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gioles or radicles in which the roots terminate, and in the The ordinals denote the order in which the numbers follow, leaves. By these organs, vegetables absorb the carbonic acid, or the place in the series held by a particular number ; as the the ammonia, the oxygen, the hydrogen, the carbon and the fourth, tetaptos. They are all infected like adjectives of
three terminations, nitrogen necessary for their nutrition.
The liquids and the salts which they hold in solution are The multiplicatives denote how often a quality is repeated, at first absorbed by the radicles, by the double action of endos-, as two-fold, four-fold; they are compounds of thous, and have mose and capillary attraction ; then the sap produced by the three adjectival terminations, oữs, ñ, oūv, as ditlovs. Then vegetable, increasing in density in its superior parts, the phe- there are numeral adverbs in akis, which answer to the quesnomenon of endosmose still takes place and gives it an ascend- tion how often ? as #KaToVtakis, a hundred times. ing direction. Moreover, the ascent of the sap is favoured by
The proportionals are compounds of πλασιος, α, ον, and the vacuum which the exhalation of the leaves in the elevated denote so much the more than some other object, as OTACOLOS, parts of the plant has a tendency to produce. As to the capil- twice as much. lary action, it can only raise the liquids in the lower cellules
The substantive numerals express the abstract idea of and cannot produce à current. By this action alone the
number, as ovas, g. ados, dvality. ascent would only be about the eighth of an inch. Dr. Boucherie, of Bordeaux, has made a fortunate applica- the elements of words.
The alphabet serves as signs for number, as well as supplies tion of the absorbing property of vegetables, by introducing and twenty letters of the alphabet are so many cyphers. In
Hence, with the Greeks, the four into the structure of woods, salts of such a nature that one the series, however, three obsolete forms are introduced, kind gives them colours more or less bright, anà another kind namely, after ε the letter Bav or digamma, r or Erl, that is s, increases their flexibility and tenacity, or renders them less combustible. For this purpose, at the lower part of the trunk, as the sign for six ; also kotta, that is 5 as the sign for 90
and Eauri, 7, as the sign for 900. a cavity is'made which communicates with the solution proposed to be absorbed. In a few days, this is transferred to The first eight letters, from alpha to theta, bar or sti the top of the tree. In this manner, a brown tint is obtained included, make the first series consisting of units; the ensuing by the pyrolignite of iron ; a black, by tannin; and a blue, by eight, from iota to pi, including koppa, form the second series, the prussiate of potash,
or the succession of tens; and the remaining eight, from rho Absorption in Animals - In the lowest class of animated to omėgay together with sampi, make up the hundreds. beings, which is possessed only of a cellular structure, the Eleven is ta, that is ten and one; twelve is il', ten and process of nourishment is carried on, as in vegetables, by two, &c. imbibition and endosmose. In the higher classes of animals,
Up to 999, the letters when used as figures have an accent absorption takes place. For example, garancin or madder, when over them each, thus á, ty. When more than one sign stand
With 1000 the taken interiorly by these animals, penetrates their bones and thus together, the mark is over the last. gives them a red colour. In like manner, when a liquid is in alphabet begins afresh. In order to indicate this the mark is contact with a cutaneous surface from which the epidermis has placed under the letter, thus á = 1, but a = 1000; í=10 been removed, or with a mucous membrane, it is found that, as but,4=10,000. The present year in Greek numerals is these substances are very vascular, the liquid passes into the written thus, , awvd, 1864. vessels by the effect of endosmose, which constitutes the I here subjoin lists of the cardinals and the ordinals, absorption.
accompanied by our numbers and the corresponding Greek The more that substances approach the state of a perfect signs, The English words one, two, three, &c., need scarcely liquid, the more easily are they absorbed. In order, however, be added, and of course first, second, third, tenth, &c., will that the absorption of liquids may take place, the membra- readily be supplied by the student. neous substances must be wetted. Fatty substances, which are
Ordinals. not liquified, are not absorbed; but M. Bernard has observed
1 α' είς, μια, εν that they are easily made absorbable by forming them into an
πρωτος, η, ον
, , emulsion with pancreatic juice. Dr. Lose has recently observed
2 B' dvo, or ovu
δευτερος, α, ον that, by treating cod-liver oil in the same manner, it acquires 3 γ' τρεις, τρια
τριτος, η, ον greater energy, because that by this means it is more fully
4 δ' τετταρες, α, or τεσσαρ τεταρτος, η, ον absorbed.
