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VOCABULARY.

εντε, ιππεις δε εξακιςχιλιους, ελεφαντας δε εξηκοντα. 3. Τους

EXTRACTS FROM THE NEW TESTAMENT. Σηρας ιστoρoυσι μεχρι τριακοσίων ζην ετων, και τους Χαλδαιους ύστερ τα εκατον ετη βιούν λογος (εοτι). 4. Αργανθωνιος, 1. Ειπε δε ο Ιησους, Ποιησατε τους ανθρωπους αιαπεσειν. και Ταρτησσιων βασιλευς, πεντηκοντα και εκατον ετη βιωσαι | Ην δε χορτος πολυς εν τω τοπω. Ανεπεσον ουν οι ανδρες τον λεγεται. 5. “ο Πλατων ετελευτησε το πρωτο της ογδοης και αριθμον ώσει πεντακισχιλιοι. (Johm vi. 10). 2. Πολλοι δε των εκατοστης Ολυμπιαδος, βιους ετος εν προς τους ογδοηκοντα. 6. ακουσαντων τον λογον επιστευσαν και εγενηθη ο αριθμος των Δημητριος τις ειπε τω Νερωνι συ μεν απειλεις εμοι τον θανατον, ανδρων ώσει χιλιαδες πεντε. (Acts iv. 4). 3. Και ειδον και σοι δε η φυσις. 7. Σχολαστικος απορων, τα βιβλια αυτου ηκουσα φωνην αγγελων πολλων κυκλω του θρονου και των επιπρασκε, και γραφων προς τον πατερα ελεγε, συγχαιρε ημιν, ζωων και των πρεσβυτερων και ην ο αριθμος αυτων μυριάδες πατερ, ηδη γαρ ημας τα βιβλια τρεφει. 8. Αναχαρσις ο μυριάδων και χιλιαδες χιλιαδων, λεγοντες φωνη μεγαλη, Αξιον Σκυθης ερωτηθεις υπο τινος, τί εστι πολεμιον ανθρωποις και εστι το αρνιον το εσφαγoμενον λαβειν την δυναμιν και πλουτον αυτοι, εφη, εαυτοις. 9. Σχολαστικος οικιαν πωλων, λιθον απ| και σοφιαν και ισχυν και τιμην και δοξαν ναι ευλογιαν, (Rev. αυτης εις δειγμα περιεφερε. 10. Κριτης ων, αει ταύτα περι των τ. 11, 12). 4. Ο εχων νουν ψηφισατω τον αριθμον του θηριου αυτων γιγνωσκε, ουδεν τρoς χαριν ποιων. 11. Ψυχης επιμελου αριθμος γαρ ανθρωπου εστι, και ο αριθμος αυτου (sc. εστιν)

5. Ο δε Ιωαννης διεκωλυεν αυτον, της σεαυτου. 12. Bουλου αρεσκειν πασι. 13. Παντων μαλιστα χξς. (Rev. xiii. 18). σαυτον αισχυνου. 14. Ραστον άπαντων εστιν αυτον εξαπατάν. λεγων, Εγω χρειαν εχω υπο σου βαπτισθηναι, και συ ερχη προς 15. Ω αγαθε, μη αγνοει σεαυτον. 16. Ιφικρατης σκυτοτομου | με. (Μatt. iii. 14). 6. Αλληλων τα βαρη βασταζετε, και μεν υιος ην, ενδοξοτατος δε. Ούτος ειπε προς τινα ούτως αναπληρωσατε τον νομον του Χριστού. (Gal. vi. 2). 7. ευγενων' το μεν εμον γενος απ' εμου αρχεται, το δε σον εν σοι “Η γαρ καυχησις ημων αυτη εστι, το μαρτυριον της συνειδήσεως

17. θαλης ερωτηθεις, τι κοινοτατον και απεκρίνατο ήμων, ότι εν απλοτητα και ειλικρινεια θεου, ουκ εν σοφια σαρκικη ελπις" και γαρ οίς αλλο μηδεν, αυτος παρεστιν.

