxides. 3. Give the chemical formulae and equivalents of the following compounds:—water, nitric acid: ammonia, carbonic acid, sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid, chloric and hydrochloric acids. 4. How is chlorine gas prepared Mention the remarkable compounds into which that element enters as a constituent. 5. What are the products of the action of diluted sulphurio acid upon the metals zinc and iron? How is the solution of zinc affected by bringing copper or platinum into contact with that metal in the acid 3 6. Give an account of the composition and properties of the alkali potassa. 7. What are the earthy salts which occasion the hardness of water 8. What takes place in the slaking of quicklime with water, and in the setting of plaster of Paris? 9. How is the metal iron prepared from the argillaceous carbonate of iron, the most common ore of that metal 2 10. What are the acid solvents of mercury, silver, gold, and platinum ? 11. What is the cause of the liquefaction of ice, and of the conversion of water into steam *

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Thursday, July 7.-Morning, 10 to 1. GEOMETRY. —(Examiner, Mr. JERRARD.)

1. Give Euclid's definitions of a point, a line, and a superficies. Is it possible to define satisfactorily the elementary abstractions of Geometry? Distinguish between a postulate and an axiom.

2. From a given point to draw a straight line equal to a given straight line. 3. If two angles of a triangle be equal to each other, the sides also which subtend the equal angles, shall be equal to one another. 3. Show that if two triangles have two sides of the one equal to two sides of the other, each to each, and have likewise their l bases equal; the angle which is contained by the two sides of the one shall be equal to the angle contained by the two sides equal to them, of the other. How may this proposition be proved, when the triangles are on different sides of the common base ?

5. To draw a straight line perpendicular to a given straight line of unlimited length, from a given point without it.

6. If a straight line fall upon two parallel straight lines, show that it will make the alternate angles equal to one another; and the exterior angle equal to the interior and opposite upon the same side; and likewise the two interior angles upon the same side together equal to two right angles.

Discuss Euclid's twelfth axiom. Is it necessary that some positive property of parallel lines should be assumed as an axiom, on which reasonings on such lines may be founded ?

7. Equal triangles upon the same base, and upon the same side of it, are between the same parallels.

Hence show that a triangle may be bisected by a line drawn Tom any point in one of its sides.

8. To describe a parallelogram equal to a given rectilineal figure, and having an angle equal to a given rectilineal angle.

9. In any right-angled triangle, the square which is described upon the side subtending the right angle, is equal to the * described upon the sides which contain the right angie.

10. Find a point within a given triangle, from which lines drawn to the several angular points will divide the triangle into three equal parts.

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librium of a lever. Is this condition independent of the weight of the lever ? A uniform lever is 12 inches long, find where the fulcrum must be placed so that a weight of 70 ounces at one end shall balance 50 ounces at the other (1) when the lever is without weight, (2) when it weighs 30 ounces. 3. What is understood by obtaining a mechanical advantage 3 In a single fixed pulley, is any mechanical advantage obtained? What is the greatest weight a man standing on the ground can lift by means of a single fixed pulley : In a single movable pulley with the strings parallel, state the condition of equilibrium. If the strings be not parallel, will it require more or less power to support the same weight 2 4. How is velocity estimated (1) when uniform, (2) when variable? How is ‘uniform force’ numerically measured 2 Is gravity a uniform force? If gravity be measured by 32.2 feet, find the space a body will fall through in one second from rest: find the velocity it will acquire in 50 seconds; find also the space it falls through in four seconds and a half. 5. State the third law of motion; mention any experiments that support the truth of this law. What is understood by the momentum of a body ? How is moving force estimated 2

If a weight of 100 lbs. fall freely, and a weight of 200 lbs. slide down a smooth plane inclined at an angle of 30° to the horizon, compare the moving forces.

6. Define a fluid ; distinguish between compressible and incompressible fluids. Why is water considered generally in hydrostatical problems as incompressible 2

IIow is it shown that by the transmission of fluid pressure, any very small force may be in equilibrium with any very great one 2

7. Define specific gravity; in determining the specific gravities of solid bodies, what advantages has a liquid (water) as the medium of compa ison 3 Show how to determine the specific gravity of a lump of heavy metal.

