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to escape.



to own.

to erect.

Bebedt (not begedeckt) covered, from bebeden, to cover. Neither is | Gehen, to go.

Entgelen, to go away, to get off zu (when used) allowed to come between the prefix and the In- Zichen, to draw.

Entziešen, to withdraw. finitive; but stands before the two combined into one word : Binden, to bind.

Entbinden, to unbind. as, zu empfangen, (not empzufangen), to receive : except in case of Haupt, the head.

Enthaupten, to deprive of head, compound prefixes, wherein the first component is a separable

to behead. ard the second an inseparable particle; zu being then inserted Straft, power.

Entkräften, to deprive of power, between the two particles; as, anzuerkennen, (from anerkennen).

weaken. "The inseparable prefixes are always unaccented.

Blöde, dim-eyed, dull, bashful. Entblodcir, to divest of shame,

be bold.

Brennen, to burn

Entbrennen, to take fire, to kindle.
Sprecken, to speak.

Entsprechen, to answer, or corAfter, after, behind

Aftergeben, to talk behind
(ore's back); to slander.

respond to. Be, near, hy, over, to make; Bekommen, to come by, i.e. Ent is sometimes, also, merely intensive or euphonic: as,

to get, to obtain.

entleeren, (from seer, empty), to empty out.
in, within;

Empfinton, to find or feel
within, to perceive.

(3) &r and ver. Er, as a general rule, conveys the idea

of getting or gaining for some one, by means of that which is Ent, apart, away, to deprive of; Entgeken, to go away or off; expressed by the word connected with it; as, erbitten, to get, forth, for, on behalf of; Erklären, to make clear for or try to get, by begging. It finds its exact opposite in ver:

which marks what is against or away from some one's interest

(one); to explain. *Gle, (mainly, intensive or eupho- Gerenken, (same as benten) or benefit; as, verbitten, to beg off, to decline. The force and

use of these particles are best illustrated by examples.

to think of. miji, wrong, erroneously; Mißbeuten, to misinterpret.

Baben to bathe,

Erbaden, to get or gain by bath.
away, at a loss;
Verschlafen, to sleep away,

i.e. lose hy sleeping.
Finben, to find.

Erfinden, to find out for one's
Miter against;
Widerstehen, to stand against;

self, invent.
to resist.
Stehen, to stand.

Erstehen, to arise, originate.
Scr, apart, asunder;
Zerschneiden, to cut apart, or Bauen, to build.

Erbauen, to erect, to produce. in pieces. Sagen, to say or speak.

Versagen, to speak against, to


Mauern, to wall, or make a wall. Vermauern, to wall against, stop

by wall. Anbe (ant-be, to-near); Anbetreffent, to hit or touch Spielen, to play.

Verspielen, to play away, to lose near to; to concern.

by gambling. Aner, (anter, to — for); Ancrkennen, to acknowledge; Führen, to carry, or lead. Berführen, to lead away, to se

duce Aufer, (auftaer, up--- for); Auferbauen, to build up for; Salzen, to salt.

Versalzen, to oversalt, spoil in

salting Uuscr (auster, out--for); Uuecrwählen, to choose out

for ; to elect.

(4) Er and ver are, also, both employed in converting Enver, (axter, to - away); Anvertrauen, to give away in nouns and adjectives into verbs expressive of transition from

trust; to confide to.

one state or condition into another : thus, Beauf, . (betaus, near -- on or up); Beauftragen, to bring (duty) Erfalten, (falt, cold) to take cold. Berebeln, (ebet, noble) to ennoupon, i.e. to commission.

ble. Mifver, (miß+-vcr, wrong — away); Mißversteven, to understand Erfülnen. (fühn, bold) to become Bergöttern, (Gott, God) to deify.

wrong, i.e. to mistake.

bold, dare. Borbe (vort-be, before


Vorbehalten, to hold or keep Erlalınten, (afm, lame) to be. Veralten, (alt, old) to grow old
ahead, i.e. to put off ; to
come lame.

or obsolete.
Erklären, (tlar, clear) to make Vereinen, (ein, one) to make one,

unite. § 97. OBSERVATIONS.

In some instances, moreover, er and ver are only euphonic

or intensive.
(1) Be has in German the same power which it has in
English. It is, therefore, in most cases, better transferred than
translated Its uses will be easily learned from examples.
Thus, froin

Klagen, to moan.
Beklagen, to bemoan.

(Continued from page 209.) Streuen, to strew.