TEJTT TOS, 1), ov Absorption, as well as endosmose, is increased by heat,
6 s' E
εκτος, η, ον After profuse perspiration or bleeding, absorption is likewise
, , increased.
7 ζ' επτα
έβδομος, η, ον Solid substances are also absorbed by the animal system. 8ņ' OKTW
ογδοος, η, ον This is frequently manifested by the saturnine paralysis, which 90'
, , seizes persons who have had their hands for a long time in
10 6 δεκα
δεκατoς, η, ον
, , contact with the salts of lead or litharge. After the poisoning
11 ια' ενδεκα
ενδεκάτος, η, ον has taken place, it is found in many cases that the deleterious substances were absorbed by different organs.
12 ιβ' δωδεκα
δωδεκάτος, η, ον
, , 13 ιγ' τρισκαιδεκα
τρισκαιδεκατoς, η, ον
14 ιδ' τετταρεςκαιδεκα or τεσσ, τετταρακαιδεκατoς, η, ον LESSONS IN GREEK.-No. XIX.
πεντεκαιδεκατoς, η, ον 16 ις εκκαιδεκα
εκκαιδεκατoς, η, ον By JOHN R. BEARD, D.D.
17 ιζ' επτακαιδεκα
επτακαιδεκάτος, η, ον THE NUMERALS; RECAPITULATORY EXERCISES.
18 ιη' οκτωκαιδεκα
Οκτωκαιδεκατoς, η, ον THE numerals express the relation of number. According to 19 ι9' εννεακαιδεκα
εννεακαιδεκατoς, η, ον their import they may be divided into five classes; 1, the
20 κ' εικοσι(ν) cardinals ; 2, the ordinals; 3, the multiplicatives ; 4, the pro.
21 και εικοσιν είς, μια, εν εικοστος, η, ον, πρωτος,ή, OP portionals; and 5, the substantive numerals,
τριακοστος, η, ον The foundation of the whole are the cardinals, or the chief, so called because they are the hinge (in Latin, cardo) 40 μ' τετταρακοντα or τεσσ. τετταρακοστος, η, ον on which the others turn. The cardinals answer to the ques
πεντηκοστος, η, ον
, ), tion, how many ? as “one, *two," "five," &c. Of the
60 ξ' εξηκοντα
εξηκοστος, η, ον cardinals, the four that come first, and the round numbers
70 ο έβδομηκοντα
εβδομηκοστος, η, ον from two hundred (dlaKOOLOL) up to ten thousand (uvploi), as
80 π' ογδοηκοντα
ογδοηκοστος, η, ον
The thousands are
, ), formed by the help of numeral adverbs, e..., tpis-X11101, 3000. 100 ρ' εκατον
εκατοστος, η, ον
ELKOOTOS 1). OV
30 X TO
ενενηκοστος, η, ον
οκτακοσιοστός, η, ον
200 σ' διακοσιοι, αι, α διακοσιοστος, η, ον
EXERCISES.-ENGLISH-GREEK. 300 τ' τριακόσιοι, αι, α
τριακοσιοστος, η, ον 400 υ' τετρακοσιοι, αι, α
Ευφρατης ποταμος εστι το ευρος τετταρων σταδιων. Το δε στατετρακοσιοστος, η, ον 500 φ' πεντακοσιοι, αι, α
διον εχει παρα τους Ρωμαιοις πεντε και εικοοσι και εκατον βηματα, 600 χ' εξακοσιοι, αι, α
εξακοσιοστος, η, ον
η πεντε και εικοσι και εξακοσιους ποδας. Κυρω παρησαν αι εκ
επτακοσιοστος, η, ον 700 ψ' επτακοσιοι, αι, α
Πελοποννησου νηες τριακοντα πεισε. Του Σαρου, Κιλικιας 300 ω' οκτακόσιοι, αι, α
Το δε πλεθρον εχει
εκατον ποδας. Κυδνος, Κιλικιας ποταμος, ευρος εστι δυο πλεθ900 Λ' ενναικοσιοι, αι, α
εννακοσιοστος, η, ον
χιλιοστος, η, ον 1000 α χιλιοι, αι, α
Του Μαιανδρου, Φρυγιας ποταμου, το ευρος εστιν εικοσι
πεντε ποδων. Ο παρασαγγης, Περσικον μετρον, εχει τριακοντα 2000 3 διςχιλιοι, αι, α
διςχιλιοστος, η, ον
σταδια η πεντηκοντα και επτακόσιους και οκτακισχιλιους και 3000 γ τριςχιλιοι, αι, α τριςχιλιοστος, η, ον 4000 δ τετρακιςχιλιοι, αι, α τετρακιςχιλιοστος, η, ον