8. Describe the construction and action of the common barometer; supposing the vacuum at the top of the tube perfect, would the mercury be actually supported in the tube if the open end were not inverted in a cup of mercury In ascending a mountain, does the mercury in the barometer rise or fall

9. How is a ray of light represented geometrically What is understood by a pencil of rays * Explain the reflexion of light, and trace the position of the images of a point placed between two plane mirrors parallel to each other.

Friday, July 8.-Morning, 10 to 1. LATIN —(Examiner, Dr. WILLIAM SMITH.)

Translate into English:

(A.)—“A.” inquit “ille Virginius, quia in Capitolio mon fuit, minus supplicii (1) quam Ap. Herdonius meruit Plus hercule aliquanto, qui were rem aestimare velit. Herdonius, si nihil aliud (2), hostem se fatendo (3) prope denuntiavit up arma caperetis (4): hic negando bella esse arma vobis (5) ademit, nudosque servis vestris et exsulibus objecit. Et vos (C. Claudii pace et P. Valerii mortui loquar) prius in clivum Capitolinum signa intulistis quam, hos hostes de foro tolleretis? Pudet deorum hominumque (6). Cum hostes in arce, in Capitolio essent, exsulum et servorum dux profanatis omnibus in: cella Jovis optimi maximi habitaret. Tusculi (7) ante quam. Romae sumpta sunt arma. In dubio fuit utrum L. Mamilius Tusculanus dux an P. Valerius et C. Claudius consules Romanam arcem liberarent (8): et qui ante Latinos ne pro se quidem ipsis, cum in finibus hostem haberent, attingere arma passi Sumus, nunc, nisi Latini sua sponte arma sumpsissent, capti et deleti eramus (9). Hoc est, tribuni, auxilium plebi ferre, inermem eam hosti trucidandam objicere? Scilicet so. quis vobis (10) humillimus homo devestra plebe, quam partem velut abruptam a cetero populo vestram patriam peculiaremgue rem publicam fecistis, si quis ex his domum suam obsessam a familia armata nuntiaret, ferendum auxilium putaretis (11). Jupiter optimus maximus exsulum atque servorum septus armis nulla humana ope dignus erato ethi postulant ut sacrosancti habeantur, quibus ipsi diineque sacrinequesancti sunt; At enim divinis humanisque obruti sceleribus legem vos hoc anno perlaturos dictitatis. Tum hercule illo die, quo ego consul sum creatus, male gesta res publica est, pejus multo quam cum P. Valerius consul periit, si tuleritis.”—Livy. Book III. chap. 19. t Explain fully the construction of all the words to which numerals are attached in the preceding passage. (B.)—Ad clades ab hostibus acceptas duo nefanda facinora decemviri belli domique adjiciunt. L. Siccium in Sabinis, per invidiam decemviralem tribunorum creamdorum secessiomisque mentiones ad vulgus militum sermonibus occultis serentem, prosqeculatum ad locum castris capiendum mittunt. Datur negotium militibus, quos miserant expeditionis ejus comites, ut eum opportuno adorti loco interficerent. Haud inultum interfecere: nam circa repugnantem aliquot insidiatores cecidere, cum ipse se praevalidus, pari viribus animo, circumventus tutaretur. Nuntiant in castra ceteri praecipitatum in insidias esse Siccium egregie pugnantem, militisque quosdam cum eo amissos. Primo fides nuntiantibus fuit. £rofecta deinde cohors ad sepeliendos qui ceciderant, decemVirorum permissu, postguam nullum spoliatum ibi corpus Sicciumque in medio jacentem armatumque, omnibus in eum versis, corporibus, videre, hostium neque corpus ullum nec vestigia abeuntium, profecto ab suis interfectum memorantes rettulere corpus. . Invidiaeque plena castra erant, et Romam ferri protinus Siccium placebat, ni decemviri funus militare ei publica impensa facere maturassent. Sepultus ingenti militum maestitia, pessima decemvirorum in vulgus fama est.— Livy. Book III. chap. 43. 1. Name the voice, tense, and mood of the following verbs, and the present tense of each :-desideret, inchoastis, perculit, expulerat, assereret, faverit, arcessi, decresse, accendisset, pateretur. 2. Name the principal parts (i.e. the present infinitive, preterperfect indicative, and past participle) of the following verbs:—abstraho, adorior, adimo, progredior, pergo, spondeo, prehendo, quiesco, queror, sino. 3. Decline the following nouns:—iter, bos, senex, vis, jusjurandum. 4. Name the distributive numerals from one to ten incluSIY e. 5. Give the exact meaning of the pronominal adverbs : hiic, hinc, häc. 6. Give the etymology of the following words:—insidiae, magister, integer, effrenatus, expeditus, iniquus. 7. Draw a map of Italy, showing its political divisions in the last century of the republic. 8. Give the dates of the following events:—the battle of Zama, the capture of Corinth, the death of Tib. Gracchus, the death of Julius Caesar. 9. Give a brief account of the internal history of Rome from the expulsion of the kings to the legislation of the decemvirs. 10. Translate into Latin :-(a.) If I see him, I will tell him. (b.) This prevented me from seeing my brother. (e.) The enemy sent ambassadors to say that they surrendered everything to the consul. (d.) The chief knew that those things were true, and no one received more pain from his conduct (ex eo) than himself. (e.) The chief said he knew that those things were true, and no one received [he said] more pain from his conduct than himself. (f) You must consider what you are to do, whether you will be at Rome, or along with me in some secure place.