Bestrcuen, to bestrew.
Folgen, to follow,
Befolgen, to follow after, i.e. to obey,

Wednesday, July 6.--Afternoon, 3 to 6.
Arbeiten, to labour Bearbeiten, to labour upon; elaborate.

CHEMISTRY.-(Examiner, Prof. GRAHAM.)
Lachen, to laugh.

Belachen, to laugh at.
Flügel, a wing.
Beflügcin, to furnish with wings.

1. Describe the chemical properties of the atmosphere, Glüd, happiness. Beglūden, to make happy.

referring particularly to the nature and proportion of its conFrei, free. Befreien, to set free.

stituent gases and the uses of each in the economy of nature. In some instances, it is merely euphonic.

2. What are the products of the combustion of metals, of

hydrogen, and of ordinary carbonaceous fuel, in atmospheric (2) Gmp and ent. Emp is, probably, only another form air ? Explain the nomenclature of oxides. of ent: occurring, however, only in three verbs (empfinden, to 3. Give the chemical formulæ and equivalents of the followfeel; empfangen, to receive; empfehlen, to recommend); and bearing ing compounds :-water, nitric acid, ammonia, carbonic acid, a sense but remotely related to its original. The prime and sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid, chloric and hydrochloric .predominant power of ent, is that of indicating separation, de acids. purture, privation.

4. How is chlorine gas prepared ? Mention the remarkable In some instances it has the kindred sense of approach or compounds into which that element enters as a constituent. trarsition from one point or condition towards another. Ex- 5. What are the products of the action of diluted sulphuric amples.

acid upon the metals zinc and iron? How is the solution of



zinc affected by bringing copper or platinum into contact with librium of a lever. Is this condition independent of the weight that metal in the acid ?

of the lever? 6. Give an account of the composition and properties of the A uniform lever is 12 inches long, find where the fulcrum alkali potassa.

must be placed so that a weight of 70 ounces at one end shall 7. What are the earthy salts which occasion the hardness of balance 50 ounces at the other (1) when the lever is without

weight, (2) when it weighs 30 ounces. 8. What takes place in the slaking of quicklime with water,

3. What is understood by obtaining a mechanical advantage and in the setting of plaster of Paris ?

In a single fixed pulley, is any mechanical advantage obtained? 9. How is the metal iron prepared from the argillaceous car- lift' by means of a single fixed pulley. In a single movable

What is the greatest weight a man standing on the ground can bonate of iron, the most common ore of that metal! 10. What are the acid solvents of mercury, silver, gold, and brium. If the strings be not parallel, will it require more or

pulley with the strings parallel, state the condition of equiliplatinum?

less power to support the same weight? 11. What is the cause of the liquefaction of ice, and of the

4. How is velocity estimated (1) when uniform, (2) when conversion of water into steam?

variable ? How is uniform force' numerically measured ? Is gravity a uniform force? If gravity be measured by 32-2

feet, find the space a body will fall through in one second from Thursday, July 7.--Morning, 10 to 1.

rest: find the velocity it will acquire in 30 seconds ; find also GEOMETRY.-(Examiner, Mr. JERRARD.)

the space it falls through in four seconds and a half.

5. State the third law of motion ; mention any experiments 1. Give Euclid's definitions of a point, a line, and a super- that support the truth of this law. What is understood by ficies. Is it possible to define satisfactorily the elementary the momentum of a body? How is moving force estimated ? abstractions of Geometry? Distinguish between a postulate and an axiom.

If a weight of 100 lbs. fall freely, and a weight of 200 lbs. 2. From a given point to draw a straight line equal to a horizon, compare the moving forces.

slide down a smooth plane inclined at an angle of 30° to the given straight line.

6. Define a fluid; distinguish between compressible and 3. If two angles of a triangle be equal to each other, the incompressible fluids. sides also which subtend the equal angles, shall be equal to hydrostatical problems as incompressible ?

Why is water considered generally in one another

IIow is it shown that by the transmission of fluid pressure, 1. Show that if two triangles have two sides of the one equal to two sides of the other, each to each, and have likewise their any very small scce may be in equilibrium with any very bases equal; the angle which is contained by the two sides of great one?

7. Define specific gravity; in determining the specific the one shall be equal to the angle contained by the two sides

gravities of solid bodies, what advantages has a liquid (water) equal to them, of the other.

as the medium of compa ison: Show how to determine the How may this proposition be proved, when the triangles are

specific gravity of a lump of heavy metal. on different sides of the common base ?