18. οίον το

αλλ' εν χαριτι Θεου, ανεστραφημεν εν τω κοσμο, περισσοτερως δε αθος έκαστου τοιουτος ο βιος. 19. Φερεται ο Νειλος απο των προς υμας. (2 Cor. 1, 12). 8. Ει τις ουν παρακλησις εν Χριστώ, Αιθιοπικων ορων μεχρι της εις θαλασσαν εκβολης σταδια ει τι παραμυθιον αγαπης, ει τις κοινωνια πνευματος, ει τινα μυρια και δισχιλια. 20. Τα δις πεντε δεκα εστιν. 21. Εντευ- σπλαγχνα και οικτριμοι, πληρωσατε μου την χαραν, ίνα το θεν εξελαυνει σταθμους δυο, παρσσαγγας πεντε, επι τον Σαρον αυτο φρονητε, την αυτην αγαπην εχοντες, συμψυχοι, το εν ποταμον, ου ην ευρος τρια πλεθρα.

φρονούντες, μηδεν κατα ερυθειαν η κενοδοξιαν, αλλα τη ταπει

νοφροσυνη αλληλους ηγουμενοι υπερεχοντας εαυτων, μη τα VOCABULARY.

εαυτων έκαστος σκοπουντες, αλλα και τα ετερων έκαστος. (Phi1. αξιος, α, ον, worth, worthy και πολλ, αξ. of great value. lippians ii. 1-4).

2. Αννων, ωνος, o, Hanno, the Carthaginian general. επε. ρασε (from περας, δεyond), transported, carried over; πεζων (from πεζος), of foot-soldiers ; ιππεις (ίππευς) horsemen, 1. Ιησους, Jesus ; ποιησατε (ποιεω, I make, do), make, cause to; cavalry.

αναπεσειν (πιπτω, I fall), to sit down; χορτος, ου, ο, grass, 3. Σηρας (Σηρ, ος) the Seres, αη Indian people who produced ανεπεσον, they sat down και τον αριθ, as to number, that is, η silk ; ζην (infin. of ζαω, I live), το live ; Χαλδαιους, the Chai-number, or to the number ; ώσει, αδout. deans ; Ta Ékatov Ern, literally, above the hundred years ; so with 2. των ακουσαν. (ακουω, I hear), of those who heard; επιστευeither number the article is used when a whole is contem-σαν (πιστις, faith), believed; εγενηθη (γινομαι, I become), wας, plated in construing into English you must drop the article rose to. in such cases : Blovv (from Blow, I live, Blos, life), to live.

3. ειδον (ειδος, appearance, shape), Ι εαιο και ηκουσα, I heard; 4. βιωσαι, το λανε lived; λεγεται, και said.

αρνιον, ου, το, ίαηιο ; εσφαγoμενον (σφαγιον, αυictim). 5. ετελευτησε (from τελος, an end), came to an end, died; 4. Ο εχων νουν, let him who has mind; ψηφισατω (ψηφος, Olyurias, aồos, à, an Olympiad, a period of five years; the a bean ; the Greeks reckoned with beans, as the Latins did Greeks reckoned time by Olympiads as we date from the with pebbles, calculi, whence calculate), calculate. birth of Christ, A.D. ; βιους, λανίκg lived; ετος εν, &c., one

5. διεκωλυε (κωλυω, I hinder), tried to hinder; βαπτισθηναι, Year to cighty, that is 81 years.

to be δαρίised; βαπτω, Ιάιν ερχη, conest thos ? 6. ειπε, said ; Νερων, ωνος, o, the Roman emperor Nero ;

6. βασταζετε (βασταζω, I carry), bear και ούτως, thus ; αναπλη. απειλεις (from απειλεω, I threaten), threatenest.

(ανα, μη, πλροω, I ftil), ftit up, fulfi. 7. Σκολαστικος, ου, ο, αn idler, a witling και απορων, being in

7. καυχησις, εως, ή, ooasting; συνειδησις, εως, ή, conscience ; straights ; επιπρασχε, sold.

“απλοτης, ητος, ή, implicity; ειλικρινεια, ας, ή, sincerity και 8. ερωτηθείς (ερωταω, I ask), being asked; εφη, said, αλ-σαρκικος (σαρξ, fesh), fleshly ; ανεστραφ. we have bel swered.

ducted) ourselves, we have acted; TEPLOOOTEPWS (Trepi, denoting 9. δειγμα, ατος, το, α specimen και περιεφερε (περι and φερω) abundance), more exceedingly. carried about.