Friday, July 8.- Afternoon, 2 to 5. ENGLISH LANGUAGE.-(Examiner, Mr. BURGHAM.)

1. Who were the Angles, and what was their relation to the Saxons? Mention the chief Anglo-Norman elements of the English Language.

2. State the languages from which the following words

were introduced into the English:—flannel, jerked, hammock, chapman, holme, holt, apparatus, plaid, street, muslim. 3. Give a list of words in the English which seem to be vernacular though they have a foreign origin. How do you account for the introduction of such words? 4. What is the grammatical distinction between gender and sea “We may consider such substantives to have been considered as masculine, which were conspicuous for the attributes of imparting or communicating; or which were by nature active, strong, and efficacious, and that indiscriminately, whether to good or to ill; or which had claim to eminence either laudable or otherwise.” Give instances from languages to which the above theory is applicable or otherwise. 5. Determine the meaning of compound words by the order in which their components occur, and give examples. 6. “In certain words of more than one syllable it is difficult to say to which syllable an intervening consonant belongs.” How do you solve the question ? 7. In what different modes is the perfect tense of the English formed What division has there been made of verbs and tenses in consequence of this difference of formation ? How do you account for the fact that a great number of verbs in one of these divisions has a double form of the perfect 8. What is the origin of the word own in the phrase to own to a thing 2 Explain and account for the phrases—this will do— it did for him—mind and do this—he minded his business. 9. What words may be called significant by themselves, and what significant by relation ? Classify the words in the following passage according to this distinction— The man that hath no music in himself, And is not moved with concord of sweet sounds, Is fit for treasons. o 10. “As words follow the nature and genius of things, such substances admit of number as denote genera or species, while those which denote individuals, in strictness, admit it not.” Explain the above passage, and enumerate the causes from which individual or proper names have been made plural. 11. What is the reason that in the English and most languages the pronoun of the third person has its genders, while the pronouns of the first and second have none at all 12. Give a rule for distinguishing between the genuine pronoun and the genuine article. Why did the old grammarians call the relative pronoun—ütrorakrticóv ćp6pov—the subjunctive article?

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The particles 6m, 67trors, and ovy are added to the interrogative and indefinite pronouns, as well as to ogog, in order to generalise their application, that is, to make them apply to everything included in the idea they convey, having a force similar to our ever, soever, &c., as in whatsoever, whosoever, how much soever, &c.; e. g. ôorigöm, Öoricöntrors, āorigovv, m rugovy, Örvovy, whoever, whosoever, whosoever it may be, &c. (Latin, guicumque); genitive, oùruvoo'ovy or örovovy, jorovogovv ; dative, pruviovv or örgyovy, &c.; so also, ötrooocón, 6trogogovv, Ötrooocèntrore, how greater soever (Lat. Quantuscunque); genitive, Štrogověm Örooncón, Ötrooovovv, Štroomcovy, 6trooověntrors, Öroomgön Trots. The enclitic rep is subjoined to relatives, in order to raise the relative import into a demonstrative, as Öctrsp, trap, Örsp, who indeed; so booctrip, oiogrep ; also, ö0ttsp and 60svirsp.