S. Describe the construction and action of the common 5. To draw a straight line perpendicular to a given straight barometer; supposing the vacuum at the top of the tube perline of unlimited length, from a given point without it.

fect, would the mercury be actually supported in the tube if 6. If a straight line fall upon two parallel straight lines, the open end were not inverted in a cup of mercury? In show that it will make the alternate angles equal to one ascending a mountain, does the mercury in the barometer rise another; and the exterior angle equal to the interior and or fall? opposite upon the same side; and likewise the two interior

9. How is a ray of light represented geometrically? What angles upon the same side together equal to two right angles. is understood by a pencil of rays? Explain the reflexion of

Discuss Euclid's twelfth axiom. Is it necessary that some light, and trace the position of the images of a point placed positive property of parallel lines should be assumed as an between two plane mirrors parallel to each other. axiom, on which reasonings on such lines may be founded ?

7. Equal triangles upon the same base, and upon the same side of it, are between the same parallels,

Friday, July 8.-Morning, 10 to 1. Hence show that a triangle may be bisected by a line drawn

LATIN -(Ecaminer, Dr. WILLIAJI SJIITH.) from any point in one of its sides. 8. To describe a parallelogram equal to a given rectilineal

Translate into English: figure, and having an angle equal to a given rectilineal angle. (A.)-"A." inquit “ille Virginius, quia in Capitolio non 9. In any right-angled triangle, the square which is des- fuit

, minus supplicii (1) quam Ap. Herdonius meruit? Plus cribed upon the side subtending the right angle, is equal to hercule aliquanto, qui vere rem æstimare velit. Herdonius, si the squares described upon the sides which contain the right nihil aliud (2), hostem se fatendo (3) prope denuntiavit ut arma angle.

caperetis (4): hic negando bella esse arma vobis (5) ademit, 10. Find a point within a given triangle, from which lines nudosque servis vestris et exsulibus objecit. Et vos (c. drawn to the several angular points will divide the triangle Capitolinum signa intulistis quang hos hostes de foro tolleretis?

pace et P. Valerii mortui loquar) prius in clivum into three equal parts.

Pudet deorum hominumque (6). Cum hostes in arce, in Capi

tolio essent, exsulum et servorum dux profanatis omnibus in Thursday, July 7.--Afternoon, 3 to 6.

cella Jovis optimi maximi habitaret. Tusculi (7) ante quam Romæ sumpta sunt arma.

In dubio fuit utrum L. Mamilius NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.-(Examiners, G. B. JERRARD, Esq., Tusculanus dux an P. Valerius et C. Claudius consules Romaand Rev. Prof. HEAVISIDE.)

nam arcem liberarent (8): et qui ante Latinos ne pro se qui1. Define force. Explain the advantage of representing dem ipsis, cum in finibus hostem haberent, attingere arma forces by geometrical lines, and show the propriety of doing passi sumus, nunc, nisi Latini sua sponte arma sumpsissent,

When two forces act upon a particle, what must be the capti et deleti eramus (). Hoc est, tribuni, auxilium plebi magnitude and direction of a third force acting upon the same ferre, inermem eam hostí trucidandam objicere? Scilicet st particle to keep it at rest?

quis vobis (10) humillimus homo de vestra plebe, quam partem Will two forces acting in one plane always have a single velut abruptam a cetero populo vestram patriam, peculiaremque resultant?

rem publicam fecistis, si quis ex his domum suam obsessam a Find the resultant of two equal forces acting on a point at Jupiter optimus maximus exsulum atque servorum septus

familia armata nuntiaret, ferendum auxilium putaretis (11). an angle of 120°,

armis nulla humana ope dignus erat? et hi postulant ut sacro2. Define a lever. Espress generally the mondition of equi sancti habeantur, quibus ipsi dii neque sacri neque sancti sunt:

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At enim divinis humanisque obruti sceleribus legem vos hoc were introduced into the English :--flannel, jerked, hammock,
anno perlaturos dictitatis. Tum hercule illo die, quo ego con- chapman, holme, holt, apparatus, plaid, street, muslin.
sul sum creatus, male gesta res publica est, pejus multo quam 3. Give a list of words in the English which seem to be
cum P. Valerius consul periit, si tuleritis." ---Livy. Book III. vernacular though they have a foreign origin. How do you
chap. 19.

account for the introduction of such words? Explain fully the construction of all the words to which

