« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
red in a district of red sandstone, grey in one of shales, black now 100 feet above the level of the sea, in the Gulf of in one of coal, and white in one of chalk. Boulders of this Bothnia. On the summit of this ridge lie scattered nur.erous description are easily accounted for. But all over Russia, large boulders of gneiss, in size from nine to sixteen feet in Poland, Germany, Holland, England, Ireland, Canada, and diameter. The sand on which the boulders rest is full of shells North America, broad plains and the sides of mountains have which now inhabit the Baltic sea. Hence, the boulders were boulders strewed orer' then, for which there is no parent / brought thither after the Baltic was formed, and were transrock within scores and even hundreds of miles.
ported across the waters of that sea. Boulders and stony fragments of this description abound in In Scotland, the Grampian Hills are from 3,000 to 4,000 feet England. They are frequently met with, in fields, half buried high. To the south of these mountains lies the deep and wide in the soil, and are often turned up by excavations in road- valley of Strathmore. To the south of Strathmore are the making and railway cutting. Whenever you see a boulder, it | Sidlaw Hills, composed of sandstone and shales. On the flanks suggests to you trio questions : first, where has it come from? 1 of these hills, at an elevation of 1,500 feet above the sea, are found and secondly, what brought it to the place it now occupies? | large blocks of mica schist, some of them three, some of them Geologists have examine these two questions with much fifteen feet, in diameter. Blocks of precisely the same characattention and skill, but they could find no satisfactory answers, ter are strewed in the intervening valley of Strathmore, all of before they adopted the hypothesis of the transporting power which have come from the Grampians, fifteen miles from the of drifting icebergs and packed ice.
Sidlaws. To the South of the Sidlaws are the Pentland Hills, To interest you in the solution of these two questions, it is į about 1,100 feet above the sea. On one side of these hills necessary to mention some of the most remarkable facts con- there is a huge block of mica schist, from eight to ten tons in nected with this boulder deposit, or, as it has been called, the weight, which must have come from the Grampians fifty miles NORTHERN DRIFT.
off, and which must have been borne over the Sidlaws about 1. There can be no doubt that all the boulders have come thirty miles distant. from the north; for their course, both in Europe and America, 3. The fragments which form these boulders have been is found to be either due north and south, or varying a few removed to an immense distance from their parent rocks, or degrees to north-west and south-east. The immense plains of what geologists call rocks in situ. In the southern parts of Russia and Poland are covered with thousands of blocks of | Russia and Germany many of these boulders are found at the granite, all of which agree in mineralogical character with the distance of 800 miles, and some even 1,000 miles, from the mountains of Lapland and Finland. In Denmark, Holstein, I nearest rocks from which they could have been disiodged.
and Pomerania, the sandy flats have, scattered over their whole | Boulders from Scandinavia are found on the declivities of the extent, fragments of syenite, gneiss, and trap, exactly of the Alps. Instances of similar extent of transportation abound same description as the rocks of Sweden and Norway.
among the boulders scattered over the northern districts of Boulders, containing specimens of almost all known rocks, the United States of America. have been transported to the eastern counties of England. In 4. The most remarkable and the most puzzling circumstance Cambridgeshire, Huntingdonshire, Bedfordshire, Herts, Mid- in this formation, is the fact, that some of these boulders have dlesex, Essex, Suffolk and Norfolk have been found fragments evidently been transported from a lower to a higher level. froin Silurian rocks, carboniferous series, lias, oolite, chalk, Near Kirby Lonsdale, there are many large blocks of trap, granite, and other crystalline rocks. Some of these boul- grauwacke scattered over the mountain limestone at an elevaders could have come only from Norway and Sweden, for Sir tion of from 50 to 100 feet above the parent rock, and even CHARLES LYELL traced them from those two countries to almost to the top of the Fell, 500 feet above their original posiDenmark across the Elbe, through Westphalia, to the borders tion. In that district there is another case in which boulders of Holland. “We need not,” he says, “ be surprised to find have been transported from the Vale of Eden, where the parent them reappear on our eastern coast, between the Tweed and rock is 500 feet above the sea, to and over the pass of Stainthe Thames,-regions not half so remote from Norway as are moor, at the height of 1,400 feet, so that these boulders lie now many Russian erratics from the source whence they came. 900 feet above the level of the rock in situ. Similar facts are
On the western coast, and in the midland counties of Eng- found on Ben Erin on the western side of Glen Roy, on land, similar facts are met with. On the coasts, in the plains, Arthur's Seat near Edinburgh, in the Isle of Man, and in North and on the sides of the hills, of Lancashire and Cheshire, and America. through Shropshire, Staffordshire, and Worcestershire, im- One of the most singular facts connected with the elevated mense deposits of pebbles and a vast number of boulders are position of boulders occurs in North Wales. As the traveller found scattered, which must have been transported thither journeys westward on the Holyhead Road, he comes to Llyn from Cumberland and Dumfriesshire in Scotland.