8. παρακλησις, εως, ή, eshortation, comfort ; παραμυθιον, ου, 10. γιγνωσκε, pronounce the same judgment ; προς χαριν τo, solace, soothing και κοινωνια, ας, ή, community και πνευμα, ατος, TOLwv, doing nothing for favour.

spirit; σπλαγχνον, ου, το, δυσels και οικτριμος, ου, ο, ρίty και 12. aprokelv, to please, wish (try) to please all.

πληρωσατε (πληροω, I ftli), fuίtι; φρενητε (φρενες, the mind),

that ye desire, ain at, love ; ovuyuxoi (tuxn, the soul), being of 13. αισχυνου (αισχυνομαι), reverence.

the same soul, of one soul και εριθεια, ας, ή, strife ; κενοδοξια, 14. εξαπαταν, to deceive, cheat.

(κενος, empty), ναinglory: ταπεινοφροσυνη, ης, ή (ταπεινος, 15. αγνοει, δε.thou gnorant.

humble), lowliness of mind ; vyovjevot, thinking, considering ;

υπερεχειν, to be superior ; σκοπουντες (σκοπειν, το ίook, hence 16. σκυτοτομος, ου, ο, α Ιeather cutter, from σκυτος, ους, το, επισκοπειν, το overlook, whence our word Dishop). α hide, Ioather; ευγενης, υell-born; αρχετ. απ. εμου, literally begins from me, that is, with me; mavetal, comes to an end.

REMARKS. 17. απεκρίνατο (απο and κρινω), answered; ελπις, hope ;

The pronouns are among the oldest words in every language. καιγαρ, for.

Consequently, if in two languages the pronouns are found to 19. deperat, is carried, flows ; exßoln, 9s, , a falling out of; have strong marks of resemblance, we may safely conclude Δεχρι, τις to, down to, until.

that those two languages are akin to each other. Such marks 21. εξελαυνει, marches.

of resemblance may be found by comparing the Greek and the

(, I ; ,

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near;

near;

not

English personal pronouns together. Thus the Greek tyw, ( Anftatt, or ftatt, instead. Um — willen for the sake of. through the Latin ego, is clearly the English I (also the Ger- Uußerhalb, without; out- Ungeachtet, notwithstanding. man ich and the French je). Look at the Greek accusative me,

side. Unterhalb

below;

the the Latin me, and the English me. Again compare the Greek Diesseit, or dier: on this side.

lower side. the Latin tu, and the English thou; also the accusatives,

seits,
Unfern,

not far namely ge, te, thee. The é (the e aspirated and so made he) is Halben, or Hals on account of.

from. ubviously our he.

ber,
Ilnweit,

far within; inside.

from. Similar remarks may be made with regard to the numerals. Innerhalb

,

on that side; Obviously in structure, as well as in individual numbers, the Senfeit, or jen.

Vermittelst, or by means of. Greek numeral system is the same as our own,

feite, beyond.

mittelft, Straft,

by virtue of. Vermöge, by dint of. The student, if he has well attended to these lessons, may länge, (also along.

Whrend,

during
gow rejoice in having made some considerable progress; and
the progress he has made he may in a measure estimate by the

Laut,
according to Wegen,

on account of. comparative ease with which he has just read passages from

above. the Greek New Testament.

Dberhalb,
Iroß, (also in spite of. Zufolge, (also in

consequence General Vier of what has been set forth.

gov. Dat.)

of.

gov. Dat.)

gov. Dat.)

to, at.

Noun Substantive used to name objects, as, Otparwrns,

$ 111. PREPOSITIONS CONSTRUED WITH THE DATIVE, soldier (a soldier).

Uus,
out; out of. Nach,

after ; to; acArticle used to determine nouns, as ó otpariwrns, the soldier. Außer, without; outside

cording to of. Nachft,

next; next to. (of quality αγαθος στρατιωτης, ,

good soldier.

Bei,
by; near; with.