4. What is the grammatical distinction between gender and numerals are attached in the preceding passage.

“We may consider such substantives to have been con(B.)-Ad clades ab hostibus acceptas duo nefanda facinora sidered as masculine, which were conspicuous for the attridecemviri belli domique adjiciunt." L. Siccium in Sabiņis, butes of imparting or communicating; or which were by per invidiam decemviralem tribunorum creandorum secessio- nature active, strong, and efficacious, and that indiscriminately, nisque mentiones ad vulgus militum sermonibus occultis seren- whether to good or to ill; or which had claim to eminence tem, prosqeculatum ad locum castris capiendum mittunt, either laudable or otherwise.” Give instances from languages Datur negotium militibus, quos miserant expeditionis ejus | to which the above theory is applicable or otherwise. comites, ut eum opportuno adorti loco interficerent. Haud

5. Determine the meaning of compound words by the order inultum interfecere: nam circa repugnantem aliquot insidia- in which their components occur, and give examples. tores cecidere, cum ipse se prævalidus, pari viribus animo,

6. “In certain words of more than one syllable it is difficult circumventus tutaretur. Nuntiant in castra ceteri præcipita- to say to which syllable an intervening consonant belongs.” tum in insidias esse Siccium egregie pugnantem, militisque How do you solve the question ? quosdam cum eo amissos. Frimo fides nuntiantibus fuit. Profecta deinde cohors ad sepeliendos qui ceciderant, decem

7. In what different modes is the perfect tense of the English

formed? What division has there been made of verbs and virorum permissu, postquam nullum spoliatum ibi corpus tenses in consequence of this difference of formation? How Sicciumque in medio jacentem armatumque, omnibus in eum versis corporibus, videre, hostium neque corpus ullum nec

do you account for the fact that a great number of verbs in

one of these divisions has a double form of the perfect ? vestigia abeuntium, profecto ab suis interfectum memorantes rettulere corpus. Invidiæque plena castra erant, et Romam

8. What is the origin of the word own in the phrase to own ferri protinus Siccium placebat, ni decemviri funus militare ei to a thing? Explain and account for the phrase:s—this will do pubiica impensa facere maturassent. Sepultus ingenti mili- it did for him-mind and do this-he minded his business. tum mæstitia, pessima decemvirorum in vulgus fama est. 9. What words may be called significant by themselves, and Livy, Book III. chaf. 43.

what significant by relation Classify the words in the follow1. Name the voice, tense, and mood of the following verbs, ing passage according to this distinctionand the present tense of each :-desideret, inchoastis, perculit, The man that hath no music in himself, expulerat, assereret, faverit, arcessi, decresse, accendisset, And is not moved with concord of sweet sounds, pateretur.

Is fit for treasons. 2. Name the principal parts (i.e. the present infinitive, pre- 10. “ As words follow the nature and genius of things, such terperfect indicative, and past participle) of the following substances admit of number as denote genera or species

, while verbs :-abstraho, adorior, adimo, progredior, pergo, spondeo, those which denote individuals, in strictness, admit it not.' prehendo, quiesco, queror, sino.

Explain the above passage, and enumerate the causes from 3. Decline the following nouns :-iter, bos, senex, vis, jus- which individual or proper names have been made plural. jurandum.

11. What is the reason that in the English and most lan4. Name the distributive numerals from one to ten inclu-guages the pronoun of the third person has its genders, while

the pronouns of the first and second have none at all ? 5. Give the exact meaning of the pronominal adverbs :~-hic,

12. Give a rule for distinguishing between the genuine hūc, hinc, hāc.

pronoun and the genuine article. Why did the old gram6. Give the etymology of the following words :-insidix, marians call the relative pronoun-ÚTOTAKTIKÒV äpOpov~the

subjunctive article? magister, integer, effrenatus, expeditus, iniquus.

7. Draw a map of Italy, showing its political divisions in the last century of the republic,

LESSONS IN GREEK.--No. XVIII. 8. Give the dates of the following events :--the battle of Zama, the capture of Corinth, the death of Tib. Gracchus, the

BY JOHN R. BEARD, D.D. death of Julius Cæsar.

3. THE RELATIVE PRONOUN ós, , ó, who.
9. Give a brief account of the internal history of Rome
from the expulsion of the kings to the legislation of the


10. Translate into Latin :-

Ν. ός ή

oi αι å,

W á ů.
ův ών ών, , oiv

aiv oiv. (a.) If I see him, I will tell him.


οίς ais ois, οίν aiv οίν. . (6.) This prevented me from seeing my brother.