Ogwen, and on his left rises å precipitous mountain called 2. Boulders have been transported across seas and Jakes and Moel Tryfaen, which attains the height of 1,392 feet above the plains, and over the ridges of high hills and mountains, Near level of the sea. On the summit of this rock are found chalk Upsala, in Sweden, there is a ridge of sand and gravel tkst is flints associated with boulders of various kinds. There is
good reason to believe that the chalk flints were transported denly. This is proved from the general absence of organic from Ireland, and therefore from a considerably lower level. remains in the clays and sands, which are found to cover the Facts of this description form one class of the difficulties which formation of the drift boulders, and from the complete preserpress upon the theory of icebergs as the agents of transporta- vation of the flesh and the hair of the elephants which were tion ; for no floating ice could possibly transport boulders from discovered in the frozen mud of Siberia. a lower to a higher level. Mr. Darwin ascribes these results 4. This great and sudden reduction of the temperature to the joint'action of floating icebergs and of packed coast ice. would fill the glens of the Polar mountains with immense He shows that on Moel Tryfaen the well-rounded pebbles of glaciers, which, as explained in our last lesson, would stretch chaik flints and other boulders were, in all probability, trans- far into the waters of the Northern Sea. Eren at the present ported by coast ice, though it is at the same time evident, from day, many of the glaciers that descend the ravines of Spiztberthe extraordinary manner in which the laminæ of the slate gen project several hundred feet from the coast into the sea. rocks have there been shattered, that icebergs have also been Indeed, at this epoch, called the glacial period, it is probable driven against them when under water ; so that both actions that northern mountains of comparatively moderate height seem to have concurred in that neighbourhood.
would have their valleys filled with glaciers, and that rast You
have now been informed of the remarkable positions of sheets of ice would stretch eastward, and westward, and southdistance and elevation in which boulders are discovered. Our ward, as far as the phenomena of boulders have been observed. next business is to try to answer the question,-how they 5. In other circumstances the icebergs detached from these came there? The most skilful geologists found it almost impos- glaciers that protruded into the Polar seas, would take up and sible to account for the position of boulders, before they adopted convey to a distance huge masses of rock, which water alone, the glacial, or rather the iceberg theory, called also the glacio- however impetuous, could never have mored, and would aqueous.
transport them hundreds of miles without wearing off the anguAt first all inquirers were misled by the assumption that larity oftheir edges. the boulders had been transported and deposited by the deluge 6. As the lower surface of the icebergs would either be of Noah, on which account they are to this formation the abraded by the action of the sea, or melted by the increased name of Diluvium. Others, and some of them very distin- temperature in the south, the masses of clays, sands, gravels, guished geologists, like Mr. Hopkins of Cambridge, ascribed and boulders, which they had brought down as glaciers, or their removal to a series of diluvial waves that swept over the imbedded as coast-ice, would drop down and ve scattered at land.
random over the bottom of the sea. Though the iceberg theory has its difficulties, and does not 7. The bottom of this sea might be extensive plains, or high fully meet all the phenomena of the case, yet it seems to come į ridges of hills. When you consider that seven parts out of
nearest to the vera causa, or the real agency that produced the eight of a high iceberg are under water, it is obrious that such result.
a deep body of ice, in moving southward, would strike against 1. It is certain that all the boulders come from the north. the crescs or the flanks of these submarine ridges, and there deAll the rocks, of which boulders are specimens, are in situ posit its clars and boulders. These submarine hills became, at towards the north. All the shells which are frequently found another geological period, elerated, by volcanic action, to an in the clays associated with the boulders indicate a northern elevation much higher than the sea, and bearing on their climate. There seems also an intimate connexion between a ridges or sides the boulders that had been imbedded in their very cold or extreme northern climate, and the various geolo- surface of clay or sandi. gical appearances which have been called glacial.