The inseparable t demonstrativum, demonstrative iota, is affixed to demonstratives as well as to some adverbs, to augment the demonstrative force, being equivalent to our

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MR. EDITOR.—I am one of your most obliged and grateful admirers, who, after the insight afforded in your most valuable periodical of the possibility of matriculating at the University of £ondon, took courage, worked steadily on by myself, and had the good fortune of passing first class. Having succeeded thus far, I am desirous of going on for a B.A. degree, but find a cruel bar to my progress in the certificate required, of having been two years in one of the collegiate institutions connected with the University. I therefore resort to your kindness, and crave of you your advice.

I am but a clerk in a mercantile firm, employed from 10 till 6 o'clock, therefore it is evident that I cannot attend any college during the day. Is there then no way of overcoming this obstacle 2 no means of obtaining a certificate without this attendance during the day at one of the colleges 2 Any suggestion you could kindly favour me with I should receive with the deepest gratitude, and it would cause me infinite relief, since from my elation at my first success, I am now quite downcast at the appearance of this seemingly insurmountable barrier.

I think the remarks you make in No. 41 concerning this certificate are most just; for why should the not having been in a collegiate institution prove a barrier? since there are self-taught students guite as worthy of being honoured as those reared in a college; and, indeed, one would think they are more to be praised for persevering in their application to study, without the (almost invariably necessary) spur of a preceptor; moreover, do not self-taught students need some encouragement P And if there is none (when they have no defined object in view, no goal to reach), will not many linger behind, and perhaps finally give up the emulative struggle in bitter disappointment 2 Trusting that I may yet retain some hopes, with many thanks, I am in anticipation, yours, &c., * *, , , -o-'k-, - ..., g to . ALBERT H. ERNEST. London, 2, Mortimer Villas, Kingsland,

, 15 Dec., 1853.

[The subject on which our correspondent writes is a most important one, and his case is one which must enlist the sympathy of every liberal-minded friend of education. Would that he could be admitted to the degree under the circumstances he describes, The Regulations (or rather the Charter) of the University will not, however, admit of it; for the Charter contains an express poor vision that every Candidate for the B.A. degree shall have studied at one of the affiliated Colleges; and the Regulations fix the term of such study at two academical years; and the Senate of the University could not, if they would, dispense with this condition. . .

The only possible opening that we are aware of (and We think it is really the only one) for our correspondent, is to join the Schoolmaster’s Class at University College, Gower-street. By the following extract from the Prospectus of that college, it will be seen that he might get the B.A. degree by so doing, but not before he is 25 years of age. This class is held in the evening two or three

times a week.

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These Lectures have been established out of funds placed, at the disposal of the College by an anonymous benefactor, who signed himself A OT. t Fo tourses will be delivered, each of Fifteen Lectures, on Latin, Mathematics, Natural Philosophy, and Greek, by the Professors in the College of the respective subjects, on Tuesdays and Thursdays, from 7 to 9 P.M. * The Lectures on Latin . o on Thursday, ill Thursday, February 2nd, inclusive. ti It is . that †: wili be time to read all the books named by the University for the Examinations this year, and also to give some half-hours to details which bear on Latin Composition. . The Books are for the B.A. degree, Cicero pro Archia, Pro Lege Manilia, Pro Marcello, Somnium Scipions; and for Matriculation, the first Georgic of Virgil. The Léctures on Mathematics will begin on Tuesday, October 18th, and ntinue till Tuesday, February 7th. The Lectures on Greek will begin on Thursday, * time tiii. Thursday, June 1st, on the Iphigenia in Aulis,