μυριους ποδας. Αριθμος συμπασης της οδου της αναβασεως
και καταβασεως, ή υπο Ξενοφωντος συγγραφεται, ησαν σταθμοι 5000 ε πεντακιςχιλιοι, αι, α πεντακιςχιλιοστος, η, ον 6000 5 εξακιςγλιοι, αι, α εξακιςχιλιοστος, η, ον
διακοσιοι δεκα πεντε, παρασαγγαι χιλιοι εκατον πεντηκοντα 7000 και επτακιςχιλιοι, αι, α επτακιςχιλιοστος, η, ον
πεντε, σταδια τρισμυρια τετρακισχιλια εξακοσια πεντηκοντα, οκτακιςχιλιοστος, η, ον
χρονου πληθος της αναβασεως και καταβασεως ενιαυτος και 8000 η οκτακισχιλιοι, αι, α
εννακιςχιλιοστος, η, ον
τρεις μήνες. Ενος φιλια συνετου κρειττων εστιν ασυνετων 9000 9 εννακιςχιλιοι, αι, α
απαντων. Του Κυρου στρατευματος ην αριθμος των μεν 10,000 ι μυριοι, αι, α
μυριοστος, η, ον 20,000 κ διςμυριοι, αι, α
διςμυριοστος, η, ον
Ελληνων οπλιται μυριοι και τετρακοσιοι, πελτασται δε δισχιλιοι δεκακιςμυριοστος, η, ον.
και πεντακοσιοι, των δε μετα Kυρου Βαρβαρων δεκα μυριάδες 100,000 ρ δεκακιςμυριοι, αι, α
In forrming compound numbers you may put the smaller και άρματα δρεπανηφορα αμφι τα εικοσιυ. first and the larger second, interposing kal and, as TEVTE KAL
GREEK-ENGLISH. ELKOGIV, five and twenty; or you may reverse the order, still howerer keeping the conjunction, as εικοσι και πεντε, twenty απά tre, 25. Thus, 345 will be either πεντε και τετταρακοντα
It is better to have one intelligent friend than many unin
telligent ones. Seventy years produce about (augu and acc.) και τριακόσιοι, Or τριακοσιοι και τετταρακονα και πεντε.
25,555 days. The sum total of the way from the battle at (EV) Declension of the four first Numerals.
Babylon to (els) Cotyora, of the retreat, which Xenophon Namely, eis, one ; dvo, two; tpels, three ; TeTTapes, four. describes, is 122 stages, 620 parasangs, 18,600 stadia, the Ν. είς
length of the time eight months. The number of the army is G. ενος
39,850. (There) are four generals of the army, each of the D. ένι
four of (that is, commanding) 30,990 soldiers. In the battle δυν ένι μια
(there) were present 96,650 soldiers and 150 scythe-bearing Α. ένα
τετταρα 6. τριών
τετταρων . τρισι
τετταρσι Α. τρεις τρια τετταρας
LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.--No. XV. Like εις decline its compounds ουδεις and μηδεις, no one, thing, ουδεις, ουδεμια, ουδεν; g. ουδενος, ουδεμιας, &c. Plural, IPURPOSE beginning this lesson with a consideration of the disουδενες, ουδεμιαι, ουδενα, ουδεμων, ουδεσι, &c.; the δ is | tinctive properties of persalts of tin in solution. It was meneuphonic.
tioned in the course of the preceding lesson, that our protochloride Avo is often used as an indeclinable word for all cases. The of tin required to be well protected against the atmosphere, othernumeral auow, both, has, like ovo in the genitive and dative wise it rapidly became converted into perchloride; nevertheless, olv, thus, ajipoiv; the accusative is the same as the nomina- it being now our object to prepare a perchloride of tin unmixed tive; like ovo, auow is sometimes used as an indeclinable. with protochloride, we must adopt some more ready means of im
parting oxygen than that of mere exposure to atmospheric air. VOCABULARY.