8. The application of the iceberg theory to the elucidation of 2. In the neighbourhood of the Baltic, the course of the boulder phenomena is in fuil harmony with all th science erratic blocks, and the grooving and the smoothing of rocks, hias taught us about glaciers. What we know of terminal have been traced from the level of the sea shore to elevations moraines corresponds with the accumulations of clay and gravel of above 3,000 feet. Nothing of this kind has been found which are called the Drift, and which are found associated either on the shores or on the sides of the rocks above the with the blocks or boulders. It also accounts for the smoothMediterranean, nor in the equatorial parts of Asia, Africa, and ing and grooving of rocks, for the parallelisms in the markings America,
or striæ on the surface of rocks, and for the high and precipi3. It can be prored that at an earlier age in the history of tous ledges on which the boulders have been lodged. our globe, at the close of the tertiary period, the northern Boulder phenomena, however, present three difficulties hemisphere was considerably colder than it is at present, and which the iceberg hypothesis does not seem to obviate. First, that this diminution in the temperature took place very sud- I boulders are frequently found water-worn and rounded at the
edges,--a result which would not be produced by transportal Now, imagine such a coast, so corered with boulders, to be in icebergs. Secondly, the size of the boulders, as a general subsiding. As it gradually subsides, ihe coast-ice would, by rule, diminishes as their course is traced southward, whereas the first powerful gale, be driven still higher up, and thus, as an iceberg would easily have carried a block of twenty tons as the subsidence continued and the gales repeated, the boulders far as a boulder of twenty pounds. Thirdly, floating icebergs would be impelled onwards and upwards. When this land could not have placed boulders on elevations many hundred would again emerge and appear above the waves, the boulders feet higher than the rocks from which they are derived. To on its sides or ledges would lie far above the neighbouring enable the iceberg hypothesis to meet these difficulties, Mr. rock from which they were derived. Darwin has brought to its aid the agency of coast-ice, and Sir RODERIC MURCHISON, in his “Geology of Russia,'' has especially the action which is called the packing of the ice, as thrown considerable light upon the boulder and drift deposits. witnessed in high latitudes,
He thinks that when the granitic rocks of Norway and Sweden, 1. It is possible that such boulders might have been worn &c., were emerging from the ocean, their rugged pinnacles and rounded while they were in charge of glaciers in polar were shattered into huge fragments by the expansive power of valleys, and worn in their progress towards the coast, before the severe frost of the period. Glaciers carried these enormous they came far enough to form the constituents of an iceberg. masses to the sea-coast, whence they were taken up by icefloes, The coast-ice, however, that is formed on shallow shores, even which, by the force of subaquæcus currents, transported them where nu glaciers protrude, will take up and enclose the stones hundreds of miles to the south, and then deposited theña and pebbles that lie along the coast. When the ice meits, on the sea hottom. These submarine deposits were, in a they drop, and the next winter's ice takes them up again. Or subsequent period, upheaved above the ocean to form the disthe coast-ice that imbeds them may strand them with violence fricts which are now called Russia and Germany, where the on a different part of the shore;' and such ice may become boulders deposited by icebergs are the monuments of the detached icefloes, which carry these fragments over rocky change by which the bottom of the sea became dry land. shoals, and thus wear and polish them. As such coast-ice is 1107 very thick, it is likely to be landed in shallow places : then, by the action caller ihe packing of the ice, the pebbles and LESSONS IN FRENCH. No. LXXIX. boulders imbedded in it will be driven 11p tire beach, and will eventually be left perched on ledges of rock. On the sup
By Professor Louis FASQUELLE, LL.D. position that such a coast would become submerged and again sise above the sea, it might be expected that boulders, which 132. VERBS REQUIRING THE PREPOSITION de BEFORE AN had thus been buoyed up by coast-ice during long-continued
INFINITITE. ages, would be well rounded. 2. The gradual decrease in the size of the boulders, the Accuser (s"), to accuse one's self
Abstenir (s'), to abstain
Désoler (se), to gieve
Détourner, to dissuacle further we proceed from the parent-rocks, does not always hold Achever, to finish
Différer, to put off good. Mr. Darwin says, that on the plains of Patagonia, Affecter, to affect
Dire, to say, tell the two largest boulders that he saw were near the outskirts of Afiliger (s"), to grieve
Disconvenir, to deny the deposit. When boulders are transported in sheets of ice, Agir (s”), unip., to be the question Discontinuer, to discontinue or fragments of coast-ice, called icefloes, the buoying and Applaudir (s), to rejoice