Nebft,

together with of number δεκα στρατιωται, ,

ten soldiers.

Binnen,
within.

Db,

over; at. of order δεκατον ταγμα, ,

tenth legion.

Entgegen, towards; oppo. Sammt, together with ουτος ο ανθρωπος, this man.

site to. Seit,

since. εκεινος ο ανθρωπος,

that man. demonstrative και αυτος ανθρωπος,

Pon,
Gegenüber,
the same man.
over against.

from; of.
Gemäß, conformably Zu, ,

the man himself, αυτος ο ανθρωπος

with. Suwiber, against; con ανθρωποι τινες

some men.

Mit, which man?

with. interrogative τις ανθρωπος,

trary , relative ο αμθρωπος ος,

the man who possessive ó

§ 113. PREPOSITIONS CONSTRUED WITH THE ACCUSATIVE. εμος πατερ,

o, Pronoun

Durdy,

Sonder, eyw, I; ov, thou ; , of himself.

through.

apart; without Für, for; the place of. Um,

about; around Gegen or gen towards.

Biber,

against. Ohne,

without. LESSONS IN GERMAN.-No. LXXXI.

$ 115. PREPOSITIONS CONSTRUED WITH THE DATIVE or $ 108. TABLE OF THE PREPOSITIONS,

my father,

ACCUSATIVE.

over; above.

THE GENITIVE.

THE DATIVE.

(1) Prepositions construed with (2) Prepositions construed with Un,

on; at; near Ueber,
Auf,
on; upon.

Unter,

under; among Hinter, behind,

Por,

before.
In,
in, or into

Zwischen,
betwist;

be. Anstatt, or Dberhalb,

Uus,
Nebit,

Neben,
beside.

tween: ftatt, Stop,

Außer, Uußerhalb, Um - willen, Bei,

26,

$ 116. OBSERVATIONS. Diesseit, or Unfern, Binnen,

These prepositions govern either the accusative or the dative; diesseits, Ungeachtet, Entgegen,

Sammt,

but not without a difference of signification : for, when motion Halb, Halben, or Unterhalb, Gegenüber,

towards, that is, motion from one point to another, is indicated, Halber, Unweit, Gemás, Seit,

the accusative is required : when, however, motion or rest ir Innerhalb, Vermittelst, or

any given place or condition is signified, the dative is used ; Jenseit, or

mittelst,
Mit,
Don,

thus, der Knabe läuft in den Garten, the boy runs into (motion jenseits, Bermöge,

towards) the garden; der Knabe läuft in dem Garten, the boy runs Kraft, Während, Nach, ,

Bu,

in (motion within) the garden. This is the general principle; Länge, Wegen,

which will be found, with more or less distinctness, everywhere Laut Zufolge. Nacist, Zuwider.

to prevail in the use of the prepositions of this class.

THE ACCUSATIVE.

THE DATIVE OR ACCUSATIVE.

Uus,

(3) Prepositions construed with (4) Prepositions construed with

S 117. THE CONJUNCTIONS. (1) Conjunctions are words used in connecting sentences.

As, however, there are various kinds of connections existing Durch, Dhne, un, Ueber,

among sentences, it has been customary to classify the conjunc-. für, Sonder,

Unter,

tions according to the nature of the connection which they are Gegen, or Um,

Hinter,
Por,

employed to indicate. Hence we have (among other classes) gen, Wider. In,

Zwischen, the following:
Neben,

Copulatives : as, und, and; auch, also,
$ 109. PREPOSITIONS CONSTRUED WITH THE GENITIVE. Disjunctives : as, entweder, either; oder, or.

Adversatives : as, aber, but; however; allein, but; doch, yet. We now give again the prepositions governing the several Negatives : as, weber, neither; nocy, nor. cases respectively, with their proper definitions : subjoining, Comparatives: as, wie, as; ro, so; thus ; als, than; gleichwie, just as. also, some few observations on such of them as seem to require Conditionals : as, wenn, if; faus, in case that; wofern, provided Conclusives : as, bacum, therefore; daher, hence; deßhalb, there.

that. further explanation. And first, we mention those construed with the genitive.

Causals :

as, denn, for; weil, since, because.

fore.

LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.-No. XVI. Concessives : as, obwohl, obschon, obgleich, wenn; although. Finals : as, daß, that; auf daß and damit, in order that; um which yield yellow or white precipitates with hydrosulphuric

Having finished our preliminary consideration of the metals zu, in order to.

acid, or hydrosulphate of ammonia, I purpose now leaving the (2) We give below a list of the conjunctions that most com- metals for a time, and discussing the chemical properties of monly occur in German : premising only that some of the certain non-metallic elements. Oxygen shall be the subject words here set down as conjunctions are also employed as ad- of discussion and experiment in the present lesson. verbs; for it will of course be kept in mind, that the office When I inform you that oxygen constitutes, at least, threeperformed by a word determines its name and character. For fourths of the crust of the globe and its living inhabitants, numerous examples illustrating their uses, see Sect. C.

you will admit that it must be an important element. Oxygen,

by combination with other bodies, may assume the condition Uber, but.

Nachdem, after that.

of solid, liquid, or gas, but obtained separately, it is always Allein, but.

Troch, nor; nor yet.

gaseous; therefore we shall have to obtain it and examine ir Äls, as; than; when. Nun, therefore, then.

under the form of oxygen gas. There are several methods of Ulfo, so then; consequently; also. Nur, but; only.

generating oxygen gas, but only one capable of being followed Uudy, also, ever.

D6, whether; if.

by a student who is unsupplied with special instruments. Auf daß, in order that.

Döglegt, though ; although. This process I shall describe with a view to its adoption ; Bis, until

Obschon, though; although. the others I shall afterwards mention, with the object of Da, since.

Obwohl, though; although. making their theory understood.
Daher, therefore ; hence,
Oder, or.

First, let us begin by dearribing the instruments necessary, Dafern, in case that ; if.

Ohne, without; except.

You will require either a large test tube, about half or three Daß, that; in order that.

Düngeachtet, notwithstanding. quarters of an inch in diameter, made by preference of GerDamit, in order that.

So, thus; therefore; if. man glass, as being more infusible than our own; a bent glass Darum, therefore; on tha Sonderr, but.

tube, and a pneumatic trough, or its substitute, and a receiver, Und, and.

You will require, in point of fact, an arrangement like the folDenn, for; because; than. Ungeachtet, notwithstanding. lowing: Dennoch, still; nevertheless. Wahrend, whilst.

Fig. No. 1. Deßhalb, therefore; on that ac- Während dem, whilst.

count. Wahrenb baß, whilst, than. Desto, the (Sect. 31. 6).

Weber, neither. Doch yet; however; still. Wenn, if; &s. Ehe, before that ;'ere.

Deil, because. Entweder, either.

Wenngleich, although. Falls, in case that.

Wensdon, although. Folglich, consequently.

Wie, as; when.
Je, - defto, the-the (S. 31. 6). Wiewohl, though.
Jedoch, yet, nevertheless.

Ne, if.
Indem, while; because; sinte. Bofern, if; in case that.
Mithin, consequently.

account.

[graphic]

S 118. INTERJECTIONS.

(1) Interjections, as the name implies, are commonly throton into a sentence; without, however, changing either its structure or such a substitute for it as your ingenuity, stimulated by or its signification. They are mere'o the signs of strong or your necessities, will easily supply. I need scarcely indicate sudden emotion; and may be classified according to the that your distillatory apparatus being small (i.e. the test tube), nature of the emotion which they indicate : some expressing your receiving bottle must be small also. In the present case, soy, some sorrow, some surprise, and so on. The list below ounce or ounce-and-a-half phials will be of sufficient dimencontains those only that most commonly occur.

sions. Scarcely more necessary is it to remark, that the distillaach! alas!

tory apparatus, as indicated above, will require some sort of sup

o$! 0! oh! O! ah! ah!

port not represented in the diagram, and that the regular pneu

pfui! fy! ei, eigh!

matic trough may be dispensed with, by using a basin instead,

pit! hist! ha! ha!

the receiving bottle being prevented slipping by means of some mehe, wo! alas !

heavy material, such as lead, brick, &c., placed in the basin, he! ho!

ucija! hurrah!

and indicated by the letter B in our sketch, So much then for he ta! ho there.

jucócija; huzza!

the apparatus.
Valt! hold!

wohlan! well then !
holla! holla!
þui: hoa ! quick!