101 feet English, or ş of a Κιλικια, ας, ή, Cilicia.
Nitric acid, or some of its compounds, are the bodies most comΦρυγια, ας, η, Phrygia.
monly had recourse to by the chemist for imparting oxygen. You Evopains, ov, o, the river Eu- Eradov, ov, to, a stadium=600 have already seen that nitric acid, when added to solid antimony
Greek or 606% English feet.
and solid tin, is decomposed, with the evolution of orange-coloured Πελτη, ης, ή, a small light Κοτυωρα, ων, τα, Cotydra, aofer remark which is of universal application. Whenever you
fumes, and a white powder in either case results : and here I
town in Pontas. Πελταστης, ου, o, a shield- Μυριας, αδος, ή, the number | add nitric acid to any body, no matter what, and observe that the
peculiar orange-coloured gas to which your attention has been bearer, targeteer.
10,000. “Οπλιτης, ου, o, a heavy- armed Βαβυλων, ωνος, ς, Babylon.
more than once directed escapes, rest assured that the portion of soldier.
Πους, ποδος, ο, (Lat. pes) a foot. the nitric acid has delivered up its oxygen to the substance opeΠαρασαγγης, ου, o, a parasang, Αναβάσις, εως, ή, & going up, comprehensible than any mere words :
upon. The following diagram will render this change more a Persian measure of length an expedition. = 30 stadia. Καταβάσις, εως, ή, a going
Binoxide of Nitrogen Αριθμος, ου, o, a number.
Nitric acid Βαρβαρος, και, a barbarian, “Αρμα, αρμάτος, τo, a carriage. every one not a Greek, Βημα, ατος, τo, a step, stride.
Peroxide of Tin
From an examination of this diagram, it appears that nitric acid Πελοποννησος, ου, η, Pelopon- Πληθος, ους, τo, a multitude, is composed of nitrogen and oxygen. The oxygen is represented
Συνετος, η, ον, intelligent. in our diagram as divided into two portions, such being the result Περσικος, η, ον,
Persian. Aperavnoopos, ov, scythe-bear- of decomposition. One of these portions goes to the tin, with “Ρωμαιος, ου, o, a Roman.
which it combines, giving rise to oxide of tin; the other unites Σαρος, ου, ο, the Sarus. Συμπας, ασα, αν, all, all toge- with the nitrogen, and forming the gas, binoxide of nitrogen, Σταθμος, ου, o, a station, a ther, total.
escapes. As regards this gas, you have already been informed that day's march, stage = 5 pa- Ewyypaow, I describe (ypapw, if collected without contact of atmospheric air, it is not orangerasangs or leagues.
I engrave, write).
coloured, but altogether colourless. This circumstance, however, Πλεθρον, ου, τo, a plethra-η | Παρειμι, I am present. .. το does not in any degree affect the practical truth of my remark,
= 60 = 146
that whenever you see an orange-coloured gas escape after you | tion of the precipitate sulphuret by excess of reagent. Your athave brought nitric acid in contact with any substance, the ap- tention was directed to this point whilst we were engaged on pearance is a proof that the nitric acid has been busy in giving arsenic; I now direct your attention to the same in respect of oxygen. In order to render the preceding diagram more simple tin, the sulphuret of which does not fall completely, so long as the than it otherwise could have been, I have avoided the appending liquor which should deposit it contains an excess of hydrosulphuric to it of proportional numbers. You may, however, add them, if acid, easily recognisable by the smell. Chemists, well aware of you please, making the statement as follows:
tnis fact always submit a solution, through which hydrosulphuric
acid as a precipitant has been passed, to a process of heating, in 2 equivalents of nitric acid
108 of tio
order to get rid of the excess of hydrosulphuric acid. In some
116 of nitrogen
cases this process of heating is carried on to the extent of ebulli. 10 of oxygen
tion; in others, the liquid is merely put to stand in a warm place
80 of binoxide of nitrogen
for the space of a few hours. Practice and extended knowledge of 2 of peroxide of tin
the nature of the bodies operated upon can alone determine which
process is the better of the two: in the case now under considerIn order to effect the conversion of protochloride into perchlo-ation, the process of continuous gentle heating should be adopted. ride of tin, take about half a wineglassful of the solution, add to it about a teaspoonful (not measured in a teaspoon, however) of Separation of Tin from Antimony.—We have already seen that strong nitric acid ; pour the mixture into an evaporating-dish ortin and antimony admit of being separated from all the metals Florence flask, and boil; continue the boiling operation until all which have hitherto come under our notice by the agency of nitric the liquid has been expelled by evaporation, and your protochlo acid ; which converts tin and antimony into insoluble oxides, the ride will have become converted into the perchloride of tin. other metals being dissolved. I shall now describe one of several
methods which might be adopted for effecting the separation of Fig. No.1,
these two metals.