Dispenser, to luspense transporting agent is not of disproportionate power to its burden. Appréhender, to apprehend Dispenser (--), to for bear As the icefioe decays, the heaviest fragments would naturally Avertir, to warn
Disculper (se), to apologise
Dissu..der, to dissuude that the larger boulders taken up by coast-ice are, during Avoir couture, to be accustomech be apt to drop out first. The accounts of navigators intimate Aviser (s'), to bethin!, one's self
Douter, to doubt some winters, not moved at all, while the smaller ones are Avoir dessein, to-inteni
Eforcer (s'), to endeavour drifting onwards. Hence the boulders that have travelled Avoir envie, to wish
Effrayer (s'), to be frightened
Einpêcher, to prevent farthest, would, from having been repeatedly stranded every Aroir garde, to take care
Empresser (s"), to lasten summer, be inost worn, and therefore would be smaller than Avoir honte, to be ashamed
Epouvanter (s'), to be frightened those which had travelled a shorter distance,
voir intention, to inter
Entreprendre, to undertake The iceberg theory is itself almost sufficient to account for Avoir le temps. tu have time Enrager, to be recec this sorting of the boulders. Icebergs float in a sea of variable Ivoir le courage, to have courare
Etonner (**), to wonder depth. The heavier boulders require larger icebergs to buoy voir peur, to be afraid
Eviter, to avoirl thern up. The greater the volume of the iceberg, the sooner
Avoir raison, to be right
Excuser (B'), to excuse one's self would ii, in its southward course, strike against the shallower
Avoir regret, lo regret
Féliciter, to congratulate parts of the sea bottom, and deposit its clays and blocks; but Avoir sujet, to have reason
Féindre, to fciyn the smaller and lighter icefloes, laden with finer gravel and Avoir soin, 'to take care
Flutier (se), tu flatter one's sels
Frémir, to shiuder smaller bouldeis, would pass over to a much greater dis- Blâmer, to blame
Garder (se), to take care
Gémir, io lament 3. As to the transportal of boulders from a lower to a higher Censurer, to censure
Gloritier (se), toprile one's self level, it is not supposed that this takes place universally, but Cesser, to cease
Hasarder (se), to venture only in certain favourable situacions, and which inay he Chagriner (se), to grieve one's self Hâter (se), to husten accounted for by the action called the "packing" of icefloes. ¡Charger, to desire, to intrust Imputer, to imputo Voyagers who have navigated polar regions have stated that Clarger (se), to take on one's self Judigner (s'), to be inclignant the pack-ice frequently piles un and leaves blocks of stone at Choisir, to choose
Ingérer (:'), to take into one's head the height of thirty feet above high water-mark.
Commander, to commanci
Inspirer, to inspire
Jurer, to swear
Nlanquer, to fail Canada and North America, Sir CHARLES LYELL supposes that contenter (se), to be satisfied. TIéditer, to think, to in'enil the land thus circumstanced first subsided gradually into the Convaincre, to convince
Nêler (se), to mudile sea, and then, hy an agency from below, einerged and attained Couvenir, to become, suit
Menacer, to threaten a higher level than before. While it was in the process of Curriger, to correct
Nériter, 'to vicserve sinking, the sea that then bordered it was covered with ice. Craindre, 10 sear
Loquer (se), to laugh ac bergs toating from the north. As these hergs grounded on Décourager, to discourage
Mourir (tigu. ), to long
Negliger, to wylect the shallow bottoms, or the sides of ridges in the sea, the force Dé faigner, 10 dischin
Délencire, 10 forbid
Nier, to deny that propelled them pushed along also materials of sand,
Défendre (se), to derline gravel, and publiles, which then lay at ihe bottom of the sea. | Delier, to challenge, tv dire lirler, tu sjerk By the comined forces or the current and of the icebery, the Depêcher (se), so it isten
Passer (se) to do irithout rugged and guar blocks which were embedded in the lower
Perintire, i permit surface of the lorberts !!! which projected out of is, would xe),
Persuader', cu pers udle
to lure of have the poser of narking, or groving the underlaying rocks, Diebuer
Piquer (se), lu ruka prile uz by wbichac:ion che biucks themselves would become wall
Plaindre, to pity and rounded,
Plaindre (se), to complain
'espérer, to despair
Avoir tort, to us wrong
Parilunner tu PCCR50
Prendre.garde, to take care, heer Reprendre, to censure
(4.) The participle past, having avoir for
having avoir for an auxiliary, Prendre soin, to take care Reprimander, to reprimand
agrees with its direct-regimen, when that regimen precedes the Prescrire, to prescribe
!leprocher (se), to reproach one's participle Presser, to urge
Késoudre, to resolre
[self Presser (se), to hasten Ressouvenir (se), to remember
La lettre que vous avez écrite. The letter which you have written, Présumer, to presume Rite, to lang
Pédro, qu'as tu fait de nos mon- Pedro, what host thou done with Prier, to desire Bougir, to Ulush tures ?--Seigneur, je les ai attachées our horses?
our horses? My lord, I have fastPromettre, tu promise Scandali:er (*), to take offence
à la grille.