A. Óv

ούς ας
ας α,

á Ú.
(c.) The enemy sent ambassadors to say that they surrendered
everything to the consul,

4. INDEFINITE AND INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. (d.) The chief knew that those things were true, and no one

Declension of tis, some one ; and ris, who? received more pain from his conduct (ex eo) than himself. (e.) The chief said he knew that those things were true, and Indefinite ris, some one.

Interrogative ris, ri ho? no one received [he said] more pain from his conduct than himself, 6.) You must consider what you are to do, whether you

S.N. Tiss Ti, somewhat, ris, who, which! ri, what will be at Rome, or along with me in some secure piace.

G. τινός, ΟΥ

τίνος, Or του

D. τινί, ΟΙ
Friday, July 8.- Afternoor, 2 to 5.


τίνι, or τώ
A. Tivá


P.Ν. τινές τινά, ο αττα τίνες

τίνα G. τινών

τίνων 1. Who were the Angles, and what was their relation to Ό, τισί

τίσι the Saxons ! Mention the chief Anglo-Norman elements of Α. τινάς Tivá, or arta rivas

τίνα the English Language.


tive 2. State the languages from which the following words

G.D. τινούν


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ής ου,

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m. & f.


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The indefinite tis is an enclitic, 2. e. it inclines or throws pronouns is exemplified in two or three examples in the last back its accent on the foregoing word. In general the indefinite exercise, thus : pronouns are distinguished from the interrogative by being enclitics, and by their coming after, while the interrogative

Interrogative, τις γραφει ταυτην την επιστολης; stand before, other words.

Indefinite, λεγε μοι όστις ταυτην την επιστολην γραφει, By uniting oς with τις, we obtain όστις, ήτις, ότι, who,

The direct interrogative tis passes in the second sen. whoever ; which is declined thus :

tence into the indirect interrogative, or the dependent and

indefinite dotic : take another instance

Direct Interrogative, ¢povTIGELS, What are you caring for? Ν. όστις, ήτις, και τι

οίτινες αίτινες άτινα, or

Indirect Interrogative, ου λεγω ο τι φροντιζω, I tell (thee) not αττα

what I am caring for. G. ούτινος, or ότου, ηστινος ώντινων (rarely ώτων) D, ωτινι, Or ότω, ήτινι οιστισι (rarely oτoις), οίστισι

Α. οντινα, ήντινα, και τι

ουστινας, αστινας, άτινα,
These men are good. Those opinions are just.

The Dual, Ν.Α. τινε, άτινε. G.D. οίντινοιν, αιντιναιν. children of this woman are beautiful. Those roses are beau

tiful. The father himself writes the letter. His son (the son The interrogative pronouns, such as TOLOS, of what kind of him) is wise. His daughter is beautiful. I admire those

how great ? norepos, which (of two)? in becoming indefi- beautiful roses, bring them to me. The children of the same nite and dependent, take ó before them thus : ÓTOLOS, of whatever parents are often different. This rose which blooms in kind; OTTOCOS, of whatever magnitude; OTUTEPOs, whichever. the garden is beautiful. Virtue is something beautiful. What The negative compounds of τις, namely oυτις, ουτι, μήτις, | sider (φροντιζω) what friendship is. What is more beautiful

do they cancern themselves about? (φροντιζω). They conunti, no one, nothing, follow the simple tis, thus : QUTIS, than virtue ? ουτινος, ουτινι, ουτινα, ουτι, ουτινες, ουτινα, &c.


are such as express a mutual relation one to another, as is

exemplified in the words—how much ? 80 much; this kind, Επιστολη, ης, ή, a letter. Eνιοι, αι, α, some.

that kind, &c. They may be arranged under the heads of Ημερα, ας, ή, a day.

Oιος, α, ον, of what kind. Στρατηγος, ου, o, a general. Μηδεις, μηδεμία, μηδεν, μηδε- interrogative, indefinite, demonstrative, relative and depend.

ent pronouns.

Thus, Tocos, how much? (Latin, quantus :) Τροπος, ου, o, a manner, mode

asks a question which is answered by rooos, so much (taptus); of life, character.

Exeraţw, I inquire into, prove. Tocos may also signify of some size (aliquantus), and so become “Ροδον, ου, τo, a rose. Φροντιζω, I care for; with

indefinite; and if we wish to say “I know not how much, “Εκαστος, η, ον, each, every acc., desire, pursue.

ploy ooog or Ó TODOS, and so call into use a relative and

dent form,


Rel. & Dep. πόσος, η, ον,

πόσος, η, ον, ο ανηρ ούτος (or ουτος ο ανηρ) αγαθος εστιν.