In the first place, the two insoluble oxides must be rendered soluble, which is accomplished by fusing them with carbonate of soda or potash. The process of rendering bodies soluble by fusion with alkalis, or their carbonates, will come fully under our notice when we arrive at the chemical examination of silica or flint. On the present occasion I shall not detail the process, being convinced that the descriptions involved would be rather too difficult for performance. Instead, therefore, of assuming that you are endeavouring to separate tin and antimony from each other, both existing in the condition of oxide, let us assume the problem to be the separation of tán from antimony, both existing in the metallic
The first step in this operation will consist in obtaining both metals dissolved; and hydrochloric or muriatic acid (spirit of salt) is the best of all solvents that can be employed. Prepare, therefore, an alloy of antiinony and tin, by fusing the two metals together in an iron spoon or the bowl of a tobacco-pipe. When prepared, break it into small fragments and throw the latter into a Florence flask. Pour hydrochloric acid into the flask, and apply heat, by which treatment the two metals will be caused to dissolve. Inasmuch as the treatment about to be adopted necessitates the exist
ence of tin as a peroxide, it is well to add, towards the end of the In conducting this evaporation, as well as all others which result operation, a little nitric acid. Divide the liquid result into two
portions. to the liberation of corrosive vapours, care must be taken to make some provision for their escape. In laboratories special contri
Separation of the Antimony.--If into one portion of the liquid Vances are adopted; but private operators cannot do better than thus prepared and containing an excess of hydrochloric acid (that to conduct such evaporations under an open chimney. As regards is essential) a piece of pure tia be inmersed, and the whole our present evaporation, it may be advantageously conducted by warmed on a gand-bath, the antimony contained in the soplacing the Florence flask in a bed of hot sand : for the purpose ot | lution is thrown down in the form of a black powder, tin being holding the latter, an iron ladle or fryingpan, as depicted in fig dissolved from the bar to supply its place. By this simple method No. 1, may be used.
we obtain all the antimony originally present; and were our anaHaving evaporated all the liquid, and allowed the flask, ladle, mony by collecting, drying, and finally weighing it.
lysis quantitative, we might learn the exact amount of the antisand, and all to cool, add water to the result and dissolve it out. Pour now a little into a test-glass, wine-glass, or any other con- Separation of the Tin.-If into the other portion of the liquid & venient vessel, and try the effect of testing with hydrosulphuric piece of zinc be immersed, with the same precautions before obacid and hydrosulphate of ammonia. If the conversion of proto served as regards acidity and temperature, the whole of the conchloride into perchloride has been complete, you will obtain a tained tin will be precipitated in the state of fine powder, but yellow precipitate; if incomplete, the precipitate will be more or perfectly metallic. Were we engaged in performing a quantitaless black in direct proportion to the amount of protochloride still tive analysis, it is evident we could ascertain the exact amount of remaining untouched.
tin by collecting, washing, drying, and weighing the result. We
must not discard the metal tin without taking some cognisance of In this case of incomplete conversion you will have to add a its peculiar effect on glass, which it renders white and opaque. mixture of nitric and muriatic acid, and repeat the evaporative for this purpose, powder a little flint glass ; mix it with a little operation.