LE SAGE. ened them to the grate.
Les meilleures harangues sont The best addresses are those which
tive heart has dictated.
Je les ai cherchés dans tous les I have sought them in every corner,
coins, et je ne les-ai pas trouvés. but have not found them. Recommander, to reccnuinene Suggérer, to suggest
SIWE, DE GENLIS.
Supplier. io beseech
(5.) But, if the direct regimen is placed after the participle, Réjouir (se), to rejoice Trerabler, to treinile
this participle remains invariable:Remercier, to thank Vanter (se), to boast
J'ai reçu votre lettre.
I have received your letter. Repentir (se), to repent
C'est la vérité elle-même qui lui It is truth itself which has dictated Il vaut mieux husarder de saurer It is weiter to run the risk of a dicé ces belles paroles.
to him those fine words. un coupable que de condamner un sparing a guilty person, than to cm
BOSSUET. innocent, VOLTAIRE. d'em2 (Ünocert one.
Les dieux ont attaché presque The gods Trave attached almost as Le monde se punte de faire des The world boasts that it can render autat de malheurs à la liberté, many misfortunes to liberty, as to heureux. VIASSILLON. inen hann
qu'à la servitude.
MONTESQUIEU. j 133.-RULE. (1.) Two or more verbs may govern the same object, provided they require the same reginen:
CORRESPONDENCE. Nous aimons, nous instruisons, He love, we instruct, and we et nous louons nos enfants. praise our children.
[Ve insert the following remarks “On Bathing when heated," This sentence is correct, because aimer, instruire, and louer, readers who are fond of this exercise. Of course, we do not com
because we think them well worthy the attention of those of our being active verbs, govern one and the same case, the direct mit ourselves entirely to the accuracy of every point, because we regimen.
have not had sufficient personal experience ; but we co i sider that (2.) But when the verbs require different regimens, they there is much truth in what our correspondent says.] cannot govern one and the same 'noun; and therefore another form must be given to the sentence.
Te couid not say in
ON BATHING WHEN HEATED. French,--Un grande nombre de vaisseaux entrent et sortent de ce port tous les mois,-A great nimeer of vessels enter and go out Sir,-At the end of the article on Physical Education 'which has of this port every month, because the verb entrer reaches its regi- reference to bathing in your No. for August 27th, you place certain men by means of the preposition dans, and sortier by means of rules to be attended to by the bather before going into the water.
I am well aware that it has been loog a popular as well as profesthe preposition de. We should say :
sional axiom that sudden ricissitudes of temperature are dangezous, Un grand nombre de vaisseaux A large number of resseis enter that a previous not state of body augments the hurtful effects of cold entrent dans ce port et en sortent this port and leave it erery month. horerer applied; but the proposition thus broadly stated is not tous les mois.
universally true.' The ia habitants of Russia are in the habit, while
reekiag from vapour baths, of immediately rolling in the snow, or See $ 92, (1.) (2.), also note, and § 140.
plunging into cold water without suffering from the change. Cap
tain Scoresby, while in the Arctic Regions, often passed from his § 134.—THE PARTICIPLE Past,
room where the temperature was from 35 to 60° to the mast head,
where it was only 10°, without receiving any injury or inconve(1.) We have seen C6, (3.)] that the participle past, not nieuce; and other instances may be brought forward. Thus it is accompanied by an auxiliary, assumes the gender and number plain that the proposition which assigns danger to extreme vicissiof the noun which it qualifies
tudes of temperature requires some limitation; the effect of a sudLes inimitiés sourdes et cachees Quiet and concealed enmity is den descent from one point to another in the scale of temperature, sont plus à craindre que les haines more to be jeared than open ani de varies according to the state of the body at the time. Man, to
Noël. ouvertes et déclarées.
gether with the warm-blooded animals, you are aware, by the faculty clareti hatred.
of evolving beat, maintain the same degree of inward temperature (2.) The participle past accompanied by the auxiliary étre, under very different degrees of outward temperature. Norr if this agrees in gender and number with the subject of the verb, power of evotring heat be entire, active and persistent, no peril whether the subject be placed before or after it. [See s need attend even violent alterations of external temperature. 135, (1.)]