Fig. No. 2.
Kusch! hush!

Ries! lo!
leiter! alas !

Kum: hem.

[graphic]

(2) It may be added that other parts of speech, and even whole phrases, are often employed as conjunctions, and in parsing are treated as such.

Here we close our Lessons in German in these pages. But

we beg to inform our readers that a continuation of them The substance we shall require as the oxygen-yielding macomprising a Syntax of the Language, at once popular and terial, is a mixture of two parts by weight of the salt termed complete may be found in CASSELL'S LESSONS IN GERMAN, chlorate of potash, and one part by weight of peroxide (black Part II. ; a publication which also contains all the lessons oxide) of manganese; the substance procurable in commercial upon Systematic Grammar which have appeared in the should by chance live in a remote place, where old chemical

circles, under the simple name " manganese." If the student POPULAR EDUCATOR; that is to say, those from No. XLIX. terms stiil dominate, the druggist will inform him that he does to the present.

not keep such a material as chlorate of potash; if the student

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ask for it under the name of oxymuriate of potash, he will be (1.) Having uncovered a bottle full of the gas, pour into it more successful.

a little transparent lime-water, and agitate; not the slightest The mixture of chlorate of potash and black oxide of man

change results. ganese should be effected, if possible, by rubbing the two to- (2.) Immerse in another bottle a slip of moisteried litmus gether in a mortar; mere incorporation, however, with the paper, and another of moistened turmeric paper; not the hiade of a knife will answer sufficiently well. You will not do slightest discoloration of either slip takes place, thus demonamiss by preparing at least an ounce of this mixture, and pre-strating that oxygen gas is neither acid nor alkaline. serving it properly labelled in a bottle. The operation of gene

(3.) Take a splinter of wood, such as a bit of lath, or a long rating oxygen will frequently be required in the course of brimstone match, ignite the end, wait for a few seconds until future experiments, and students who do not possess a gaso- an incandescent coal has formed; blow out the flame and meter must prepare the gas little by little as it may be re- plunge the glowing though not faming extremity into a bottle quired.

of oxygen gas. Immediately the wood bursts into flame, thus Pour about a tea-spoonful of the mixture into the test tube, indicating the presence of a gas different from any already teplace the cork, arrange the apparatus, and apply heat. Oxy- noticed in these lessons. It is thus proved by this experiment gen gas will come over rapidly, but the first portions being that oxygen gas is a supporter-a very powerful supporter-of necessarily contaminated with atmospheric air previously ex-combustion. It is moreover proved by the same experiment isting in the apparatus, must be thrown away; alî subsequently that oxygen gas is not a combustible, because, although collected is pure oxygen gas.

causing the stick to burst into flame, itself does not. RememCollect six or seven bottles full of it, and before proceeding ber how diametrically opposed these qualities are to those of to try any experiments, follow me in discussing the theory of hydrogen. If the mouth of the receiving bottle be large its production, and the nature of gases generally. What, then, enough, the preceding arrangement may be varied as follows. is a gas ? I know of no definition which is logically distinctive. The definition long received was, a permanently elastic

Fig. No.-3, fluid," but it is incorrect. Nevertheless, the expression permanently elastic fluid, although not sufficiently general in its significance to comprehend all gases, indicates the most salient property of so many, and applies so perfectly to the gas under consideration, that we may profitably discuss its meaning. I

ve have therefore to inform you that oxygen gas is permanently e astic; that is to say, neither cold nor pressure, nor both combined, nor, in short, any other agency, has yet succeeded in condensing oxygen gas into a liquid or a solid condition. Now many gases equally transparent and colourless as oxygen have been condensed into liquids, and even solids. I dare say, most people have observed the bubbles which escape from ginger-beer, soda-water, champagne, &c. These bubbles are due to the presence of a transparent, colourless gas, named, carbonic-acid ; it has not come under our notice yet, but it speedily will. By the application of intense cold and pressure, this gas may be converted into a solid, having the aspect of

A similar result has been accomplished in the instance Instead of a slip of wood use a piece of wax taper, attachedo of many other gases; therefore, it follows that the neatly as represented in the accompanying diagram, to a bent piece of turned definition, formerly accepted as characteristic of gases, copper or brass wire. Proceed in other respects exactly as in is no longer admissible. Oxygen gas, however, has resisted the experiment just detailed. every attempt at liquefaction or solidification ; yet analogy leads us to suppose that, if we could apply sufficient cold

Fig. No, 4. and sufficient pressure, a similar result would ensue.