τοσος (poetic.)

όσος, η, Θν how great ?

τοσοςδε, Or τοσof some size.

όποσος, η, ον αύτη (or αυτη η γνωμη) δικαια εστιν. Η γυνη ηδε (or ηδε η

horo much?

OUTOS, SO great.

how great. γυνη) καλη εστιν. “Ο ανηρ εκεινος (οι εκεινος ο ανηρ) βασιλευς ο βασιλευς αυτος (or αυτος ο βασιλευς) στρατηγος | ποίος, α, ον,

τοιος, α, ον (poetic.) οίος, α, ον εστιν. Φερε αυτω, ω παι, την κλειν. Eνιοι περι των αυτων | of what kind of some kind? τοιοςδε, or τοιουτος οποιος, α, ον,

qualis ?

of that kind, talis. of what kind. της αυτης ημερας ου ταύτα γιγνωσκουσιν. Το λεγειν και το πραττειν ου ταυτον εστιν.

Ταύτα τα ροδα, α θαλλει εν τφ πηλικος, η, ον, wanting. τηλικος,η,ον (poetic.) ηλικος, η, ον κηπω, καλα εστιν. Σοφον τι χρημα και ανθρωπος εστιν. of what age ?

τηλικος δε

όπηλικος, τηλικουτος,

horo old? φιλιαν του (for τινος) διωκεις, τον τροπον αυτου εξεταζε. Τις

of that age. γραφει ταυτην την επιστολην; Λεγε μοι όστις ταυτην την επιστολην γραφει. Ων (by attraction for α) εχεις, τουτων The enclitic ye is appended to the persunal pronouns of the allois Tapexov (communicate to others (soine) of those things which first and second person, so as to give force and prominence to you have). Ολβιος εστιν η παιδες φιλοι εισιν. Εκεινος ολβιω

the word, as εγωγε, εμοιγε, εμoυγε, εμεγε, συγε, &c. It is almost τατος, οτο (for φτινι) μηδεν κακον εστιν, Τί φροντιζεις; Ου λεγω impossible to give an English equivalent for γε, for by this,

as well as by other particles, the Greeks expressed shades of ότι φροντιζω. Οιον το εθος έκαστου, τοιουτος ο βιος. Τίς εστιν | meaning to which we have no counterparts και γε, however, , εκεινη η γυνη; Λεγε μοι, ήτις εστιν εκεινη η γυνη.

may be approximatively rendered by at least, or but.

The particles δη, δηποτε, and oυν are added to the interThere are some things in this exercise on which a few words seem desirable. First advert to an exemplification of an rogative and indefinite pronouns, as well as to opos, in order

to generalise their application, that is, to make them apply to enclitic, as seen in the words oogov te:

everything included in the idea they conrey, having a force Ti is here an instance of an enclitic; first observe it comes similar to our ever, soever, &c., as in whatsoever, whosoever, after σοφον, and then observe that it is s0 connected with it how much soever, &c. ; e. g. όστιςδη, όστιςδηποτε, όστιςουν, as that the two are pronounced together, almost or quite as if nrigovv, Orlovv, whoever, whosoever, whosoever it may be, &c. they were one word, thus σoφoντι. In consequence of this, τι (Latin, quicunque); genitive, oύτινοσουν οι οτουουν, ηστινreceives the name of enclities and for the same reason, losing | οσουν ; dative, φτινιουν or ότφουν, &c.; s0 also, oπoσοςδη, its own accent, it throws it back on the preceding word, thus, oπoσoσουν, οποσοσδηποτε, how greater soever (Lat. Quantusσοφόν τι; so in the Latin, sapiensgue.

cunque); genitive, oπoσoυδη oπoσηςδη, όποσουουν, οποσηςουν, You see, in these exercises, the free use made by the classic | oπoσoυδηποτε, οποσηςδηποτε. Greeks of the article: thus they say ο ανηρ ούτος, η γυνη The enclitic nep is subjoined to relatives, in order to raise εκεινη, ούτος ο παις, τουτο το πραγμα (or το πραγμα τουτο), the relative import into a demonstrative, as οςπερ, ήπερ, όπερ, that is, the woman this, or this the woman, for this woman και Some- who indeed; so όσοςπερ, οίοςπερ ; also, oθιπερ and oθενπερ. times, as when emphasis is sought, we have such a construc