Unusual heat of the body at the time when the cold is applied, so
far from implying danger, is really the condition of-safeiy, provided Le fer est émoussé ; les bûchers The suord is blurted; the piles that heat is steady and permanent; but if a person be exhausted sont éteints VOLTAIRE. are extinguished.
and weakened by exercise, rapidly parting with his heat, if he La vertu obscure est souvent Humble virtue is often despised. remains-at rest etter and during the application of cold, then it is méprisée. LASSILLOX.
highly perilous, and likely to produce mischief. Thus cold is Les Grecs étaient persuadés, que The Greeks were persuaded, that dangerous not when the body is hot, but when the body is cooling l'âme est immortelle. the soul is immortal.
after having been leated. Thus those whose business it is to BARTHÉLEUY.
advise, may caution the public against the common mistake which Quant il vit Purge où étaient When he perceived the urn in has had its origin in the unqualified credit given to the maxim, rentermées les cendres d'Hippias, il which were enclosed the ashes of that sudden vicissitudes of external temperature and exposure to versa un torrent de larmes.
Hippias, he shed a torrent of tears. cold while the body is hot are dangerous, whereas they are only Féxécon.
dangerous under certain circumstances. Thus wet leet or a wet
skin need cause no apprehension, so that active exercise is con(3.) The participle past, having avoir as its auxiliary, never tinued; but when that exercise ends, then it is that a change of agrees with the noininative :
clothes and a further avoidance or the application of cold is imporVous riez? Ecrivez qu'elle a ri. You laugh? Put down that she tant. You may safely iell tile büthier, ihat after walking on a hot R.ICINE, laughed.
day to the river's side, he had better not fait to.cool himself a little dles amis ont parlé; leurs caurs ally friends have spoken; their before he plunges into the stream. The point to be remembered
1*!LTAINE., sopt attendris. hearts are moved.
is that the heat which is preternaturally accumulated by exercise is Mes cousines out in.
My cousins hare real.
lield with little tenacity, is dissipaied by profuse perspiration, and LESCUETCLLE.
is speedily lost when to this perspiration is added a state of rest
after fatigue, and it is then that cold is most apt to be prejudicial. are good.-VIOLINO (Bridport): Received, and under consideration.-J. We have an easy criterion as to the propriety of cold bathing, in Corby (Woodford): Yes, if in good condition,
by paying the difference. the feelings of the person afterwards,-if the bath is followed by A PUPIL TEACHBR's lines are very good, and do credit to his head and a glow of warmth, &c., it will do good, but if the bather feels cold and heart; but we cannot insert thein in the P. E.-E. J. (Shelton) and a chilly, &c., it should be discontinued as being useless and hazardous. DROGHEDA SUBSCRIBER will, by writing to Mr. Dunn, Secretary of the In the former case cold bathing becomes a tonic, stimulating and Training-School of the British and Foreign School Society, at Borough
road, London, obtain at once all the information be requires.-H. DUNKLEY invigorating both to mind and body. The time for bathing requires (Plumstead): The Lizard Point, Cornwall, is the priset southerly point of to be modified according to the health of the bather; if the powers
: are too languid to admit of the necessary reaction, much benefit is under certain conditions ; see the lessons again. Bills of Exchange will be derived from mid-day bathing.
more fully explained.-W.J.: See Lessons in Geography, pp. 30, 61, 144, Apologising for thus writing, but the interest which I take in and 162, vol. iii.-E. H. COOKE (Kidderminster): Under consideration. your valuable paper, and also on the subject of bathing, which I. G. B. (Ilchester): We fear that we cannot advise him; he should write
to the Secretary of the Apothecaries' Company for information.-A. M. I consider a necessary of life, will I trust be a sufficient excuse GARDNER (Peasenhall): The French Lessons, reprinted from the P. E., I am, &c.,
MEDICUS. parts I. and II., will completely answer your purpose. --THOMAS CHOPE
(Hartland): We fear that his suggestion, though good, is not practicable.CHARLES W. (Islington): Read the papers on the University of London in
vol. iii.- PHILOANTE (Bowling); If he has a special call, let him go on; if ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.
not, we would advise hiin to pause.