October 20th, and continue

February 9th, and conand Xenophon’s

Anabasis, Book iii., which are the subjects selected by the University of London for the B.A., and Matriculation Examinations, 1854. The Lectures on Natural Philosophy will begin on Tuesday, February 14th, and continue till Tuesday, June 6th. Fee to Masters of unendowed schools and Ushers, for a single Class, £1; for all the Classes, £1 10s. * Attendance upon these Lectures and the examination, during two years, will entitle the parties to be called Students of the College, and so to be Candidates for Degrees in Arts in the University of London, if they have complied in other respects with the Regulations of the University. Gentlemen, who are not Schoolmasters, on special application will be admitted to attend these Lectures at a fee of £3 for each Class. This attendance will count towards a Certificate of Studentship with a view to a degree, for gentlemen who, on their admission to the Classes, shall show themselves to be twenty-five years of age, and who are matriculated Students of the College, as follows:—The Courses of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy ë. one short Course, and the Courses of Latin and Greek as one short OUITS8, Masters of unendowed schools and ushers may also attend the Birkbeck Evening Course of Instruction in Practical Chemistry, given by Professor Williamson. The Courses consist of Fifteen Lessons, of two hours each, on Wednesdays and Fridays, in the months of May and June, from 7 to 9 F.M. Fee, £2.

We have formerly remarked that we should be glad if the University of London were open to all students who can show sufficient evidence of proficiency in the Examinations for Degrees, whether they have attended a College connected with the University or not. We think that the fees which must be paid previous to the Examination will be a sufficient bar to any persons attempting to pass who have not a reasonable hope that they are duly qualified, especially as these fees are never returned, although very properly. the Candidates are allowed to try again. We would strongly advise our correspondent, and others in the same circumstances and having the same desire, of whom we have reason to believe there are many among our subscribers and readers, to get up a petition to the Senate of the University of London, soliciting that body to apply to Government for a new charter, which shall include a regulation to this effect: that the Examinations for Degrees of every kind shall be open to all persons who shall have paid the fees required by the statutes, and who shall be able to show by Certificates of character from their employers, relations, or friends, that they are known to be industrious and studious; that they are of good moral conduct; and that they have not, in any case, contravened the laws of their country.

As there will be a meeting of the Senate of the University of London about the middle of next month, we shall be most happy to receive from the metropolis, and from all parts of the United Kingdom, the names of those of any of our students, and of others, who are desirous of signing such a petition, with their reasons for the same, in order that we may draw up the document, in proper form, submit it to their approval, and present it on their behalf to that learned and influential body.]


HENToN (Halifax.): We think that the last lesson in French indicates sufficiently that the Second PART of the lessons in that language is finished.—A. PUPIL: Neither India rubber nor Indian rubber is correct, but Caoutchouc. In French, read the works of Cuvier, Chateaubriand, St. Pierre, Marmontel, Buffon, Montesquieu, Fénélon, Pascal, &c.

J. MARTIN (Strood): His method of squaring the circle brings out the answer to every question more than twelve and a-half times greater than the truth.

A STUDENT of MENsurATION (Liverpool) will find a table of the areas

of circles, commencing with a diameter of 1 inch, and advancing gradually of an inch in every diameter, till it reaches 100 inches, in Adcock's jongineer's Pocket Book,”—a book which contains many other useful tabies.—s. STARTUP (Swanscombe): There is a Map of the World in the P. E., vol. i., p. 305; but a larger one will be given. J. C. A. (Somers'-town): Our subscribers, would justly laugh at us if we answered his queries. Let him consult the indexes to the volumes of the P.E.-CYMRó BACH: We don’t understand the passage, and perhaps it really has no meaning. In many cases, we find that poetry is prose run mad. ADA (Sleaford): The term aesthetics is derived from the Greek ato flavouai, I?erceive or apprehend by the senses, and is especially applied to the perception of the eautiful in the arts. The asthetic of an art has for its object the study of its general modes of action, of its relations with our faculty of perceptión, and of the power of determining the characters of the beautiful in its productions. JM. R. is right, but there are many before him. We have received numerous answers to the boy and apple question. It was generally solved by Double Position; often by guess; and frequently by algebra. By the last method, it is solved as follows:–Let a be the number of apples; then the 1st boy received $24-3, and there remained $2–3; the 2nd boy received 324-3, and there remained 34–3; the 3rd boy received $44-#, and there remained $2–$, which by the question is equal to nothing; therefore, z=g, or re?, the number required. We shall now propose a question ourselves to all our students: If four equal balls, say of 10 inches diameter each, be placed as close together as possible;—that is, all touching each other;-what must be the diameter of another ball which, placed in the middle of

the four, will touch all of them at once 2

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