The inseparable i demonstrativum, demonstrative iota, is tion as the following, ò avnpå ovros, the man, the this.

affixed to demonstratives as well as to some adverbs, to The difference between the interrogative and indeterminate augment the demonstrative force, being equivalent to our

“Η γνωμη


ποιος, α, ον,

D. τουτοι



vulgar there, as 'in “which man do you mean this man?” | Anabasis, Book ili,, which are the subjects selected by the University of * No, that man there." This -use of į resembles the Latin ce, London for the B.d., and Matriculation Examinations, 1851. as in hicce, and the French ci, as in celui-ci,

The Lectures on Natural Philosophy will begin on Tuesday, February

14th, and continue till Tuesday, June 6th.

Fee to Masters of unendowed schools and Ushers, for a single Class, £1;

for all the Classes, €10s. S.N. OÚtool, THAT man aütni, THAT woman

τουτι, THAT thing Attendance upon these Lectures and the examination, during two years, α. τουτουι

will entitle the parties to be called Students of the College, and so to be ταυτησι

Candidates for Degrees in Arts in the University of London, if they have ταυτοι P.N. Oůtou

complied in other respects with the Regulations of the University. αυταια

Gentlemen, who are not Schoolmasters, on special application will be

admitted to attend these Lectures at a tee of £3 for each class. This attendSo in odl, di, rodi, from óds ; outwol from outws; Evdadı, ance will count towards a Certificate of Studentship with a view to a degree, νυνι, δευρι.

for gentlemen who, on their admission to the Classes, shall show themselves to be twenty-five years of age, and who are matriculated Students of the College, as follows:- The Courses of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy

as one short Course, and the Courses of Latin and Greek as one short CORRESPONDENCE.

Masters of unendowed schools and ushers roay also attend the Birkbeck UNIVERSITY OF LONDON.

Evening Course of Instruction in Practical Chemistry, given by Professor

Williamson. The Courses consist of Fifteen Lessons, of two hours each, MR. EDITOR-I am one of your most obliged and grateful on Wednesdays and Fridays, in the months of May and June, from 7 to ģ admirers, who, after the insight afforded in your most valuable P.M. Fee, £2. periodical of the possibility of matriculating at the University of We have formerly remarked that we should be glad if the UniLondon, took courage, worked steadily on by myself, and had the versity of London were open to all students who can show sufficient good fortune of passing first class. Having succeeded thus far, I evidence of proficiency in the Examinations for Degrees, whether am desirous of going on for a B. A. degree, but find a cruel bar to they have attended a College connected with the University or my progress in the certificate required, of having been two years not. We think that the fees which must be paid previous to the in one of the collegiate institutions connected with the University. Examination will be a sufficient bar to any persons attempting to I therefore resort to your kindness, and crave of you your advice. pass who have not a reasonable hope that they are duly qualified,

I am but a clerk in a mercantile firm, employed from 10 till 6 especially as these fees are never returned, although very properly. o'clock, therefore it is evident that I cannot attend any college the Candidates are allowed to try again. We would strongly advise during the day. Is there then no way of overcoming this obstacle? our correspondent, and others in the same circumstances and no means of obtaining a certificate without this attendance during having the same desire, of whom we have reason to believe there the day at one of the colleges ? Any suggestion you could kindly are many among our subscribers and readers, to get up a petition favour me with I should receive with the deepest gratitude, and it to the Senate of the University of London, soliciting that body to would cause me infinite relief, since from my elation at my first apply to Government for a new charter, which shall include a success, I am now quite downcast at the appearance of this seem- regulation to this effect: that the Examinations for Degrees of ingly insurmountable barrier.

every kind shall be open to all persons who shall have paid the fees think the remarks you make in No. 41 concerning this certif- required by the statutes, and who shall be able to show by Certicate are most just; for why should the not having been in a colle. ficates of character from their employers, relations, or friends, that giate institution prove a barrier since there are self-taught students they are known to be industrious and studious; that they are of quite as worthy of being honoured as those reared in a college ; good moral conduct; and that they have not, in any case, contraand, indeed, one would think they are more to be praised for perse- vened the laws of their country. vering in their application to study, without the (almost invariably As there will be a meeting of the Senate of the University necessary) spur of a preceptor; moreover, do not self-taught London about the middle of next month, we shall be most happy students need some encouragement? And if there is none (when to receive from the metropolis, and from all parts of the United they have no defined object in view, no goal to reach), will not Kingdom, the names of those of any of our students, and of others, many linger behind, and perhaps finally give up the emulative who are desirous of signing such a petition, with their reasons for struggle in bitter disappointment? Trusting that I may yet retain the same, in order that we may draw up the document in proper some hopes, with many thanks, I am in anticipation, yours, &c., form, submit it to their approval, and present it on their behalf to