SEVERAL WHO WISH TO BE ARTISTS: We are desirous'? supply the K. PINETAC: ais pronounced nearly like the English letter i in fine, wants of all our subscribers; but they will see from our advertiserents and though a little broader, like the English word aye. It is a compound of the notices that their wishes cannot consistently with these be inmediately sounds ah and ee blended together. av is pronounced like the English a in gratified; the subject, howerer, will not be overlooked. toater, e: like the letter in line, like oy in boy, like wi in wiseand nu nearly like the word you, but with more stress upon the ce sound. AN ORPHAN (London): Apply to the London Orphan Asyluin, Clapton.There is a French expression, il y avait, for there was.
R. J. L. (Littleport) should take C. W. 11.'s advice, and write to the SecrePidos: Your plan of study is excellent, and appears from your letter tary of the Committee of the Councilon Education, Downing-street, London.to answer well. Thanks for the hint you throw out. It shall not be lost Sheffield; but he should return his copy of Part X. to the bookseller who
in sight of.
supplied him with it as incomplete, and get a complete one instead of it. JAYE3 ROBINSOX (Burnopield): We have already stated, in answer to N. B. (Portsea): Not directly, but by the introduction of two or three other correspondents, that the capital Greek upsilon, though like the English Lemmas.-WRITING CLERK (Tralee): Under consideration.-R. B. N. Ross Y in form, has no resemblance to it in sound. In writing Greek, it is only (Camberwell): Right; yes.-Philo: Many thanks; you are perfectly right necessary to imitate the printed characters as nearly as possible, giving in everything; the mistakes have arisen from careless printing; for them a slope for the sake of convenience.
instance, the multiplier 128 should be 126, and the multiplier 196 should be Mavdavw; The Greek upsilon, when a capital letter, takes pretty 96; try these numbers, and you will find that the answers correspond.-An Dearly the form, but not the pronunciation, of the English Y. has the
C. C. (Halifax): D'Aubuisson, Traite Hydraulique, 9s.-A BRICKLAYER same scund whether with a straight or a curly tail.
(Manchester): Nicholson's work:: Principles of Architecture; ArchiBLANDUS : Evtuxia means good fortune, prosperity; and ought to have tectural Dictionary; Student's Instructor in the Five Orders; Practical been given in the vocabulary. iNews is a misprint for ilew We are Builder, &c. obliged to discontinue the etymological vocabularies for want of room. Any VIVA L'ITALIA: Hutton's Course of Mathematics improved by Davies, or good Greek lexicon will supply nearly the same information.
Christie's Course for the Cadets at Woolwich.-W.A. (Aberdeen) should A CRIPPLE will find the pronunciation of the German word man, and the study Writing, Arithmetic, and Bookkeeping, in order to fit himself for a others he mentions, fully explained in the interlinear pronunciation of the clerkship.--A SUBSCRIBER (Bradford) and his friends had better not ineet lesson and the preceding directions. He has only to notice the figure placed on Sunday morning for the studies they propose; any other morning will do over the a, and look in the directions to see what sound it indicates. He better. God and li18 word, religion and a future state, are surely WORTH One will also find it stated that an apostrophe after a vowel has the effect of day's consideration out of the seven.-A LABOURER IN THE VINEYARD lengthening it. The accent at the end of a syllable merely denotes that the should not trouble himself with what might have happened had not things stress is to be laid upon that syllable.
been as they are. Sin has come into the world, and God has appointed all A POWER-LOOM WEAVER's parcel is forwarded to the Royal Society.
easy way of escape from it; this is enough. Greek and Latin inay assist A GOVERNESS (Camden-town): The P. E. is published in New York. --w. each other, but study Latin first.-E. BLURTON (Stourbridge): le regret
that we cannot give the required information, LEWIS (Manchester): Chemistry in full vigour in vol. iv.-MUSIC is postponed for the present.--T.H.(Cork): The best way to learn to express your ideas is to join a Debating Society. FABER LIGNARIUS (Turriff): Mr. Cassell's Classical Library, together with Dr. Beard's Latin Dictionary, will con
LITERARY NOTICES. tain the books best adapted for making progress in the Latin tongue.--Socius: In learning Bookkeeping there is no need to go to the expense of separate
FRENCH. books; separate portions of one book may be carefully and neatly adapted to the purpose, by the student himself.-J.S. CHAPMAN (Manchester): The
Now ready, price 4s. in stiff Wrapper, or 53. strongly bound in cloth, Lessons in Latin in the P. E. are the best we know.-J. T. BODNIS (Green- the First Part complete, consisting of the French and English, 1 CASSELL'S wich) is wrong as to the FACT of the letters inserted in the P. E., but right FRENCH DICTIONARY: the entire work will be completed in Twenty-six as to the IMPRESSION; a change will be made for the better.-A WRAVER | Threepenny Numbers, and will form one handsome Volume of eight liundred (Clackmannan): Ones in the plural form, referring to a plural noun in a pre- and thirty-two pages. Price 8s, 6d. bound in cloth, or the Two Divisions ceding sentence, is an adjective pronoun; see p. 211, vol. iii. P.E.OPTICUS may be had separate. (London): The subject of Optics is announced for next volume.