borax, in order to increase its fusibility, and dipping the looped Gencral Remarks concerning the Formation of Sulphurets by Hy- platinum wire, previously rendered adhesive by moisture, into it, drcsulphuric Acid Gas and Hydrosulphate of ammonia.--Remem- take up a portion and fuse it into a bead. This bead you will find buring the general rule, that whenever it is merely desired to test to be beautifully transparent; but if you now moisten the bead the presence of a metal by the agency of hydrosulphuric acid, this again, and attach to it a little oxide of tin (produced by the action test may be employed in the state of aqueous solution—but that, of nitric acid on tin), and fuse the whole together in the outer or whenever it is desired to separate the whole of a metal contained oxidizing portion of the blow-pipe flame, the bead becomes white, in a liquid by hydrosulphuric acid, then the test should be used enamel-like, and opaque ; under certain circumstances, arsenic in the form of a gas-let me now direct your attention to a phe- produces a similar effect, but no other metal. All the milk-white nomenon noticeable in either case; aş alan whan hydrosulphate of glass, so frequently met with in commerce, owes its peculiar de omnia is applied. The r henomads. We also on i to resolygance either to the presence of arsenic or tin.
A sort of white fusible glass, chiefly composed of oxide of tin,
$ 99. VERBS COMPOUNDED WITH NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. ' and technically known as tin-glaze, is very celebrated in the history of pottery.
(1) A variety of compounds is produced by the union of You are perhaps aware that the ancient Greeks and Romans had verbs with nouns and adjectives. These follow tắe same general no pottery similar to our own. The Samian pottery-and at a laws which govern those produced by means of prefixes. Some later period the Etruscan-although beautiful in many respects, of them, accordingly, are separable, 85, was restrained as to its improvement within yery narrow limits.
Fehrschlagen, to miscarry;
from the and fchlagen. The ware itself was red, and the utmost power of chromatic
Freisprechen, to acquit; adornment was restricted to the imprinting of black. Beyond this
spreden. the ornamental ceramic art of Greece and Rome did not go.
Gleichkommen, to equal;
gleich kommen. Losreißen, to tear away;
reißen. Now it will at once be seen that, even had the ancient Greeks
Stattfinden, to take place;
statt finden. and Romans pussessed enamel colours, they could not have given effect to them on a red ground. Before this chromatic ornamenta- (2) Some are inseparable ; as, tion could have been adopted, one of two things must have taken place : either the use of a pottery material so pure that the result- Frohloden, to exult;
from from and loden. ing ware would be white throughout, or the employment of a Frühstüđen, to breakfast;
früh tüden, white enamel, as an envelope to hide the imperfections of coloured Fuchsschwänzen, to fawn;
fuche schwänzen. clay. The first plan had been adopted by the Chinese from time Handhaben, to handle;
hand haben. immemorial; the second plan was introduced into Europe by the Liebäugeln, to ogle;
äugeln. Arabs of Spain. This ingenious people covered inferior pottery Liebkosen, to caress;
Lefon with a glaze of oxide of tin, and on this enamelled coloured Muthmaßen, to suspect;
muth maßen. igures. The first European factory of this ware was established
Vollziehen, to perform';
ziehen. in Majorca; hence the material is known as Majolica ware. The Willfahren, to gratify;
fahren. ornamental slabs still existing in the Alhambra-beautiful as Weisagen, to foretell;
sagen. when they were first made--are of Majolica ware. The most curious fact remains to be told: although the Greeks and Romans
(3) These verbs take the augment syllable ge in the perfect were totally ignorant of the use of tin enamel, the Assyrians and participle: except vollziehen, which has vollzogen. In some cases Babylonians were so thoroughly conversant with this substance however, verbs compounded with voll, also, take the augment and its glazing properties, that they even employed it for the pur- as vollgegossen, from vollgießen, to pour full. pose of enamelling ornamental bricks, as specimens lately brought to light attest.
$ 100. THE ADVERBS. This discovery renders it doubtful whether the Saracens were
(1) Adverbs in German, as in other languages, serve to moso much the inventors of tin-glaze as the media for handing down dify the signification of verbs, participles, adjectives and, often, a process which had been followed in Babylonia and Assyria, and also that of one another: denoting, for the most part, certain which perhaps had never ceased to be followed in some obscure limitations of time, place, degree and manner. . Hence are they locality.
usually classified according to their meaning.