ALBERT H. ERNEST. that learned and influential body.] London, 2, Mortimer Villas, Kingsland, dit

15 Dec., 1853. [The subject on which our correspondent writes is a most import

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. ant one, and his case is one which must enlist the sympathy of every liberal-minded friend of education. Would that he could be sufficiently that the SECOND PART of the lessons in that language is

HENTON (Halifax): We think that the last lesson in French indicates admitted to the degree under the circumstances he describes! The finished.-A. PUPIL: Neither India rubber nor Indian rubber is correct, Regulations (or rather the Charter) of the University will not, but Caoutchouc. In French, read the works of Cuvier, Chateaubriand, st. however, admit of it; for the Charter contains an express pro- Pierre, Marmontel, Buffon, Montesquieu, Fénélon, Pascal, &c. vision that every Candidate for the B.A. degree shall have studied J. MARTIN (Strood): Bis method of squaring the circle brings out the at one of the affiliated Colleges; and the Regulations fix the term answer to every question more than twelve and a-hall times greater than the of such study at two academical years, and the Senate of the Uni- | truth. versity could not, if they would, dispense with this condition.

A STUDENT OF MENSURATION (Liverpool) will find a table of the areas The only possible opening that we are aware of (and we think it of circles, commencing with a diameter of 1 inch, and advancing gradually is really the only one) for our correspondent, is to join the School of an inch in every diameter, till it reaches 100 inches, in " Adcock's

Engineer's Pocket Book,book other useful master's Class at University College, Gower-street. By the fol- tables.-S. STARTUP (Swanscombe) : There is a Map of the World in the lowing extract from the Prospectus of that college, it will be seen P. E., vol. i., p. 305; but a larger one will be given. that he might get the B.A. degree by so doing, but not before he is J. C. A. (Somers'-town): Our subscribers would justly laugh at us if we 25 years of age. This class is held in the evening two or three answered his queries. Let him consult the indexes to the volumes of the times a week,

P.E.-CYMRO BACH: We don't understand the passago, and perhaps it

really has no meaning. In many cases, we find that poetry is prose run LECTURES TO SCHOOLMASTERS, These Lectures have been established out of funds placed at the

ADA (Sleaford): The term esthetics is derived from the Greek allavouai, disposal of the College by an anonymous benefactor, who signed himself A I perceive or apprehend by the senses, and is especially applied to the


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ception of the beautiful in the arts. The asthetic of an art has for its object Four Courses will be delivered, each of Fifteen Lectures, on Latin, the study of its general modes of action, of its relations with our faculty of Mathematics, Natural Philosophy, and Greek, by the Professors in the perception, and of the power of determining the characters of the beautiful College of the respective subjects, on Tuesdays and Thursdays, from 7 in its productions.

JM. R. is right, but there are many before him. We have received to 9 P.M.

The Lectures on Latin will begin on Thursday, October 20th, and continue numerous answers to the boy and apple question. It was generally solved till Thursday, February 2nd, inclusive.

by Double Position; often by guess; and frequently by algebra. By the It is hoped that there will be time to read all the books named by the last method, it is solved as follows:- Let & be the number of apples; then University for the Examinations this year, and also to give some half-hours the 1st boy received to +1, and there remained .-; the 2nd boy received to detail. which bear on Latin Composition. The Books are for the B.A. **+}, and there remained *-*; the 3rd boy received *+$, and there degree, Cicero pro Archia, Pro Lege Manilia, Pro Marcello, Somnium remained u~, which by the question is equal to nothing; therefore, Scipions', and for Matriculation, the first Georgic of Virgil.

ht=, or =7, the number required. We shall now propose a question ourThe Lectures on Mathematics will begin on Tuesday, October 18th, and selves to all our students: If four equal balls, say of 10 inches diameter each, ntinue till Tuesday, February 7th.

be placed as close together as possible ;

-that is, all touching each other;The Lectures on Greek will begin on Thursday, February 9th. and con- what must be the diameter of another ball which, placed in the middle of tinue till Thursday, June 1st, on the Iphigenia in A ulis, and Xenophon's I the four, will touch all of them at once?


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