A COMPLETE MASUAL OF THE FRENCH LANGUAGE, by Professor Do DIRS, SLIPSLOP(Perthshire) must put on her spectacles, and she will then Lulme, just published, price 33. neatly bound. This forins one of the find NAHOR in a line with ABRAHAM, p. 3, vol. i. P. E., Genesis xi. 26, It most simple, practical, and complete Guides to a thorough knowledge of the is not a mistake with Luke, for Moses has been misrepresented ; see the French Language which has hitherto been pubuished. The plan upon which Septuagint.-S. J. R. (London): All right; the maps will be continued.-
it is conduct-u is admirally calculated to accomplish the proposed object. 2. E. D. (Edinburgh): It will be done.-W. Roberts: The memory is In the first place, the Grammatical Principles of the Language are clearly improved by exercising it. Say Chobhan like Chathain, not like Kobhan.- laid down, and, secondly, these l'rinciples are copiously illustrated by suitable MARK MATHETES (Farnworth) and Q. E. D.: See vol. ií. P. E., p. 215, Exercises of Engush to be turned into french. col. 2, line 34, for the Classical Subjects; the rest are never announced, the CASSELL'S LESSONS IN FRENCH, in a neat volume, price 2s. in stiff covers, student being required to prepare himself to answer any questions that may or 2s.6dneatly bound in cloth. be proposed on the other subjects; see page 137, vol. ii. P. E.-T. JENKINS
A KEY TO CASSELL'S LESSONS IN FRENCH, containing Translations of all (Cardiff): See Literary Notices.--BOOKKEEPING STUDENT will have his dif- the Exercises, with numerous references to the Grammatical lules, price Aculties solved in the course of the lessons.-GEORGE THE YOUNGER Is. paper covers, or ls.6d. cloth. (Pimlico): Buy the large edition of Webster.--A. Z.: Foyer de désordres, ineans a focus or centre of disorders.-A. SCOTT (Liverpool): Thanks for
GERJAX. his note on the comet.
CASSELL'S GERMAN DICTIONARY is now issuing in Numbers, at 3d. eact.; CARRICK (Ayr): We cannot tell ourselves.- V. HYMEBS (Barnard Monthly Parts, ls, cach. Castle): The Boy's Own Book, Tegg, London.-R. V. GIBSON (Glasgow):
CASSELL'S LESSONS IN GERMAN, price 2s. in still covers, or 2s. 60
CASSELL'S LESSONS IN LATIX, prices. in stiff covers, or 2s, bil, cloth. (Beiherbet): 1. We think not. 2. We can't tell. 3. Yes. 4. Read
CASSELL'S KEY TO THE LATIN EXERCISES, 110w ready, price ls. Saxonly written books, such as “ Gulliver's Travels,” “ Pilgrim's Progress,"
GREEK. and Rowland Hill's - Filiage Dialogues."--AVULAIS (Preston): Yes.HEADBAND (Darlington): English. -- Irenos (London): Write to Henry The Third Volume of CASSELL S CLASSICAL LIBRARY will contain the dvore, Esq., Secretary of the University of London.-ECOLIER FRANÇAIS: Acts of the Apostles in the original Greek, according to the tercul nagustus Sve our Literary Notices.-J. WORLEY (Reading) recoininends to French Hahn; with grammatical, historical, and expository Notes; losluisend is at sculei: is the French New Testament, published by the Bible Socieży at 6d., | Lexicon, explaining the meaning of every word the whole carefully in rozi gilt. good type; and a French Weekly Newspaper, called Chronique revised and corrected. This work is well adapted for le hic of schools, de Jersey, published at igd. The key to the French Lessons is publisied Colleges, and Theological Seminaries, and will supply our Greek sluder is separately ; see our Literary Notices.-T. C. (Barking): Your suggestions with excellent materials for practice in translation.