(2) They are indeclinable; and formed, either by derivation
or composition, from almost every other part of speech : of some, LESSONS IN GERMAN.No. LXXX. however, the origin is wholly unknown,
Arranged according to derivation, adverbs are divisible into S 98. PREFIXES SEPARABLE AND INSEPARABLE,
the following classes :
s 101. ADVERBS PORMED FROM NOUNS.
Adverbs are formed from nouns by affixing the letter 8.
This (2) Their effect, when separable, is, in union with radicals, to termination 3 is nothing more than the sign of the genitive sinproduce certain intransitive compounds, in which each of the gular; which case, not only of nouns, but also of adjectives, parts (prefix and radical) has its own peculiar and natural sig. participles, &c., is often made to perform the office of an adnification.
verb. Examples : There are, however, some compounds of durch and um, in
Morgens, in the morning; from der Morgen, morning. which, though these particles are separable, the verbs are, ne- Abends, in the evening;
der Abend, evening. vertheless, transitive. Still, it will be found, that in such cases
Dags, in the day;
der Lag, day. the signification of the compound is figurative; as, umbringen,
Theils, in part, or partly; from der Theil, part. to bring about (one's death); i.e. to kill.
der Flug, flight. (3) Their effect, when inseparable, is, in connection with Durchgehends, generally;
durchgehend, passing the radicals, to form certain transitive compounds; which, for
through. the most part, are used in a figuraive or metaphorical sense. Zusehends, visibly;
zusehend, looking at.
$ 102. ADVERBS FORMED FROM ADJECTIVES.
(1) Adverbs are formed from adjectives by the addition of inseparable.
the suffixes lich, ħaft and ling8; which, except the last, are also Durcs, through ; Durchbrin'gen, to penetrate ;
regular adjective terminations. These endings are chiefly exŞ Durch'bringen, to press or force through;
pressive of manner; and may be translated sometimes by á corHin'tergehen, to go behind;
responding suffix (as the English ly or ishly), and sometimes by
some equivalent phrase. Examples :
Wahrlich, truly; verily; from wahr, true.
böse, evil; wicked. Um'gehen, to go around;
Freilich, sure; to be sure; , frei, free; sure.
1 blind, blind.
(2) The letter ø, also, as above stated, added to adjectives, Wiederholen, to repeat ;
gives rise to a class of adverbs : thus,
Rechts, on the right;
Daher, from there hither, i. e. Dahin, from thither (to) there,
i. e. thither.
Woher, from which place hither, Wohin, from which place thither
i. e. whither.
(4) We have no words in English, corresponding exactly in Stets, continually,
use and force with her and hin; and therefore, thongh everyThe letter & is, also, sometimes affixed to adverbs ending in where in German their force may be felt
, it cannot always be mal; as, vormals, formerly; damals, at the time; vielmale, many expressed by single words in translation.
Hence are they times. For numeral adverbs ending in mal, lei, &c., see the often treated as expletives. Section on Numerals
$ 104. ADVERBS FORMED FROM VERBS. (3) Here note, also, that almost all German adjectives, in the absolute form, that is, in the simple form without the terminations
(1) Adverbs are formed from verbs by suffixing to the radical of declension, are employed as adverbs : thus, er rennt schnell
, he part the termination lic. All adverbs so formed, however, are runs rapidly; er handelt ehrlich, he acts honestly.
equally employed as adjectives: thus,
Glaublich (from glaubten, to believe), credibly. 103. ADVERB FORMED FROM PRONOUNS.
Sterblic (from fterben, to die), mortally.
Kläglich (from Elagten, to lament), lamentably. (1) These are, chiefly, ba, there; from der, die, das, this or that; Merflich (from merf-then, to note; perceive), perceptible wo, where; from wer, was, who, what; her, hither, and hin, thither ; from some corresponding demonstrative pronoun no longer
S 105. ADVERBS FORMED BY COMPOSITION. found. (2) The pronominal adverbs in combination with other words, verbs in German is produced by the anion of various parts of
(1) Besides the classes given above, a numerous list of adgive rise to a number of compounds. Thus ba and wo, united with prepositions, serve often instead of the dative and accusative speech. Thus, the word Weise (mode, manner), combined with (neuter) of the pronouns der , wer and welcher, respectively. It will things individually or separately: thus, jorittweise, step by step:
nouns, form a class of adverbs employed chiefly in specifying be noticed, that when the other word begins with a vowel or theilweise, part by part ; tropfenweise, drop by drop; wogenweise
, with the letter n, da and wo are written bar and wor; that is, that wave by wave; like waves. Weise is also added to adjectives; z is inserted for the sake of euphony. The following are comdounds of da and wo:
as, diebischerweise, thievishly; glüdlicherweise, fortunately.