Abandoning all logical definition of a gas as hopeless, it is still in our power to entertain a good, general appreciation of the leading characteristic of gases, by remembering that persistent elasticity, under common circumstances, is the special feature by which they are contradistinguished from vapours; the latter being readily condensed. For example, steam, or aqueous vapour, is the result of the application of heat to water. We all know that steam is elastic, or else what would be the use of expansion gear in a steam engine? But it is not permanently elastic under ordinary circumstances, for immediately on coming into contact with the air, or any material sufficiently cold, it condenses into water. When thus condensed, it two bottles full of oxygen, and open them. Place one to

(4.) Perform the following comparative experiment: take fills a position analogous with a liquefied gas; and when, on stand during a few seconds open upon a table-mouth upwards the further application of cold, ice results, we have a con

of course. Hold the other for a similar period open, and in. dition analogous to that of a solidified gas.

verted, as represented in the diagram; finally, by means of an Perhaps some such question as this occurs to you. How am ignited stick, test either bottle for the presenoe of oxygen. I to reconcile the apparently incongruous statements that oxy- The upright bottle will be found still to contain it; from the gen can only be procured as a gas, and that three-fourths of other it will have departed; thus we prove that oxygen gas is the material elements of our globe are composed of it? There specifically heavier than the atmosphere.

Nevertheless, is no contradiction involved in these statements; as a consti- it is only heavier by a very slight amount;, calling atmostuent of the solid and liquid matters of the globe, oxygen is pheric air one or unity, the specific gravity is one and onecombined, and chemical combination, you are well aware, pro- tenth and a little more--how much this " little more

may be, duces wonderful changes. Both clay and flint contain a vast chemists are not agreed upon. amount of oxygen, the latter nearly fifty per cent; but the

The experiments just performed--indeed one of them, the oxygen existing in combination, its solidity is attributable to flame-ignition of the wood, or taper-are sufficient to distinthat circumstance.

guish oxygen gas from all other gases, save one, the protoxide Experiments with Oxygen Gas.-Proceeding to examine syste- of nitrogen, or " laughing gas." By observing the character of matically the properties of oxygen gas, attend to the following flame produced, we may, without further trials, distinguish directions.

between these two. Oxygen gas yields a flame of exquisita

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12 treatment in protoxide of nitrogen, or laughing gas. Moreover, oxygen gas is devoid of taste, whereas, protoxide of nitrogen is perceptibly sweet.

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Ans. Although we have succeeded in finding the characteristics

ту which distinguish oxygen from all other gases, it is far too important an element to be discussed in this one lesson. In my

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ab manganese and chlorate of potash, as causes, concomitants, or results of the evolution of oxygen gas,

138. Fractions may also be subtracted, like integers, by First, then, let me remark, that although peroxide of man- setting them down, when the sign of the subtrahend is ganese contains, as its name indicates, a great deal of oxygen ; changed, one after the other, without reducing them to a although it is frequently employed alone as an oxygen-yielding common denominator. material; yet, used as we have used it in combination with chlorate of potash, it does not undergo the slightest change.

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139. To subtract an integer from a fraction, or a fraction talytic;" they might as well term it " incomprehensibleat from an integer. once. However, not to weary you with mere names, remember that the oxide of manganese determines, we know not why Change the sign of the subtrahend, and write it after the or how, an evolution of oxygen gas from chlorate of potash at minuend; or, put the integer into the form of a fraction, and then a much lower temperature than would otherwise be necessary. proceed according to the general rule for subtraction of fractions. Chlorate of potash, if heated alone, evolves all its oxygen, pro

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LESSONS IN ALGEBRA.-No. IX.

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