(2) Sometimes an adverb and a preposition are united; exDabei, thereby, Wobei, whereby,
amples of which may be found above under the head of adverbs i. e. by this or that.
i. e. by which.
formed from pronouns. Dafür, therefore, Wofür, wherefore,
(3) Sometimes adverbs are formed by the union or the repe. i. e. for this or that.
i. e. for which.
tition of prepositions: as, durchaue, throughout; thoroughly; Damit, therewith, Womit wherewith,
durch und duro, through and through. i. e. with this or that.
i. e. with which. Darin, therein, Worin, wherein,
(4) Sometimes a noun and a pronoun joined together serve i, e. in this or that.
i. e. in which.
as an adverb; as, meinerseits, on my side ; biefseits, on this side; Darunter, thereunder or among, Worunter, whereunder, among, allerdings, by all means. i. e, under this or that. i e. under this or that.
(5) Sometimes one adverb is formed from another by the Darum, there about or therefore, Worum, whereabout,
addition of a suffis; as, tüdlings, backwards : sometimes by the i.e. for this or that; therefore. i. e. about or for which; union of another adverb; as, nimmermehr, nevermore.
(6) Sometimes the several words composing a phrase are, by Daran, thereon,
Woran, whereto, i. e. on this or that,
i. e. to which,
being brought into union, made to perform the office of an adDarauf, thereupon, Worauf, whereupon,
verb: thus, fürwaħr (for für wahr), verily; sonst (for the o solete i. e. upon this or that.
i e. upon which
To ne ift, if it is not), otherwise ; else. Daraus, therefrom,
Woraus, wherefrom, i. e, from this or that. i e, from which.
$ 106. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. Davon, thereof, Wovon, whereof,
(1) Many adverbs, chiefly, however, those expressive of i. e. of this or that.
į. e. of which,
manner, are susceptible of the degrees of comparison. The Daz!, thereto, Wozu, whereto,
forms for these are the same in adverbs as in adjectives. i. e. tu this or that.
i. e, to which Dadurch, there-through or Woburch, whereby,
(2) It must be observed, however, that, when a comparison, therehy, i.e. through or by i. e. by or through which. strictly speaking, is intended, the form of the superlative prothis or that.
duced by prefixing am (See Obs. 38.) should always be em
ployed; as, er foreibt am schönsten, he writes the most beautiful (3) In like manner Wer and kin appear, also combined with (of all) other words. Between these two particles a distinction exists, wherever they are used, whether alone or in composition with viduals one with another, but merely to denote extreme excel
(3) If, on the other hand, we purpose, not to compare indiother words, which should be well understood and always remem- lence or eminence, there are three ways in which it may pro
signification, exact opposites : Her indicating perly be donefirstusing the simple or absolute form motion or direction towards the speaker; sin implying motion the superlative; as, er grüßt freundlichft, he greets or salutes in a or direction away from the speaker. The following are ex
manner very friendly, very cordially; secondly, by employing amples:
aufs (auft-das) with the accusative, or zum (3utbem) with the Serak, down hither (i. e. where Hinat, down thither, (i. e. away friendly; zum schönsten, in a manner very beautiful; lastly, by Hinab, down thither, (i. e. away dative, of the superlative; as, aufs freundlichfte
, in a manner very the speaker is).
from the speaker). Herauf, up hither. Hinauf, up thither.
adding to the simple form of the superlative the termination Heraus, out hither. Hinaus, out thither.
ens; bestens, the best or in the best manner; Höchftend, at the Herein, in bither; into this place. Binein, into that place.
highest or at the most. Hierher, or fieher, hither here; Hierhin, thither; this way for
$ 107. THE PREPOSITION. .
ward. Beriber, over hither. Hinüber, over thither.
(1) The prepositions in German, that is, the words employed erunter, under hither. Hinunter, under there.
merely to denote the relations of things, are commonly classified